INDIA BRIEFING: AUGUST The state of child mortality in India. Progress on meeting Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INDIA BRIEFING: AUGUST The state of child mortality in India. Progress on meeting Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality"

Transcription

1 INDIA BRIEFING: AUGUST 2010 The state of child mortality in India Progress on meeting Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality While there is much to celebrate and admire in India s rising prosperity, and in its growing cultural and political influence, the country s level of child mortality remains high. Nearly 9 million children die each year before their fifth birthday. Of these, a staggering 1.83 million are Indian. Half of these deaths occur within a month of the child being born (the neonatal period). These levels of child deaths persist despite twenty years of relatively high economic growth in India, and with India now as a significant force in the global economy (set to become the world s third largest economy by 2020). In the year 2000, world leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals, including MDG 4 which calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality between 1990 and While India has made some progress, with the under-five mortality rate falling from 116 per thousand live births in 1990 to 69 per thousand live births in 2008, this progress is inadequate when compared to the overall target to be met. The aggregate figures mask gross inequalities between states and between different social, cultural, economic and gender groups within them. There is now general agreement among programme and policy makers about the actions needed to rapidly reduce child mortality. At the end of September this year, world leaders meet in New York at the United Nations Millennium Development Goal Review Summit to assess progress against the goals. On the table for discussion will be a proposed Global Strategy for maternal and child health, put forward by the UN Secretary General. As the country with the highest number of child deaths anywhere in the world, there remains a particular obligation on the part of India to demonstrate leadership on this issue. This means implementing the right kind of policies to expand coverage of proven interventions like skilled personnel available to support mothers during child birth, early postnatal care, preventive and curative treatment for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria; support for nutrition, including exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, conditional cash transfers and wider social protection programmes. These interventions will need to be delivered through more effective systems, so that the poorest and most marginalised families can also get the healthcare, nutrition security and other services they need. For this change to be sustainable, it will also need to be complemented by a concerted drive to tackle discrimination and to strengthen the rights and social status of the poor, especially lower caste groups, and girls and women. With the necessary leadership and the right policies, MDG 4 can be achieved in India. 1 P a g e

2 What has India committed to? India was a signatory to the original Millennium Declaration and has reaffirmed its support for the Millennium Development Goals, including MDG 4. Despite progress against the target, on the current trajectory, India will fall short of achieving it. The current annual percentage of reduction of Under 5 mortality is 2.25%, whereas the required annual percentage of reduction to reach the MDG goal in this regard during the remaining seven years has to be 6.28%. India is also a signatory to a series of international human rights agreements and treaties that are highly relevant to child survival. Clear commitments to safeguard the lives of newborn babies and young children are contained in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. For example, Article 6 of the UNCRC refers to children s inherent right to life, survival and development, while Article 24 calls on governments to take appropriate measures to diminish infant and child mortality and to ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and healthcare to all children. India s own constitution also sets out comparable commitments. But India s political leaders are falling short on fulfilling their commitments to India s children. Where are India s children dying? Of the 26 million children born in India in a year, nearly 2 million still die before their fifth birthday and half within a month of being born. But these aggregate figures conceal huge inequities in mortality rates across the country, within states and between them, as well as between children in urban and rural areas, from upper caste and lower caste families and from tribal and non tribal communities. The latest figures suggest that the under-five mortality rate in Kerala is 14 deaths per thousand live births. This contrasts with a rate of 92 per thousand in Madhya Pradesh, 91 per thousand in Uttar Pradesh and 89 per thousand in Orissa. These inequalities are also marked in respect of newborn mortality rates. While the rate for Kerala is 7 per thousand, the comparable figures for Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa are 48, 45 and Mortality rates vary considerably in relation to maternal education, wealth, religion, caste and tribe. The table below sets out these disparities in detail. 1 NFHS3, data 2 P a g e

3 Early Childhood Mortality Rates by Socio-Economic Background, India, NFHS-3 2 Background Characteristics Neo-natal Mortality Rate Infant Mortality Rate Under-five Mortality Rate Education of Mother No education < 5 years complete years complete years complete years complete or more years complete Wealth Index Quintiles Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Religion Hindu Muslim Christian Sikh Buddhist Caste/Tribe Scheduled caste Scheduled tribe Other backward class Other All Source: IIPS and Macro International, Note: The rates are per thousand births and refer to five years preceding the NFHS-3 survey, that is, to P a g e

