# 衛星通信 (6) Professor Jeffrey S, Fu

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1 衛星通信 (6) Professor Jeffrey S, Fu 傅祥 教授 1

2 4.7 DESIGN FOR SPECIFIED C/N: COMBINING C/N AND C/l VALUES IN SATELLITE LINKS The BER or S/N ratio in the baseband channel of an earth station receiver is determined by the ratio of the carrier power to the noise power in the IF amplifier at the input to the demodulator. The noise present in the IF amplifier comes from many sources. 2

3 When more than one C/N ratio is present in the link, we can add the individual C/N ratios reciprocally to obtain an overall C/N ratio, which we will denote here as (C/N) o. The overall (C/N) o ratio is what would be measured in the earth station at the output of the IF amplifier (C/N) o = 1 / [1/(C/N) / (C/N) / (C/N) 3 + ] ] (4.42) 3

4 This is sometimes referred to as the reciprocal C/N formula.. The C/N values must be linear ratios, NOT decibel values. Since the noise power in the individual C/N ratios is referenced to the earner power at that point, all the C values in Eq.. (4.42) are the same. Expanding the formula by cross multiplying gives the overall (C/N) o as a power ratio, not in decibels (C/N) o = 1/(N 1 /C + N 2 /C + N 3 /C + ) = C/( /(N 1 + N 2 + N 3 + ) (4.43) 4

5 In decibel units: (C/N) o = C dbw-10 log 10 (N 1 + N 2 + N 3 ) + W) db (4.44) Note that (C/N) dn cannot be measured at the receiving earth station. The satellite always transmits noise as well as signal, so a C/N ratio measurement at the receiver will always yield (C/N) o, the combination of transponder and earth station C/N ratios. 5

6 To calculate the performance of a satellite link we must therefore determine the uplink (C/N) up ratio in the transponder and the downlink (C/N) dn in the earth station receiver. We must also consider whether there is any interference present, either in the satellite receiver or the earth station receiver. 6

7 One case of importance is where the transponder is operated in a FDMA mode and intermodulation products (IM) are generated by the transponder's nonlinear input-output characteristic. If the IM power level in the transponder is known, a C/I value can be found and included in the calculation of (C/N) o ratio. Interference from adjacent satellites is likely whenever small receiving antennas are used as with VSATs (very small aperture terminals) and DBS-TV receivers. 7

8 Since C/N values are usually calculated from power and noise budgets, their values are typically in decibels. There are some useful rules of thumb for estimating (C/N) o from two C/N values: 8

9 If the C/N values are equal, as in the example above, (C/N) o is 3 db lower than either value. If one C/N value is 10 db smaller than the other value, (C/N) o is 0.4 db lower than the smaller of the C/N values. If one C/N value is 20 db or more greater than the other C/N value, the overall (C/N) o is equal to the smaller of the two C/N values within the accuracy of decibel calculations (±0.1( db). 9

10 EXAMPLE Thermal noise in an earth station receiver results in a (C/N) dn ratio of 20.0 db. A signal is received from a bent pipe transponder with a carrier to noise ratio (C/N) up = 20.0 db. What is the value of overall (C/N) o at the earth station? If the transponder introduces intermodulation products with (C/I) ratio = 24 db, what is the overall (C/N) o ratio at the receiving earth station? 10

11 Using Eq.. (4.42) and noting that (C/N) = 20.0 db corresponds to a (C/N) ratio of 100 The intermodulation (C/I) value of 24.0 db corresponds to a ratio of 250. The overall (C/N) 0 value is then 11

12 Overall (C/N) o with Uplink and Downlink Attenuation The effect of a change in the uplink C/N ratio has a different impact on overall (C/N) o depending on the operating mode and gain of the transponder. 12

13 There are three different transponder types or operating modes: Linear transponder : P out = P in + G xp Nonlinear transponder : P out = P in + G xp - ΔG Regenerative transponder : dbw dbw P out = constant dbw 13

