Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology Rocks and Minerals. (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

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1 The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are available by using the Search Standards feature located on GeorgiaStandards.Org. (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) OVERVIEW: The rock cycle, which is continual in nature, explains the formation of minerals and rocks. Fossils provide evidence of constant environmental change. STANDARDS ADDRESSED IN THIS UNIT Focus Standards: S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth s surface is formed. b. Investigate the contribution of minerals to rock composition. c. Classify rocks by their process of formation. g. Describe how fossils show evidence of the changing surface and climate of the Earth. d. Students will describe various sources of energy and with their uses and conservation. b. Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources. Supporting Standards: S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth s surface is formed. a. Compare and contrast the Earth s crust, mantle, and core including temperature, density, and composition. d. Describe processes that change rocks and the surface of the earth. f. Explain the effects of physical processes (plate tectonics, erosion, deposition, volcanic eruption, gravity) on geological features including oceans (composition, currents, and tides). January 2007 Page 1 of 7

2 ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS Students will understand that: Many materials used by people come from rocks and minerals. Rocks are classified based on how they formed and their mineral composition. Sedimentary rocks are formed by the ongoing deposition of rocks and other sediments that are cemented together. Fossils, the remains of organisms preserved in sedimentary rocks, are part of the evidence scientists use to infer changing conditions at the Earth s surface through time Rocks at the Earth s surface weather, forming sediments that are buried, then compacted, heated, and often recrystallized into new rock. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: Topical Essential Questions: How are minerals identified? How are rocks formed? How are rocks classified? How can rocks change from one type to another? Is the rock cycle really a cycle? Explain your answer. How do natural objects compare to manufactured objects? How are rocks and minerals used by 6 th graders? January 2007 Page 2 of 7

3 KNOWLEDGE: Sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic, rock composition, mineral formation, pressure, rock cycle, Minerals can be identified by their physical properties. Igneous rocks are dominated by silicate minerals. Rocks are composed of minerals. Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. The rock cycle explains how one rock type can be transformed into another. This process is continuing today. Magma cools and crystallizes to form igneous rock. Igneous rock undergoes weathering (or breakdown) to form sediment. The sediment is transported and deposited somewhere (such as at the beach or in a delta, or in the deep sea). Usually after burial, the deposited sediment undergoes lithification (the processes that turn it into a rock). This includes cementation and compaction. If the sedimentary rock is buried deep in the crust under more and more sediment, often due to plate tectonic movements, the heat and pressure causes metamorphism to occur. This transforms the sedimentary rock into a metamorphic rock. As the metamorphic rock is buried more deeply, temperatures and pressures continue to rise. If the temperature becomes hot enough, the metamorphic rock undergoes melting. The molten rock is called magma. This completes the cycle. Any rock type can undergo weathering to form sediment. Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks undergo weathering. Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism (as a result of heat and pressure) to form metamorphic rocks. CONCEPTS: Processes that form the Earth/rocks, evidence of change LANGUAGE: Sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic, rock composition, mineral formation, pressure, rock cycle January 2007 Page 3 of 7

4 MISCONCEPTIONS : All rocks are the same and it's hard to tell how they originated. Rocks and minerals are the same thing and distinguishing them is not important. Humans can fabricate rocks and minerals; artifacts are the same as rocks or minerals. You can test the hardness of a mineral (such as a diamond) by hitting it with a hammer. The Stone Mountain granite underlies all of Georgia, or underlies several states. Minerals are not important to my life. All rocks are the same and it s hard to tell how they originated. Rocks and minerals are the same thing and distinguishing them is not important. Human s can fabricate rocks and minerals; artifacts are the same as rocks or minerals. PROPER CONCEPTIONS Rocks can be distinguished into many different types, based on their origins and compositions. Rocks and minerals are not the same thing; rocks are composed of minerals which are naturally existing chemical compounds. Rocks and minerals are naturally occurring substances that are usually crystalline and solid. Hardness is tested by scratching. The Stone Mountain granite is a relatively small granite pluton that covers an area less than a county in size. Almost every product we use in daily life contains depends on minerals that have to be mined. Rocks can be distinguished into many different types, based on their origins and compositions. Rocks and minerals are not the same thing; rocks are composed of minerals which are naturally existing chemical compounds. Rocks and minerals are naturally occurring substances that are usually crystalline and solid. January 2007 Page 4 of 7

5 EVIDENCE OF LEARNING: By the conclusion of this unit, students should be able to demonstrate the following competencies: Culminating Activity: Rocks And Minerals Culminating Activities Goal: Plan and describe a rock, mineral, and fossil collection which could be made from materials in your county plus two other selected Georgia counties. Role: A middle school student called on to assist in developing a collection. Audience: Your school science department. Situation: Your teacher needs a class set of teaching specimens of 8 different rock types (including sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic examples), 4 fossils representing a variety of ages and environments of origin, and 1 nonrenewable energy resource. Using the Lawton (1977) Geologic Map of Georgia, you will determine the extent to which these needs can be supplied from your own county. Then identify two other counties from which samples would allow you to complete the collection. Product: A description of the items in the proposed collection and the county of origin of each. For each rock, provide information on the minerals that make it up, as well as how it formed as an igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock. For each fossil, tell how old it is and in what kind of environment the organism lived. For the energy resource, explain how it formed and why it is considered nonrenewable. Standard: See rubric January 2007 Page 5 of 7

6 Geology Rocks and Minerals GRASPS Rubric Scientific Information Rock processes of formation Mineral composition of rocks Fossils as evidence of change Renewable and nonrenewable energy Description of each rock s origin is detailed and substantially accurate. The project provides substantially accurate information on the mineral composition of every rock in the collection All fossils are correct as to age and location. The description of the environment contains some detail and is substantially accurate. The project accurately describes the location and formation of Georgia s nonrenewable energy resource. The igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic origin of each rock is correct, and there is some additional accurate description of the rocks origins. The project accurately identifies at least one mineral in each rock in the collection. All fossils are listed correctly as to age, location and marine or terrestrial origin, but no further accurate details are given. The project correctly identifies the resource and contains some accurate details as to its formation and location. The igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic origin of each rock is correct, but there is little or no additional accurate description of the rocks origins. The project contains some accurate information on the mineral composition of rocks in the collection. All fossils are listed, but there are inaccuracies in location, age, or marine or terrestrial origin. The project does not correctly identify Georgia s nonrenewable energy resource or fails to describe its formation. Fewer than 8 rocks are named, or the igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic origin of one or more rocks is incorrect. The project does not contain accurate information on the mineral composition of any rock in the collection. Fewer than four fossils are listed, or none of the fossils is correctly tagged as to marine or terrestrial origin. The project does not accurately name a nonrenewable energy resource. January 2007 Page 6 of 7

7 TASKS The collection of the following tasks represents the level of depth, rigor and complexity expected of all physical science students to demonstrate evidence of learning. Task: Description: Discussion, Suggestions for use: Possible Solution : SAMPLE OF STUDENT WORK January 2007 Page 7 of 7

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