4 Why are India s children still dying in such large numbers? High levels of child mortality in India can be explained at three levels. 1) There are a few conditions that account for more than 90 per cent of these deaths. These are pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, malaria and neo-natal conditions that occur during pregnancy and during or immediately after birth. The latter conditions are particularly significant when it comes to India s newborn deaths. Severe infections, asphyxia and premature births cause over 72 per cent of newborn deaths. In most cases, the conditions that are the direct cause of childhood deaths are preventable and treatable with proven interventions and services. But these interventions remain unavailable or inaccessible to many of India s poorest children. At the same time, for cultural reasons, some of India s poorest mothers and families are reluctant to use services at health facilities that do exist and may pursue traditional practices in the home or the community that are detrimental to their own health and that of their children. The survival of the newborns, for example, is critically dependent on cleanliness at the time of delivery, clean cutting of the umbilical cord, keeping the baby warm and early initiation of breastfeeding. But some traditional views can discourage these life-saving practices. Labour may be considered an unclean process, to be conducted in a dirty corner of the house, for example in a cowshed. In some cases, the delivery space is plastered with fresh cow dung to cool the room, although this increases the risks of infection. Early bathing of the baby is often practiced, which heightens the risk of hypothermia, as does leaving the newborn baby uncovered. 2) There are a set of factors that make some Indian children more prone to these medical conditions, and limit their chances of survival. These factors include: the lack of essential healthcare or the inability or unwillingness of many mothers and their children to access it; high levels of maternal and child malnutrition, poor feeding practices; lack of access to clean drinking water, safe sanitation, poor hygiene; and limited access to or use of family planning services. In India, as in other parts of the world, the costs of healthcare are often prohibitive for the poor and discourage the use of those services that do exist. The share of health, nutrition, water supply and sanitation in government expenditure stood at 5.48 percent between to But as a share of Gross Domestic Product, this was only 1.58 percent in , way short of the Government s own commitment to increase health expenditure alone to 2 to 3 per cent of GDP. Also many states with high levels of child mortality do not spend all the resources that have been allocated. Maternal and child malnutrition is significant too in explaining the continuing high rates of child mortality in India. 48 per cent of India s children under the age of five are chronically malnourished, 20 per cent are acutely malnourished and 22 per cent of India s babies are born with low birth weight. These rates of child malnutrition compare with some of the poorest countries in Africa. India s rates of child wasting, for example, are three times higher than Ethiopia. Exclusive Breast Feeding is central to child survival, strengthening the immune system and furthering healthy development. But rates of exclusive breastfeeding across India are low, and far too little is done through the health system to promote it, as well as to identify malnutrition at an early stage and then to take the necessary steps to address it. 4 P a g e

5 The deaths of Indian children are not therefore random events beyond control. To a considerable extent they are the outcome of political and policy choices taken by Indian governments, at the central, state and district levels. They are also influenced heavily by traditional cultural practices, by low levels of maternal education, and by wider economic, environmental, political and social factors that governments and civil society could help to shape or mitigate. This is the third level of explanation - the underlying or structural causes of India s child mortality. As the statistics show very clearly, it is the poorest and most marginalised Indian children who are at greatest risk of dying before their fifth birthday. Children from households in the bottom wealth quintile are three times more likely to die than those from households in the top wealth quintile. Their poverty reflects their parents lack of livelihood opportunities or assets, or their greater vulnerability to economic and environmental shocks. This lack of income and assets translates into reduced access to healthcare, inadequate nutrition, unsafe and unhygienic living conditions and limited access to education, all of which increases the risks of mortality. But inequality in India is not just about income disparities. Large parts of India suffer from deeply entrenched forms of discrimination on the grounds of gender, caste, ethnicity and religion. For example, the relative powerlessness of many women and girls prevents them from accessing services without the consent of their husbands or male relatives, and increases their chances of death. A call to action In many ways, India stands at a crossroads in respect to child mortality. Can high rates of child mortality be consigned to India s past, or will they remain an indelible stain on its future? The United Nations Millennium Development Goal Review Summit is the right moment for India s political leaders to affirm decisively that it is the former course that they want to pursue, with high level commitment and with urgency. If the MDG 4 target is to be met in India, Save the Children believes that decisive action will be needed in the following five areas: 1. Child survival must become a key metric by which India judges its success in development Rates of child mortality, especially amongst the poorest communities, are a much more telling indicator of development progress (or the lack of it) than per capita income. While India has been applauded for its high rates of economic growth over two decades, it still suffers some of the worst rates of child malnutrition in the world and accounts for more than 20 per cent of global child mortality. The Indian national and state Governments and district administrations should be encouraged to measure and report progress against newborn and child mortality and morbidity indicators (broken down by wealth quintile, caste, religion and gender), and set targets for reducing inequalities in the coverage of services and in mortality and morbidity rates. 2. Integrate and implement existing maternal and child health programmes and link them to wider development strategies The Indian government runs a number of important programmes that address the key issues identified in this brief, for example the Reproductive and Child Health Programme, 5 P a g e

6 the Universal Immunisation Programme, the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme and the more recent National Rural Health Mission and soon to be introduced National Urban Health Mission. While these have brought benefits, they need better coordination and implementation at the federal, State and local level, and the services provided locally needs to be of better quality. The key task is not to create yet new strategies or plans, but to implement and properly integrate many of these existing ones. This integrated approach must involve the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, but also the Departments of Women and Child Development, Panchayati Raj, Rural Development, Education Public Health Engineering (responsible for water and sanitation) and Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty. This integrated approach to tackling child mortality needs to feature prominently in India s 12th 5-year plan in There will also need to be a clear framework of accountability to ensure that programmes are scaled up across the country, especially in those states with the highest mortality rates (Rajasthan, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand). Integrated and credible strategies for reducing child mortality need to be properly resourced. The Government of India should commit to raise federal and State funding on health from just over 1 per cent of GDP today, to 3 per cent by 2012 and 5 per cent by As importantly, there needs to be improved processes for ensuring the effective and equitable disbursal of these resources and transparency about allocation and impact. Part of this additional investment should be allocated to recruit, train, equip, monitor, supervise, incentivise and deploy more frontline health workers. Targets should be set for expanding the number of trained health workers in the poorest parts of the country, especially women frontline health workers at the community level. 3. Focus on newborns As India has made progress in reducing the deaths of slightly older children, newborn deaths have increased as a proportion of overall childhood mortality, so that they now account for 55 per cent of all Indian child deaths. Tackling newborn mortality will require interventions that enhance the health, nutrition and wellbeing of adolescents, mothers and children during and immediately after birth (the most vulnerable period for the child and the mother). Support is best provided through a continuum of care - across the lifecycle, from women of reproductive age group through birth to early childhood; and from care at home through to first referral units and other specialist health facilities. Examples include antenatal visits, skilled attendants at birth, early postnatal care in the community and facility and support for exclusive breastfeeding, and family planning services. This should be based on evidence based models, such as the home-based newborn and childcare model developed in Maharashtra by SEARCH (Society for Education, Action and Research in Community Health). 4. Prioritise equity and rights Reducing mortality rates amongst India s poorest children requires concerted action to tackle underlying causes those factors that limit the ability of poor children and their mothers to get decent healthcare, adequate nutrition, clean water and safe sanitation, and opportunities for education. In policy and programme terms it will require a comprehensive approach to break down barriers and multiple forms of discrimination and prejudice, and to ensure that children s rights and the rights of women are respected. 6 P a g e