14 where P in is the power delivered by the satellite's receiving antenna to the input of the transponder, P out is the power delivered by the transponder HPA to the input of the satellite's transmitting antenna, G xp is the gain of the transponder, and all parameters are in decibel units. The parameter ΔG is dependent on P in and accounts for the loss of gain caused by the nonlinear saturation characteristics of a transponder which is driven hard to obtain close to its maximum power output the the gain is effectively falling as the input power level increases. 14

15 Uplink Attenuation and (C/N) up The transponder receiver noise temperature does not change significantly when rain is present in the uplink path to the satellite. The satellite receiving antenna beam is always sufficiently wide that it "sees" a large area of the (warm) earth's surface and local noise temperature variations are insignificant. The noise temperature of the earth seen by a GEO satellite varies from a maximum of 270 K for a satellite antenna beam over Africa and northern Europe, to a minimum of 250 K over the Pacific Ocean. 15

16 The corresponding system noise temperature for the transponders on a GEO satellite is in the range 400 to 500 K. There is effectively no increase in uplink noise power when heavy rain is present in the link between an earth station and a satellite because the satellite antenna beam sees the tops of cumulonimbus clouds above the rain, which are always colder than 270 K, instead of the earth's surface. 16

17 Rain attenuation on the uplink path to the satellite reduces the power at the satellite receiver input, and thus reduces (C/N) up in direct proportion to the attenuation on the slant path. If the transponder is operating in a linear mode, the output power will be reduced by the same amount, which will cause (C/N) dn to fall by an amount equal to the attenuation on the uplink. When both (C/N) up and (C/N) dn are reduced by A up db, the value of (C/N) o is reduced by exactly the same amount, A up db. 17

18 Hence for the case of a linear transponder and rain attenuation in the uplink of A up db (C/N) o uplink rain = (C/N) o clear air A up db Linear transponder (4.45) If the transponder is nonlinear, the reduction in input power caused by uplink attenuation of A up db results in a smaller reduction in output power, by an amount ΔG. (C/N) o uplink rain = (C/N) o clear air A up + ΔG db Nonlinear transponder (4.46) 18

19 If the transponder is digital and regenerative, or incorporates an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) system to maintain a constant output power level (C/N) o uplink rain = (C/N) o clear air db Regenerative transponder or AGC (4.47) The above equation will hold only if the received signal is above threshold and the BER of the recovered digital signal in the transponder is small. If the signal falls below threshold, the uplink will contribute significantly to the BER of the digital signal at the receiving earth station. 19

20 Downlink Attenuation and (C/N) dn The earth station receiver noise temperature can change very significantly when rain is present in the downlink path from the satellite. The sky noise temperature can increase to close to the physical temperature of the individual raindrops, particularly in very heavy rain. A reasonable temperature to assume for temperate latitudes in a variety of rainfall rates is 270 K, although values above 290 K have been observed in the tropics. 20

21 An increase in sky noise temperature to 270 K will increase the receiving antenna temperature markedly above its clear air value. The result is that the received power level, C, is reduced and the noise power, N, in the receiver increases. The result for downlink C/N is given by Eq.. (4.48) (C/N) dn rain = (C/N) dn clear air -A rain -ΔN rain db (4.48) 21

22 The overall C/N is then given by (C/N) o = 1 / [1 /(C/N) dn rain + 1/(C/N) up ] db (4.49) As noted earlier, unless we are making a loop-back test, we will assume that the value of (C/N) up is for clear air, and remains constant regardless of the attenuation on the downlink. 22

23 System Design for Specific Performance A typical two-way way satellite communication link consists of four separate paths: an outbound uplink path from one terminal to the satellite and an outbound downlink to the second terminal ; and an inbound uplink from the second terminal to the satellite and an inbound downlink to the first terminal. The links in the two directions are independent and can be designed separately, unless they share a single transponder using FDMA. A broadcast link, like the DBS-TV system described earlier in this chapter, is a one-way system, with just one uplink and one downlink. 23

