Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Bridge Connections

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1 Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Bridge Connections ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xix CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Introduction Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections 21 CHAPTER 2: CONCRETE MATERIAL MODEL Introduction Concrete Material Properties Defined by Experimental Investigation The Composition and Behavior of Plain Concrete Criteria for Experimental Investigation of Concrete Behavior Consideration of the Analytical Model Consideration of Experimental Methods Concrete Material Parameters Defined through Standardized Testing Concrete Subjected to Uniaxial Compression Concrete Subjected to Uniaxial Tension Concrete Subjected to Shear Concrete Subjected to Multi-Dimensional Loading Concrete Strength under Multi-Dimensional Loading Evolution of the Yield Surface Under Multi-Dimensional Loading Concrete Strain History Under Multi-Dimensional Loading The Effect of Load Rate on Concrete Response Concluding Remarks About Concrete Material Properties Concrete Constitutive Models Elasticity Theory Applied to Modeling Concrete Behavior Plasticity Theory Applied to Modeling Concrete Behavior Yield Surfaces for Concrete Plasticity Models Flow Rules for Concrete Plasticity Models Damage Theory Applied to Modeling Concrete Behavior Elastic-Plastic-Damage Models for Concrete Response Objective Modeling of Concrete Behavior Characterization of the Response of Plain Concrete in Reinforced Concrete Beam- Column Bridge Joints Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Response Characteristics of Concrete Response Rate Dependence Constitutive Theories Employed to Characterize Observed Concrete Response Definition of the Concrete Constitutive Model iii

2 Energy Dissipation under Strain-Softening and the Element Characteristic Length Implementation of the Model in an Implicit Incremental Solution Algorithm Integration of the Flow Rules Algorithm for Solution of the Governing Equations Solution Algorithm for Single Surface Plasticity Solution Algorithm for Single- and Multi-Surface Damage Comparison of Material Model with Experimental Data Conclusions CHAPTER 3: REINFORCING STEEL MATERIAL MODEL Introduction Steel Material Properties Established Through Experimental Testing Criteria for Experimental Investigation of Reinforcing Steel Behavior of Reinforcing Steel Subject to Axial Loading Effect of Load Rate Steel Constitutive Models Material Constitutive Theory Applied to Modeling Steel Behavior Phenomenological Model Characterization of Steel Response Using the Ramberg-Osgood Equation Characterization of Steel Response Using the Menegotto-Pinto Equation Characterization of the Response of Reinforcing Steel Comparison of Material Model with Experimental Data Conclusions CHAPTER 4: CONCRETE-STEEL BOND MODEL Introduction Bond Behavior Characterized Through Experimental Investigation Scale of the Investigation, Characterization and Model Development Denomination of Bond Response Quantities Experimental Investigation of Bond Zone Response Investigation of Bond Response Mechanisms Investigation of Bond Response Mechanisms for Deformed Reinforcement Comprehensive Evaluation of Bond Response for Deformed Reinforcement Bond-Zone Damage Patterns Bond Strength Behavior Characteristics Identified through Experimental Investigation of the Bond Response of Deformed Reinforcement Investigation of the Bond Stress Versus Slip Response Characterization of Bond Response through Evaluation of Specimens with Long Anchorage Lengths iv

3 Characterization of Bond Response through Evaluation of Specimens with Short Anchorage Lengths Characterization of Cyclic Bond Response Investigation of the Radial Stress Developed Through Bond Response and the Effect of Concrete Normal Stress on Bond Response Experimental Studies Summary of Findings on Radial Bond Response Investigation of System Parameters that Determine Bond Response Bond Response for Yielding Reinforcement Effect of Steel Deformation Patterns on Bond Response Dynamic Bond Response Modeling Concrete-to-Steel Bond Behavior Bond-Link Models Development of Bond Models for Reversed-Cyclic Load Histories Multi-Dimensional Bond Response Concentric Cone Representation of the Bond Zone Thick-Walled Cylinder Representation of the Bond Zone Characterization of the Bond Zone Continuum Comments on Multi-Dimensional Bond Models Characterization of Bond Response in the Vicinity of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Beam-Column Joints Definition of an Appropriate Bond Zone for Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Sub-Assemblages Mechanisms of Bond Zone Response Mechanical Interaction Residual Friction Virgin Friction Characterization of the Monotonic and Cyclic Bond Response System Parameters that Determine Bond Response Algorithms Defining Monotonic and Cyclic Bond Response Factors that Determine Peak Bond Strength Modeling Deterioration of Bond Strength as a Function of Cyclic Slip History Defining Peak Bond Strength as a Function of the Surrounding Concrete Stress and Damage State Defining Peak Bond Strength as a Function of the Steel Material State Implementation of the Bond Model within the Framework of the Finite Element Method Definition of the Bond Element Implementation of the Non-Local Bond Model Solution Algorithm in the Presence of the Non-Local Element Model Comparison of Bond Model with Experimental Data Conclusions v

4 CHAPTER 5: FINITE ELEMENT ANAYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS Introduction Development of the Global Finite Element Model Including Bond Elements in the Global Finite Element Mesh Solution Algorithm for a System with Material Softening Analysis of Plain Concrete Beams Results of Analyses of Plain Concrete Beams Analysis of Idealized Reinforced Concrete Bond Zones Definition of the Finite Element Models To Be Evaluated Definition of the Prototype Specimens Parameters of Interest to the Investigation Evaluation of Bond-Zone Response Behavior of the Prototype Flexural and Anchorage Bond-Zone Models and Comparison with Experimental Data Computed and Observed Behavior of Flexural Bond-Zone Models Computed and Observed Behavior of Anchorage Bond-Zone Models The Effect of Cover Concrete Relative Thickness on Computed Response The Effect of the Ratio of Local Tangential Bond Stress to Radial Stress on Computed Response The Effect of Concrete Fracture Energy and Residual Strength on Computed Response Effect of Bond Element on Observed Response Conclusions of Bond-Zone Study Analysis of Anchorage Bond Zones in Reinforced Concrete Building Beam-Column Connections Comparison of Computed and Observed Response for Monotonic Loading in Tension Comparison of Computed and Observed Response for Monotonic Simultaneous Loading in Tension and Compression Comparison of Computed and Observed Response for Cyclic Loading Conclusions of Bond-Zone Study Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subjected to Shear Analysis of Panels Tested in Shear Conclusions of the Shear Panel Study Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Elements Computed and Observed Behavior of Lightly Reinforced Beams Computed and Observed Behavior of Reinforced Beams Subjected To Monotonic and Cyclic Loading Results of Analysis of Flexural Elements Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections Experimental Investigation of Reinforced Bridge Beam-Column Connection Response Conclusion of Beam-Column Connection Investigation Conclusions vi

5 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS Introduction Development of Material Models Plain Concrete Reinforcing Steel Concrete-to-Steel Bond Modeling Reinforced Concrete Structural Sub-Assemblages Plain Concrete Flexural Members Bond-Zone Models Beam-Column Building Connection Bond-Zone Models Reinforced Concrete Shear Panels Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections Future Research CHAPTER 7: REFERENCES vii

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