7 Specifically, the National Rural Health Mission should have a clear focus on social inclusion of Dalits and Adivasis in terms of access to healthcare. This should also include improved training and support for community health workers, including in how to tackle sensitively but effectively some of the traditional practices around birth and early childhood care that are damaging to child health. One important way to promote rights and empowerment for marginalised groups, and to address harmful traditional practices, is by supporting those Indian civil society and community groups, as well as international agencies, that are championing these causes and working at the local level on these issues. 5. Tackle malnutrition At every level of government, India s political leaders need to enhance their action to tackle malnutrition This should involve support for initial and exclusive breastfeeding, micronutrient supplementation and fortification, child and maternity benefits, nutrition education, treatment of severe acute malnutrition, early warning systems and investments in appropriate forms of agricultural production. We would also like to see the Indian Central government and the state government and district administration setting clear targets for reducing rates of child malnutrition. This should involve the development of protocols, guidelines and implementation strategies focused on the needs of the poorest and most marginalised children with the highest levels of child malnutrition. There will also need to be enhanced training and support for community health workers to identify and treat malnutrition and to promote good infant and young child feeding practices. The Leadership Agenda for Action agreed by the Coalition for Sustainable Nutrition Security in India sets out a clear consensus on the essential interventions needed to reduce malnutrition. Conclusion India has made enormous economic strides in recent years. But millions of Indians are failing to share in this rising prosperity. After 20 years of high and sustained economic growth, nearly 2 million Indian children still die every year of conditions like pneumonia and diarrhoea, and of complications related to pregnancy and child birth. We do not need a major technological breakthrough for India to tackle this problem. Other countries, many of them poorer than India, are well on their way to doing so. And the performance of some of India s states, like Kerala and Tamil Nadu, shows what others could accomplish by pursuing similar approaches. Nor is this just a moral issue. We know from the experience of other countries and India s better performing states that improved child and maternal health and nutrition is positively correlated with inclusive and successful economic development. With the requisite political will and the right policies, India can achieve MDG4 and secure drastic cuts in child mortality. To truly shine in the global arena, India needs to act on this most important of issues with determination and urgency. For more information please contact Ben Hewitt, Project Director, Newborn and Child Survival, Save the Children India on Thanks to Dr Alex George, Sarit Rout, Dr Rajiv Tandon, Shireen Miller, John Butler, Ananthrapiya Subramanian, David Mepham, and Rica Garde. 7 P a g e

A. Scope of International Obligations

A. Scope of International Obligations The Right to Health in India Stakeholder Report on India - Submission by Save the Children and World Vision India For Universal Periodic Review, Thirteenth Cycle, May 2012 A. Scope of International Obligations

More information

FACT SHEET MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

FACT SHEET MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH FACT SHEET MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Tanzania s Progress in Maternal and Child Health Tanzania has made considerable progress in the reduction of child mortality. Under-five mortality rates continue to

More information

INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 7

INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 7 This chapter provides information on levels, trends, and differentials in neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child, and under-five, as well as levels and differentials in perinatal.

More information

cambodia Maternal, Newborn AND Child Health and Nutrition

cambodia Maternal, Newborn AND Child Health and Nutrition cambodia Maternal, Newborn AND Child Health and Nutrition situation Between 2000 and 2010, Cambodia has made significant progress in improving the health of its children. The infant mortality rate has

More information

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health. National Child and Adolescent Health Policy

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health. National Child and Adolescent Health Policy Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health National Child and Adolescent Health Policy 2009-2013 July 2009 In line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the MOPH Child and Adolescent

More information

Health Extension Program In Ethiopia. Federal ministry health of Ethiopia Forum on stunting reduction October 24-25,2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Health Extension Program In Ethiopia. Federal ministry health of Ethiopia Forum on stunting reduction October 24-25,2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Health Extension Program In Ethiopia Federal ministry health of Ethiopia Forum on stunting reduction October 24-25,2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Outline Overview on HEP Achievement Challenges The way forward

More information

Appeal to the Member States of the United Nations Early Childhood Development: The Foundation of Sustainable Human Development for 2015 and Beyond