24 Satellite Communication Link Design Procedure The design procedure for a one-way satellite communication link can be summarized by the following 10 steps. The return link design follows the same procedure. 1. Determine the frequency band in which the system must operate. Comparative designs may be required to help make the selection. 24

25 2.. Determine the communications parameters of the satellite. Estimate any values that are not known. 3. Determine the parameters of the transmitting and receiving earth stations. 4. Start at the transmitting earth station. Establish an uplink budget and a transponder noise power budget to find (C/N) up in the transponder. 5. Find the output power of the transponder based on transponder gain or output backoff. 25

26 6. Establish a downlink power and noise budget for the receiving earth station.calculate (C/N) dn and (C/N) o for a station at the edge of the coverage zone (worst case). 7. Calculate S/N or BER in the baseband channel. Find the link margins. 8. Evaluate the result and compare with the specification requirements. Change parameters of the system as required to obtain acceptable (C/N) o or S/N or BER values. This may require several trial designs. 26

27 9. Determine the propagation conditions under which the link must operate. Calculate outage times for the uplinks and downlinks. 10. Redesign the system by changing some parameters if the link margins are inadequate. Check that all parameters are reasonable, and that the design can be implemented within the expected budget. 27

28 4.8 SYSTEM DESIGN EXAMPLES The following sample system designs demonstrate how the ideas developed in this chapter can be applied to the design of satellite communication systems. 28

29 TABLE 4.6 System and Satellite Specification Ku-band satellite parameters Geostationary at 73 W W longitude, 28 Ku-band transponders Total RF output power 2.24 kw Antenna gain, on axis (transmit and receive) 31 db Receive system noise temperature 500 K 29

30 Transponder saturated output power: Ku band Transponder bandwidth: Ku band Signal 80 W 54 MHz Compressed digital video signals with transmitted symbol rate of 43.2 Msps Minimum permitted overall (C/N) o in receiver 9.5 db 30

31 Transmitting Ku-band earth station Antenna diameter 5 m Aperture efficiency 68% Uplink frequency GHz Required C/N in Ku-band transponder 30 db Transponder HPA output backoff 1 db Miscellaneous uplink losses 0.3 db Location: -22 db contour of satellite receiving antenna 31

32 Receiving Ku-band earth station Downlink frequency GHz Receiver IF noise bandwidth 43.2 MHz Antenna noise temperature 30 K LNA noise temperature 110 K Required overall (C/N)o in clear air 17 db Miscellaneous downlink losses 0.2 db Location: -33 db contour of satellite transmitting antenna 32

33 Rain attenuation and propagation factors Ku-band clear air attenuation Uplink GHz Downlink GHz Rain attenuation Uplink 0.01% of year Downlink 0.01% of year 0.7 db 0.5 db 6.0 db 5.0 db 33

34 System Design Example This example examines the design of a satellite communication link using a Ku-band geostationary satellite with bent pipe transponders to distribute digital TV signals from an earth station to many receiving stations throughout the United States. The design requires that an overall C/N ratio of 9.5 db be met in the TV receiver to ensure that the video signal on the TV screen is held to an acceptable level. 34

35 The uplink transmitter power and the receiving antenna gain and diameter are determined for each system. The available link margins for each of the systems are found and the performance of the systems is analyzed when rain attenuation occurs in the satellite-earth earth paths. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing uplink power control are considered. 35

36 In this example, the satellite is located at 73 W. However, for international registration of this satellite location, the location would be denoted as 287 E. The link budgets developed in the examples below use decibel notation throughout. The satellite and earth stations are specified in Table 4.6, and Figure 4.11 shows an illustration of the satellite television distribution system. 36

37 Ku-Band Uplink Design We must find the uplink transmitter power required to achieve (C/N) up = 30 db in clear air atmospheric conditions. We will first find the noise power in the transponder for 43.2 MHz bandwidth, and then add 30 db to find the transponder input power level. 37

