America and the Great War America and the Great War Waging Neutrality The Origins of Conflict American Attitudes

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1 1 2 America and the Great War Waging Neutrality Why were Americans so reluctant to get involved in World War I? Waging War in America How did the war effort threaten civil liberties? America and the Great War Waging War and Peace Abroad What hopes did Wilson have for the Treaty of Versailles? Waging Peace at Home What challenges did America face in the aftermath of the war? World War I A World and a Nation in Upheaval The United States at War Winning a Hard-Fought Peace Waging Neutrality The Origins of Conflict American Attitudes The Economy of War The Diplomacy of Neutrality The Battle over Preparedness The Election of 1916 Descent into War The Origins of Conflict Kaiser Wilhelm II Expansionist Central Powers 1

2 Central Powers Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Turkey, Bulgaria Allies Britain, France, Russia American Attitudes Isolationism Ties with Britain British propaganda Most favored neutrality The Economy of War Neutrality meant Americans could trade with either side Allies borrowed from American banks The Diplomacy of Neutrality Declaration of London 1909 Neutral rights British blockade Submarine warfare Lusitania sunk by Germany 1915 Sussex torpedoed 1916 Sussex Pledge The Battle over Preparedness Preparedness National Security League The peace movement Woman s Peace Party Wilson moved to preparedness The Election of 1916 Woodrow Wilson (D) versus Charles Evans Hughes (R) Wilson won with a promise to keep out of the war The election showed strong sectional divisions 13 2

3 Descent into War Wilson called for peace without victory Self-determination Arms reductions Freedom of the seas International organization to maintain peace Wilson committed to war Zimmerman telegram Germany sank American freighters United States entered the war April 1917 Waging War in America Managing the War Economy Women and Minorities: New Opportunities, Old Inequities Financing the War Conquering Minds Suppressing Dissent Managing the War Economy Mobilization of U.S. economy Organizing industry War Industries Board (WIB) Ensuring food supplies Herbert Hoover Overseeing labor relations National War Labor Board Women and Minorities: New Opportunities, Old Inequities Women and war work 100,000 women worked in munitions New opportunities for black women Woman suffrage and prohibition African Americans and war work 3

4 African Americans and war work Northward migration to Chicago, Detroit Financing the War Income taxes Borrowing Liberty Bonds Conquering Minds The need to gain support of those who opposed the war Government propaganda Committee on Public Information (CPI) Woman s Committee of the Council of National Defense Headed by Carrie Chapman Catt Suppressing Dissent Silencing opposition Espionage Act Sedition Act of 1918 Socialist Party targeted Eugene V. Debs American Protective League Worked with government Nonpartisan League also targeted Wobblies Waging War and Peace Abroad The War to End All Wars The Fourteen Points The Paris Peace Conference The War to End All Wars 4

5 Mobilization Selective Service Act of 1917 Racial segregation Women recruited as noncombatants Into action in France The Russian front Bolshevik revolution The western front The Fourteen Points Postwar Europe Self-determination International relations League of Nations Allies determined on revenge Wilson angered Senate Republicans The Paris Peace Conference Allies and the United States dominated Treaty of Versailles 1919 Heavy reparations and disarmament for Germany Self-determination for some states Eastern European nations League of Nations Explore World War I on MyHistoryLab Waging Peace at Home Battle over the League Economic Readjustment and Social Conflict The Red Scare The Election of

6 The Election of Battle over the League Most Americans supported the League of Nations Irreconcilables Progressive Republicans Reservationists Henry Cabot Lodge Wilson collapsed October 1919 Treaty rejected March 1920 Economic Readjustment and Social Conflict Influenza epidemic Return to peacetime economy Postwar battles: gender and race African Americans less willing to compromise Fighting for industrial democracy American Federation of Labor Seattle s Central Labor Council strike Boston police The Red Scare Fear of Bolshevism The Red Scare Linked to labor, foreigners Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer Palmer Raids Reaction set in Faded in mid The Election of 1920 Less desire for cooperation Warren Harding and normalcy Landslide victory Conclusion 6

7 Participation in World War I changed the American government, economy, and society. Many of the changes had been building in the prewar years, such as centralization of the economy, woman suffrage, and prohibition. The suppression of civil rights and repression of radicals and minorities betrayed progressive principles. 7

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