Appeal to the Member States of the United Nations Early Childhood Development: The Foundation of Sustainable Human Development for 2015 and Beyond UNICEF/NYHQ2006-0450/Pirozzi Appeal to the Member States of the United Nations Early Childhood Development: The Foundation of Sustainable Human Development for 2015 and Beyond We, the undersigned, submit

More information

MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality 143 MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality The target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce the mortality rate of children under 5 years old (under-5 mortality) by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

More information

Maternal and Neonatal Health in Bangladesh

Maternal and Neonatal Health in Bangladesh Maternal and Neonatal Health in Bangladesh KEY STATISTICS Basic data Maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100,000 births) 320* Neonatal mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 births) 37 Births for women aged

More information

Nutrition in Nepal. A National Development Priority. Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized

Nutrition in Nepal. A National Development Priority. Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Nutrition in Nepal A National Development Priority THE WORLD BANK An estimated 2-3 %

More information

SRI LANKA SRI LANKA 187

SRI LANKA SRI LANKA 187 SRI LANKA 187 List of Country Indicators Selected Demographic Indicators Selected demographic indicators Child Mortality and Nutritional Status Neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates: trends Distribution

More information

THE INDIA NEWBORN ACTION PLAN

THE INDIA NEWBORN ACTION PLAN THE INDIA NEWBORN ACTION PLAN THE INDIA NEWBORN ACTION PLAN Current Situation Vision & Goals Guiding principles Strategic Intervention Packages Milestones Way Forward CAUSES OF NEONATAL DEATHS : INDIA

More information

Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates. Sample Registration System (SRS) Office of Registrar General, India 7th July 2011

Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates. Sample Registration System (SRS) Office of Registrar General, India 7th July 2011 Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates Sample Registration System (SRS) Office of Registrar General, India 7th July 2011 Sample Registration System (SRS) An Introduction Sample Registration

More information

Childhood Mortality and Health in India

Childhood Mortality and Health in India Working Paper Series No. E/292/2008 Childhood Mortality and Health in India Suresh Sharma Institute of Economic Growth University of Delhi Enclave North Campus Delhi 110 007, India Fax: 91-11-27667410

More information

2014-2017. UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1868/Noorani

2014-2017. UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1868/Noorani UNICEF STRATEGIC PLAN 2014-2017 UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1868/Noorani UNICEF s Strategic Plan 2014-2017 is a road map for the realization of the rights of every child. The equity strategy, emphasizing the most

More information

What UK Aid Will Achieve For The World s Poorest People

What UK Aid Will Achieve For The World s Poorest People What UK Aid Will Achieve For The World s Poorest People The UK has long been a world leader in international development. In recent years the UK s Department for International Development (DFID) has lifted

More information

International conference on " Population and Sustainable Development

International conference on  Population and Sustainable Development Population Research Centre, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110007 International conference on " Population and Sustainable Development 7-9 December, 2016 About Population Research Centre, IEG The

More information

PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA

PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA CREATE INDIA POLICY BRIEF 1 DECEMBER 2010 PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA Various types of pre primary schools are available in India and more children are now attending pre-school

More information

HEALTH TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SRI LANKA LESSONS OF THE PAST AND EMERGING ISSUES

HEALTH TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SRI LANKA LESSONS OF THE PAST AND EMERGING ISSUES HEALTH TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SRI LANKA LESSONS OF THE PAST AND EMERGING ISSUES Dr. Godfrey Gunatilleke, Sri Lanka How the Presentation is Organized An Overview of the Health Transition in Sri

More information

ECD the foundation for each child s future learning, well being and prosperity Access to high-quality ECD is the right of the child ECD interventions

ECD the foundation for each child s future learning, well being and prosperity Access to high-quality ECD is the right of the child ECD interventions ECD the foundation for each child s future learning, well being and prosperity Access to high-quality ECD is the right of the child ECD interventions necessary For every US$1 spent, the return could be

More information

Tackling malnutrition in Niger

Tackling malnutrition in Niger case study Tackling malnutrition in Niger Situation Malnourished children are among the most vulnerable in Niger, one of the world s poorest countries. Niger came in last (182nd) in the 2009 ranking of

More information

An Overall Panorama of Health Inequity in the Americas. PAHO s Mission and Values: Equity, Social Determinants of Health and Health in all Policies

An Overall Panorama of Health Inequity in the Americas. PAHO s Mission and Values: Equity, Social Determinants of Health and Health in all Policies Bringing different sectors together for addressing the social determinants of health: Education and Health 1 An Overall Panorama of Health Inequity in the Americas By Dr Luiz Augusto Galvão, & Dr Kira

More information

PUBLIC HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECTOR OVERVIEW AND STRATEGIC APPROACH

PUBLIC HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECTOR OVERVIEW AND STRATEGIC APPROACH PUBLIC HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECTOR OVERVIEW AND STRATEGIC APPROACH Niger Cassandra Nelson/Mercy Corps An Overview The current state of global health presents a unique challenge. While there are many advances

More information

India. Country programme document 2013-2017

India. Country programme document 2013-2017 India Country programme document 2013-2017 The draft country programme document for India (E/ICEF/2012/P/L.11) was presented to the Executive Board for discussion and comments at its 2012 annual session

More information

Realising the human right to water and sanitation

Realising the human right to water and sanitation The Republic of Zambia Realising the human right to water and sanitation Introduction In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the human right to water and sanitation. This

More information

Promoting Family Planning

Promoting Family Planning Promoting Family Planning INTRODUCTION Voluntary family planning has been widely adopted throughout the world. More than half of all couples in the developing world now use a modern method of contraception

More information

Haiti American Region

Haiti American Region % of deaths % of deaths American Region Neonatal and Child Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and information system Health status indicators

More information

75% 50% 25% Source: Calculated based on data from the UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank/UN Pop Div. Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2014

75% 50% 25% Source: Calculated based on data from the UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank/UN Pop Div. Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2014 % of deaths % of deaths African Region Neonatal and Child Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and information system Health status indicators

More information

Child-centred Development: The basis for sustainable human development.