38 Uplink Noise Power Budget k = Boltzmann's constant dbw/k/hz T s = 500 K 27.0 dbk B = 43.2 MHz 76.4 dbhz N = transponder noise power dbw The received power level at the transponder input must be 30 db greater than the noise power. P r = power at transponder input = dbw 38

39 Figure 4.11 Satellite television distribution system. 39

40 The uplink antenna has a diameter of 5 m and an aperture efficiency of 68%. At GHz the wavelength is cm = m. The antenna gain is G t = 10 log [0.68 (πd/λ) 2 ] = 55.7 db The free space path loss is L p = 10 log [(4πR/ R/λ) 2 ] = db 40

41 Uplink Power Budget P t = Earth station transmitter power P t dbw G t = Earth station antenna gain 55.7 db G r = Satellite antenna gain 31.0 db L p = Free space path loss db L ant = E/S on 2 db contour -2.0 db L m = Other losses -1.0dB P r = Received power at transponder P t db 41

42 The required power at the transponder input to meet the (C/N) up = 30 db objective is dbw.. Hence P t db = dbw P t = 28.3 dbw or 675 W This is a relatively high transmit power so we would probably want to increase the transmitting antenna diameter to increase its gain, allowing a reduction in transmit power. 42

43 Ku-Band Downlink Design The first step is to calculate the downlink (C/N) dn that will provide (C/N) o = 17 db when(c/n) up = 30 db. From Eq.. (4.43) 1 / (C/N) dn = l / (C/N) o -l/(c/n) up Thus (not in db) l / (C/N) dn = 1/50-1/1000 1/1000 = N) dn (C/N) dn = db N) dn 43

44 We must find the required receiver input power to give (C/N) dn = 17.2 db and then find the receiving antenna gain, G r. Downlink Noise Power Budget k =Boltzmann's= constant dbw/k/hz T s = K = 140 K 21.5 dbk B n = 43.2 MHz 76.4 dbhz N = transponder noise power dBW 44

45 The power level at the earth station receiver input must be 17.2 db greater than the noise power in clear air. P r = power at earth station receiver input = dBW db = dBW 45

46 We need to calculate the path loss at GHz. At GHz path loss was db. At GHz path loss is L p = og 201og 10 (14.15 / 11.45) = db The transponder is operated with 1 db output backoff,, so the output power is 1 db below 80 W (80 W 19.0 dbw) P t = 19 dbw-1 1 db = 18 dbw 46

47 Downlink Power Budget P t = Satellite transponder output power 18.0 dbw G t = Satellite antenna gain 31.0 db G r = Earth station antenna gain G r db L p = Free space path loss db L a = E/S on -33 db contour of satellite antenna -3.0 db L m = Other losses -0.8 db P r = Received power at earth station Gr db 47

48 The required power into the earth station receiver to meet the (C/N) dn = 17.2 db objective is P r = dbw.. Hence the receiving antenna must have a gain G r. Where G r db = dbw G r = 46.7 db or 46,774 as a ratio 48

49 The earth station antenna diameter, D, is calculated from the formula for antenna gain, G, with a circular aperture G r = 0.65 (πd / λ ) 2 = 46,774 At GHz, the wavelength is 2.62 cm = m. Evaluating the above equation to find D gives the required receiving antenna diameter as D = 2.14m. 49

50 Rain Effects at Ku Band Uplink Under conditions of heavy rain, the Ku-band path to the satellite station suffers an attenuation of 6 db for 0.01% of the year. We must find the uplink attenuation margin and decide whether uplink power control would improve system performance at Ku band. 50

51 The uplink C/N was 30 db in clear air. With 6 db uplink path attenuation, the C/N in the transponder falls to 24 db, and assuming a linear transponder characteristic and no uplink power control, the transponder output power falls to = 12 dbw. The downlink C/N falls by 6 db from 17.2 db to 11.2 db, and the overall (C/N) o falls by 6 db to 11 db. With the minimum overall C/N set at 9.5 db, the additional margin for uplink attenuation is 1.5 db. 51

