# Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete Beams

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3 swimmer bar to the rectangular shape, the large rectangular shape will be divided vertically into two rectangles. Addition of two more swimmer bars will divide the large rectangle vertically into four small rectangles. A combination of horizontal bars and additional swimmer bars may also be explored. This swimmer bar system is integrated fully with the longitudinal steel bars. Several options of the swimmer bar systems are used in order to improve the shear performance of the reinforced concrete beams, reduce the amount of cracks, reduce the width and the length of cracks and reduce overall beam deflection. Different bar diameters can be used in order to add stiffness to the steel cage, and increase shear strength of the reinforced concrete beam. III. ACI CODE PROVISION FOR SHEAR DESIGN According to the ACI Code [5], the design of beams for shear is to be based on the following relation: Where: V u is the total shear force applied at a given section of the beam due to factored loads and V n = V c + V s is the nominal shear strength, equal to the sum of the contribution of the concrete and the web steel if present. Thus for vertical stirrups and for inclined bars Where: A ʋ is the area of one stirrup, α is the angle of the stirrup with the horizontal, and S is the stirrup spacing. The nominal shear strength contribution of the concrete (including the contributions from aggregate interlock, dowel action of the main reinforcing bars, and that of the un-cracked concrete) can be simplified as shown in Eq. 4. Where: b w and d are the section dimensions, and for normal weight concrete, λ = 1.0. This simplified formula is permitted by the ACI code expressed in metric units [6]. IV. TESTED BEAMS This study focused on investigating the shear strength of four different types of reinforced concrete beams; beam reinforced with regular stirrups, beam reinforced with welded swimmer bars, beam with bolted swimmer bars, and beam reinforced with U-link bolted swimmer bar. All specimens were of the same size and reinforced with identical amount of longitudinal steel. The amount of longitudinal steel used in this study is, by design, selected to make sure that the failure will be dictated only by shear and not by bending. The beams were tested to fail due to two point loads by shear given the ratio of a shear span to effective depth of 2.5. The compressive strength of concrete is measured according to ASTM C Nine concrete samples were prepared. The compressive strength of concrete is measured at the 28 th day. The concrete compressive strength results range between 27.4 N/mm 2 to 30.2 N.mm 2. The variables in these specimens are the shear reinforcement systems. Four reinforced concrete beams were prepared for the test, BS which the beam with regular stirrups, BW which is the beam with welded swimmer bars, BB beam with bolted swimmer bars, and BU which is the beam with U-link bolted swimmer bars. All of the beams are of the same dimension 2000 mm length, 200 mm width and 250 mm depth. The effective length was also kept at constant value of 1800 mm. Summary of shear reinforcement system for each specimen is given in Table 1. All tested beams were designed with 3ø14 top steel and 4ø16 bottom steel reinforcement. The reference beam, BC, was designed with 10ø8 mm at 600 mm spacing w w w. a j e r. o r g Page 193

4 vertical stirrup at either side without any stirrups at the high moment zone between the two concentrated loads. New type of shear reinforcement called welded swimmer bars BW, bolted swimmer bars BB, and U-link bolted swimmer bars BU were used in this experiment. The swimmer bars were used as independent bent-up bars and welded/bolted with ø10 mm steel piece. The swimmer bars used in beams BW, BB, BU are of ø10 mm and spaced of 275 mm apart as shown in Figure 1. The weight of each steel cage is also listed in Table 1. The weight of each steel cage is almost the same. Figure (2) shows the steel cage used in beam BW, the welded swimmer bars, and Figure 3 shows the steel cage used in BB, bolted swimmer bars, and Figure 4 shows the steel cage used in beam BU, the U-link bolted swimmer bars. The weights of these two cages were intentionally designed to be very close in numbers. The erection and assembling time of the bolted beam is relatively less than the erection and assembling time of the welded beam. Table 1: Summary of steel reinforcement used in the tested beams Beam Shear Reinforcement Steel Cage No. Vertical Bent-up Weight (N) stirrup Bars BC 10ø 8 600mm at shear sides BW - Two welded swimmers, ø mm BB - Two bolted swimmers, ø mm BU - Two U-link Bolted swimmers, 255 ø mm Figure 1: Reinforcement details of BW, BB, and BU. w w w. a j e r. o r g Page 194

5 Figure 2: Steel cage reinforcement of the beam BW, welded swimmer bars. Figure 3: Steel cage reinforcement of beam BB bolted swimmer bars. Figure 4: Steel cage reinforcement of the beam, BU, U-link bolted swimmer bars. w w w. a j e r. o r g Page 195

7 Figure 6: Beam BU at failure stage Figure 7: The mode of failure of the welded beam BW. Figure 8 shows the maximum applied load the beam carried just before failure. All of the tested beams in this study failed by shear. The beam of welded swimmer bars exhibit similar strength as the beam of U-link bolted swimmer bars, and the bolted swimmer bars BB. This proves that welding can be avoided when dealing with swimmer bars. The welding process is of a major concern when it comes to the quality control of the welds. w w w. a j e r. o r g Page 197

8 Figure 8: Shear strength of the three tested beams Figure 9 shows the maximum recorded deflection just before failure. No major difference in the load deflection relationship was observed in the tested beams. Beams deflection increased with the increase in load up to the failure load. Figure 9: Maximum deflection at mid-span of tested beams just before failure. VII. CONCLUSION This study presented four different types of shear reinforcement that can be used in reinforced concrete beams. New type of shear reinforcement system was used, which is swimmer bars system either bolted or welded to the longitudinal bars. There is improvement in shear strength of reinforced concrete beams by using swimmer bars in general. The bolted swimmers bars through U-links showed similar results as the welded. The width and length of the cracks were observed to be less using swimmer bars compared to the traditional stirrups system. The bolted swimmers bars as well as the u-link bolted swimmer bars exhibit similar behavior under load compared to the traditional stirrups system. w w w. a j e r. o r g Page 198

9 REFERENCES [1] Al-Nasra, M.M., and Wang, L.R.L., 1994, Parametric Study of Slab-On-Grade Problems: Due to Initial Warping and Point Loads. ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 91 No NALS/OLJDetails.asp?Home=SJ&ID=4596 [2] Piyamahant, (2002), Shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams with small amount of web reinforcement, M. Eng. Dissertation, Kochi University of Technology, Japan [3] Lesley H. Sneed and Julio A. 2008, Effect of Depth on the Shear Strength of Concrete Beams without Shear Reinforcement, USA Portland and cement Association htm [4] Noor Hamid (2005). The Use of Horizontal and Inclined Bars as Shear Reinforcement, Master Thesis, University of Technology, Malaysia, [5] ACI , Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete Commentary. [6] Edward G.Nawy, Reinforced Concrete: A Fundamental Approach, Prentice Hall International, US, PP , ISBN , w w w. a j e r. o r g Page 199

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