Child-centred Development: The basis for sustainable human development. : The basis for sustainable human development. Why a Child-Centered Approach? The development and progress of nations encompasses much more than economic growth. People are the most important resource

More information

Challenges in programme implementation some lessons for Indian Child Health and Nutrition Programmes

Challenges in programme implementation some lessons for Indian Child Health and Nutrition Programmes Challenges in programme implementation some lessons for Indian Child Health and Nutrition Programmes India will achieve MDGs in child mortality Not do as well in maternal mortality Under nutrition or micronutrient

More information

Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2009-10

Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2009-10 Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2009-10 Government of India Planning Commission March 2012 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU ***** POVERTY ESTIMATES FOR 2009-10 New Delhi, 19 th March, 2012

More information

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day a

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day a Annex II Revised Millennium Development Goal monitoring framework, including new targets and indicators, as recommended by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Millennium Development Goal Indicators At

More information

UNICEF in South Africa

UNICEF in South Africa UNICEF in South Africa A message from the Representative 47,900,000 people live in South Africa 20,200,000 are children 294,000 children are HIV-positive 1 in 17 children die before their fifth birthday

More information

Social Policy Analysis and Development

Social Policy Analysis and Development Social Policy Analysis and Development UNICEF/Julie Pudlowski for children unite for children UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi Fast facts Children 0 14 years living below the basic needs poverty line Children 0

More information

Child poverty in the post-2015 agenda June 2014 ISSUE. Child Poverty in the Post-2015 Agenda BRIEFS

Child poverty in the post-2015 agenda June 2014 ISSUE. Child Poverty in the Post-2015 Agenda BRIEFS Child poverty in the post-2015 agenda June 2014 ISSUE BRIEFS Child Poverty in the Post-2015 Agenda June 2014 1 ISSUE UNICEF ISSUE BRIEF UNICEF June 2014 Division of Policy and Strategy This is an issue

More information

Population. Policy brief. March 2010

Population. Policy brief. March 2010 March 2010 Population Policy brief The rapid growth of the world s population is a subject that receives too little political and public attention. It currently stands at 6.8 billion, up from 2.5 billion

More information

FOCUSING RESOURCES ON EFFECTIVE SCHOOL HEALTH:

FOCUSING RESOURCES ON EFFECTIVE SCHOOL HEALTH: FOCUSING RESOURCES ON EFFECTIVE SCHOOL HEALTH: a FRESH Start to Enhancing the Quality and Equity of Education. World Education Forum 2000, Final Report To achieve our goal of Education For All, we the

More information

Towards the Future. Global Health: Women and Children first

Towards the Future. Global Health: Women and Children first Towards the Future Global Health: Women and Children first Problems and needs The year 2015 will be a turning point for the fight against poverty at a global level. The dates for the millennium goals

More information

Chittagong Hill Tracts

Chittagong Hill Tracts Chittagong Hill Tracts KEY STATISTICS Basic data (%) CHT National Measles vaccine coverage 80 77 Access to suitable source of drinking water 65 75 Underweight prevalence (0-59 months) 51 48 Anaemia prevalence

More information

Newborn survival is inextricably linked to

Newborn survival is inextricably linked to POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU P o l i c y P e r s p e c t i v e s o n N e w b o r n H e a l t h January 2007 SAVING NEWBORN LIVES Postnatal Care: A Critical Opportunity to Save Mothers and Newborns By Erin

More information

UNICEF Information Package

UNICEF Information Package UNICEF Information Package 1 About UNICEF Global presence we are on the ground in 191 countries to advance the rights of children, through country programmes and National Committees. Five organizational

More information

Education is the key to lasting development

Education is the key to lasting development Education is the key to lasting development As world leaders prepare to meet in New York later this month to discuss progress on the Millennium Development Goals, UNESCO s Education for All Global Monitoring

More information

United Republic of Tanzania African Region

United Republic of Tanzania African Region % of deaths % of deaths African Region Neonatal and Child Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and information system Health status indicators

More information

United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) 73 Lodi Estate New Delhi Website:

United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) 73 Lodi Estate New Delhi Website: Front Cover PHOTO: UNICEF/INDIA/Niklas Halle'n United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) May 11 Permission is required to reproduce any part of this publication. United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) 73

More information

HIV Eliminating Vertical Transmission

HIV Eliminating Vertical Transmission ACTSA Briefing and Action Paper Winter 2009 HIV Eliminating Vertical Transmission 1 HIV: Eliminating vertical transmission Vertical transmission of HIV (often known as mother-to-child transmission) has

More information

Child malnutrition IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: An Illustrative Case Study