52 Hence the link margin available on the uplink is 7.5 db without uplink power control. This is an adequate uplink rain attenuation margin for many parts of the United States, and would typically lead to rain outages of less than 1 h total time per year. 52

53 Downlink Attenuation and Sky Noise Increase The GHz path between the satellite and the receive station suffers rain attenuation exceeding 5 db for 0.01% of the year. Assuming 100% coupling of sky noise into antenna noise, and 0.5-dB clear air gaseous attenuation, calculate the overall C/N under these conditions. Assume that the uplink station is operating in clear air. We must calculate the available downlink fade margin. 53

54 We need to find the sky noise temperature that results from a total excess path attenuation of 5.5 db (clear air attenuation plus rain attenuation); this is the new antenna temperature in rain, because we assumed 100% coupling between sky noise temperature and antenna temperature. We must evaluate the change in received power and increase in system noise temperature in order to calculate the change in C/N ratio for the downlink. 54

55 In clear air, the atmospheric attenuation on the downlink is 0.5 db. The corresponding sky noise temperature is 270( ) = 29 K, which leads to the antenna temperature of 30 K given in the Ku-band system specification. When the rain causes 5-dB 5 attenuation, the total path attenuation from the atmosphere and the rain is 5.5 db. The corresponding sky noise temperature is given by T sky rain sky rain = T 0 (1-G) ) where G = 10 -A/10 = T sky rain = 270( ) 0.282) = 194 K 55

56 Thus the antenna temperature has increased from 30 K in clear air to 194 K in rain. The system noise temperature in rain, T s rain, is increased from the clear air value of 140 K (30 K sky noise temperature plus 110 K LNA temperature) T s rain = = 304 K or 24.8 dbk 56

57 The increase in noise power is ΔN = 10 log (304/140) = 3.4 db The signal is attenuated by 5 db in the rain, so the total reduction in downlink C/N ratio is 8.4 db, which yields a new value (C/N) dn rain = = 8.8 db 57

58 The overall C/N is then found by combining the clear air uplink (C/N) up of 30 db with the rain faded downlink (C/N) rain of 8.8 db, giving N) dn rain (C/N) o rain o rain = 8.8 db The overall (C/N) 0 is below the minimum acceptable value of 9.5 db. The downlink link margin is Downlink fade margin = (C/N) dn -(C/N) min = = 7.7 db 58

59 Since downlink rain attenuation of 5 db causes the overall (C/N) 0 to go below the minimum permitted value of 9.5 db, we should recalculate the maximum attenuation that the downlink can sustain. This involves an iterative process, since changing the attenuation changes both C and N values in (C/N) dn. At an attenuation level of 5 db, the increase in noise power is 3.4 db, so a starting guess would be that decreasing the attenuation by 0.3 db will decrease the noise power by 0.2 db. The rain attenuation will then be a little less than 5 db. 59

60 Recalculating (C/N) dn for a rain attenuation value of 4.7 db gives T sky rain sky rain = T 0 (1-G) where G = 10 -A/10 = sky rain = 270 ( ) = 178 K ΔN = 10 log (288/140) = 3.1 db T sky rain (C/N) dn rian = = 9.4 db (C/N) o rain = db (C/N) o rain 60

61 The result is close enough to the required value of (C/N) o min = 9.5 db to conclude that we can tolerate about 4.7 db of rain attenuation on the downlink. If better availability is required less outage time the the diameter of the receiving antenna can be increased. 61

62 For example, if the receiving antenna diameter is increased to 2.4 m, (about 8 ft) the increase in antenna gain is 20 log 10 (2.40/2.14) = 1.0 db, which increases the downlink margin to 8.7 db. Repeating the iterative calculation outlined above, the corresponding rain attenuation on the downlink is 5.5 db with a noise power increase of 3.2 db. The downlink C/N with 5.5-dB rain attenuation is = 9.5 db, and the overall (C/N) o 9.5 db. 62

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