Child malnutrition IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: An Illustrative Case Study Child malnutrition IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: An Illustrative Case Study Nigeria is a middle-income country. It is also home to the highest number of stunted children in the continent and ranks third globally

More information

The Role of International Law in Reducing Maternal Mortality

The Role of International Law in Reducing Maternal Mortality The Role of International Law in Reducing Maternal Mortality K. Madison Burnett * Safe motherhood is a human rights issue The death of a woman during pregnancy or childbirth is not only a health issue

More information

Malnutrition in Asia

Malnutrition in Asia Malnutrition in Asia Promoting Child Nutrition in Asia Vientiane November 4-6 2014 Christiane Rudert, Regional Advisor Nutrition UNICEF East Asia Pacific Regional Office Stunted 3 Year Old Stunted Adult

More information

SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF OFFICERS IN THE INDIAN ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE SANTOSH GOYAL

SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF OFFICERS IN THE INDIAN ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE SANTOSH GOYAL SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF OFFICERS IN THE INDIAN ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE SANTOSH GOYAL The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the highest cadre of the civil services in India and is the successor to the

More information

An equity focused approach getting results for disadvantaged children

An equity focused approach getting results for disadvantaged children An equity focused approach getting results for disadvantaged children Right in principle. Right in practice. Richard Morgan Director, Policy and Practice UNICEF December 7, 2010 Outline PART I: Situation

More information

UMIC LMIC LIC

UMIC LMIC LIC USD per capita India: Poverty & Aid India: a big economy with an enormous population and extensive poverty India now has the tenth largest economy in the world, accounting for over 5% of world GDP. But

More information

THE STATE OF HEALTHCARE DELIVERY IN GHANA. HON. DR VICTOR BAMPOE DEPUTY MINISTER OF HEALTH Atlanta Ga.

THE STATE OF HEALTHCARE DELIVERY IN GHANA. HON. DR VICTOR BAMPOE DEPUTY MINISTER OF HEALTH Atlanta Ga. THE STATE OF HEALTHCARE DELIVERY IN GHANA HON. DR VICTOR BAMPOE DEPUTY MINISTER OF HEALTH Atlanta Ga. Outline 1. Where are we? 2. What are we doing? 3. What can you do? 4. Challenges HEALTH STATUS Where

More information

Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in Africa. Now is the time to act!!

Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in Africa. Now is the time to act!! Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in Africa Now is the time to act!! Today s presentation 1. Under nutrition, micronutrient deficiency and its impact on child survival and morbidity 2. Global

More information

Sustainable Development Goals: an overview

Sustainable Development Goals: an overview Purpose This document will provide an overview of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), targets and available indicators as they relate to the strategic pillars of Vision 2020 Australia. The purpose

More information

90 14,248,

90 14,248, Per 1 LB African Region Maternal and Perinatal Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and Information System Health status indicators Maternal

More information

Overview of Nutritional Status of Nigerians

Overview of Nutritional Status of Nigerians Overview of Nutritional Status of Nigerians Presentation at a Seminar High Quality Proteins: the Missing link in Development Tuesday, 8th March 2011 PROTEA HOTELS, Ikeja, Lagos Outline Situation assessment

More information

30% Opening Prayer. Introduction. About 85% of women give birth at home with untrained attendants; the number is much higher in rural areas.

30% Opening Prayer. Introduction. About 85% of women give birth at home with untrained attendants; the number is much higher in rural areas. This is the second of four studies on maternal health M AT E R N A L a n d C H I L D H E A LT H : A f g h a n i s t a n b y K a r e n B o k m a About 85% of women give birth at home with untrained attendants;

More information

Section-3 : Status of Health and Family Welfare among Scheduled Tribes

Section-3 : Status of Health and Family Welfare among Scheduled Tribes Section-3 : Status of Health and Family Welfare among Scheduled Tribes In India, the essential data/information on health and family welfare, needed for policy and programme purposes and on important emerging

More information

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 population census 2009 report.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 population census 2009 report. Background Kenya s child population is estimated to be about 53% that is about 19 million out of the 34 million with an annual growth rate of 2.2%. 1 Currently, there are several legislative milestones

More information

Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality in Lao PDR

Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality in Lao PDR Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality in Lao PDR Presented by: Dr Somchith Akkhavong Deputy Director Department of Hygiene and Prevention Ministry of Health, Vientiane Capital Lao PDR GFMER - WHO - UNFPA

More information

Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh

Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh KEY STATISTICS Nutrition % of the population Malnutrition, in children (birth to 59 months) Wasting (weight-for-height) 17.4 2 Stunting (height-for-age) 43.2

More information

3 rd International conference on Rural India: Achieving Millennium Development Goals and Grassroots Development

3 rd International conference on Rural India: Achieving Millennium Development Goals and Grassroots Development 3 rd International conference on Rural India: Achieving Millennium Development Goals and Grassroots Development Interstate and Intrastate variations in India is key challenge to achieve MDGs Nilay Ranjan

More information

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Time Level Skills Knowledge goal 60 90 minutes intermediate speaking, reading to raise awareness of today s global issues and the UN Millennium Development Goals Materials

More information

Child Selection. Overview. Process steps. Objective: A tool for selection of children in World Vision child sponsorship

Child Selection. Overview. Process steps. Objective: A tool for selection of children in World Vision child sponsorship Sponsorship in Programming tool Child Selection Objective: A tool for selection of children in World Vision child sponsorship We ve learned some things about selecting children. It is not a separate sponsorship

More information

Improving WASH through social inclusion in Odisha

Improving WASH through social inclusion in Odisha Improving WASH through social inclusion in Odisha Improving accountability to ensure equitable and sustainable WASH services for the poor and marginalised Lessons from the governance and transparency programme

More information

Africa facts and statistics

Africa facts and statistics www.wvafrica.org Child survival How many deaths? z The average under-five mortality rate for SSA in 2007 was 148 per 1000 live births resulting in 4.5million children dying before the age of five z 51

More information

Key Indicators Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS)

Key Indicators Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) Key Indicators 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) Millennium Development Goals for 2015 Indicator 2014 KDHS Indicator Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Prevalence of underweight

More information

!"!"#$ A/HRC/33/L.3/Rev.1. General Assembly. United Nations

!!#$ A/HRC/33/L.3/Rev.1. General Assembly. United Nations United Nations General Assembly Distr.: Limited 28 September 2016 A/HRC/33/L.3/Rev.1 Original: English Human Rights Council Thirty-third session Agenda item 3 Promotion and protection of all human rights,

More information

The Challenge of Appropriate Pneumonia Case Management and the Impact for Child Health

The Challenge of Appropriate Pneumonia Case Management and the Impact for Child Health The Challenge of Appropriate Pneumonia Case Management and the Impact for Child Health Dr. Shamim Qazi Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health 1 ASTMH New Orleans November 2014 Major

More information

Proposed post-2015 education goals: Emphasizing equity, measurability and finance

Proposed post-2015 education goals: Emphasizing equity, measurability and finance Education for All Global Monitoring Report Proposed post-2015 education goals: Emphasizing equity, measurability and finance INITIAL DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION March 2013 The six Education for All goals have

More information

MATARA. Geographic location 4 (2006-07) Distribution of population by wealth quintiles (%), 2006-07 27.3 21.4 12.9 23.7 14.8. Source: DHS 2006-07

MATARA. Geographic location 4 (2006-07) Distribution of population by wealth quintiles (%), 2006-07 27.3 21.4 12.9 23.7 14.8. Source: DHS 2006-07 Ministry of Health MATARA DEMOGRAPHICS Total population 822, (28) L and area (Sq. Km) 1,27 (26) under-five (%) 9.2 (26-7) 1 Females in reproductive age group (%) 2 5.1 (26-7) 1 Estimated housing units

More information

Scale, scope, causes and potential response

Scale, scope, causes and potential response Scale, scope, causes and potential response Status of Malnutrition in Afghanistan Why Malnutrition Matters Determinants of Malnutrition What Can Be Done Recommendations for Afghanistan Very high rate

More information

National Health Policy, 2048 (1991)

National Health Policy, 2048 (1991) National Health Policy, 2048 (1991) Present health status The present low level of health status is attributable to lack of political commitment, inappropriate strategies and weakness in implementation

More information

Each year, millions of women, newborns,

Each year, millions of women, newborns, POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU P o l i c y P e r s p e c t i v e s o n N e w b o r n H e a l t h March 2006 SAVING NEWBORN LIVES The Maternal Newborn Child Health Continuum of Care: A Collective Effort to

More information

BEHAVIOR CHANGE COMMUNICATION AS AN INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE FAMILY HEALTH OUTCOMES

BEHAVIOR CHANGE COMMUNICATION AS AN INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE FAMILY HEALTH OUTCOMES BEHAVIOR CHANGE COMMUNICATION AS AN INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE FAMILY HEALTH OUTCOMES GARY L. DARMSTADT AND USHA KIRAN TARIGOPULA Low coverage of life-saving preventive health interventions stemming from

More information

Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI): A state wise study of India in SAARC countries Vinod Kumar 1, Surender Kumar 2, Sonu 3

Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI): A state wise study of India in SAARC countries Vinod Kumar 1, Surender Kumar 2, Sonu 3 Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI): A state wise study of India in SAARC countries Vinod Kumar 1, Surender Kumar 2, Sonu 3 12 Research Scholars, Dept. of Geography, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak,

More information

A wealth of information on global public health

A wealth of information on global public health 2014 A wealth of information on global public health World Health Organization 2014 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or

More information

Economic and Social Council

Economic and Social Council United Nations E/ICEF/2011/P/L.38 Economic and Social Council Distr.: Limited 5 July 2011 English Original: French For action United Nations Children s Fund Executive Board Second regular session 2011

More information

Child health and nutrition and the loss of human potential in India

Child health and nutrition and the loss of human potential in India Child health and nutrition and the loss of human potential in India Ramanan Laxminarayan Public Health Foundation of India Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy IOM Forum on Investing in Young

More information

150 7,114,974 75.8 -53-3.2 -3.6 -2.9. making progress

150 7,114,974 75.8 -53-3.2 -3.6 -2.9. making progress Per 1 LB African Region Maternal and Perinatal Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and Information System Health status indicators - Maternal

More information

Marjorie Andrew Institute of National Affairs. 17 March 2015, Gateway Hotel

Marjorie Andrew Institute of National Affairs. 17 March 2015, Gateway Hotel Marjorie Andrew Institute of National Affairs 17 March 2015, Gateway Hotel 2 The Government of PNG (GOPNG) produced a set of national (tailored) indicators of 2004 which was incorporated into the Medium

More information

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH 9 George Kichamu, Jones N. Abisi, and Lydia Karimurio This chapter presents findings from key areas in maternal and child health namely, antenatal, postnatal and delivery care,

More information

The implementation of Ethiopia's Health Extension Program: An overview PREPARED BY ALULA SEBHATU SEPTEMBER 2008, Addis Ababa

The implementation of Ethiopia's Health Extension Program: An overview PREPARED BY ALULA SEBHATU SEPTEMBER 2008, Addis Ababa The implementation of Ethiopia's Health Extension Program: An overview PREPARED BY ALULA SEBHATU SEPTEMBER 2008, Addis Ababa Acronyms CBRHAs: Community Based Reproductive Health Agents. CSA: Central Stastical

More information

The State of the World s Children 2016: A fair chance for every child

The State of the World s Children 2016: A fair chance for every child The State of the World s Children 2016: A fair chance for every child CONTENTS Foreword.page 1 Executive Summary. page 3 Foreword The state of the world's children Inequity imperils millions of children

More information

Statement by Dr. Sugiri Syarief, MPA

Statement by Dr. Sugiri Syarief, MPA Check against delivery_ Commission on Population and Development 45th Session Economic and Social Council Statement by Dr. Sugiri Syarief, MPA Chairperson of the National Population and Family Planning

More information

SECTION -1: POPULATION

SECTION -1: POPULATION SECTION -1: POPULATION This section contains 27 tables providing information on some selected demographic characteristics of rural population including Totals, Sex Ratio, Vital Rates and Expectancy of

More information

water, sanitation and hygiene

water, sanitation and hygiene water, sanitation and hygiene situation Lack of water and sanitation is one of the biggest issues affecting the health of children across Cambodia, particularly those who live in the countryside. Too many

More information

Economic. Research Paper. Has India s economic growth over the last decade led to an Improvement in the country s public health Profile?

Economic. Research Paper. Has India s economic growth over the last decade led to an Improvement in the country s public health Profile? Research Paper Economic Has India s economic growth over the last decade led to an Improvement in the country s public health Profile? Abhinav Pandya KEYWORDS Consultant, International Labor Organization

More information

117 4,904,773 -67-4.7 -5.5 -3.9. making progress

117 4,904,773 -67-4.7 -5.5 -3.9. making progress Per 1 LB Eastern Mediterranean Region Maternal and Perinatal Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and Information System Health status indicators

More information

31 21,761, making progress

31 21,761, making progress Per 1 LB Eastern Mediterranean Region Maternal and Perinatal Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and Information System Health status indicators

More information

How Universal is Access to Reproductive Health?

How Universal is Access to Reproductive Health? How Universal is Access to Reproductive Health? A review of the evidence Cover Copyright UNFPA 2010 September 2010 Publication available at: http://www.unfpa.org/public/home/publications/pid/6526 The designations

More information

Indicators of Poverty & Hunger

Indicators of Poverty & Hunger Indicators of Poverty & Hunger Dr David Gordon Professor of Social Justice School for Policy Studies University of Bristol Expert Group Meeting on Youth Development Indicators United Nations Headquarters,

More information

A Study on Poverty and Hunger in India

A Study on Poverty and Hunger in India A Study on Poverty and Hunger in India Junofy Anto Rozarina. N. Department of Economics, Central University of Tamilnadu, Thiruvarur, India Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n12p147 Abstract Poverty is not simply

More information

Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival

Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival WHO/UNICEF Joint Statement Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival Every year, about 3.7 million babies die in the first four weeks of life (2004 estimates). Most of these newborns

More information

UN H4. Joint Country Support for Accelerated Implementation of Reproductive, Maternal and Newborn Care

UN H4. Joint Country Support for Accelerated Implementation of Reproductive, Maternal and Newborn Care UN H4 Joint Country Support for Accelerated Implementation of Reproductive, Maternal and Newborn Care Coverage Along the Continuum of Care Source: Lancet Countdown Coverage writing group, Lancet Countdown

More information

Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health

Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 21 October 2011 1. Invited by the World Health Organization, we, Heads of Government, Ministers and government representatives

More information

68 3,676,893 86.7 -49-2.9 -3.2 -2.5. making progress

68 3,676,893 86.7 -49-2.9 -3.2 -2.5. making progress Per 1 LB African Region Maternal and Perinatal Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and Information System Health status indicators Maternal

More information

Reaching the Global Target to Reduce Stunting: How Much Will it Cost and How Can We Pay for it?

Reaching the Global Target to Reduce Stunting: How Much Will it Cost and How Can We Pay for it? Reaching the Global Target to Reduce Stunting: How Much Will it Cost and How Can We Pay for it? The proposal for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) put forward by the UN Member States that make up

More information

Malnutrition and Child Mortality:

Malnutrition and Child Mortality: Malnutrition and Child Mortality: P ROGRAM I MPLICATIONS OF N EW E VIDENCE Introduction Nutrition interventions generally target severely malnourished children. The high costs for treatment and rehabilitation

More information

Testimony of Henry B. Perry, MD, PhD, MPH Senior Associate, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Testimony of Henry B. Perry, MD, PhD, MPH Senior Associate, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Testimony of Henry B. Perry, MD, PhD, MPH Senior Associate, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Congressional Hearing: The First One Thousand Days of Life

More information