5. Earth satellite station. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

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1 5. Earth satellite station

2 Topics Position selection Earth station scheme Astra Transmitter Quality parameters Antennas Receiver 1

3 Position selection Earth satellite station should not have direct visibility with stations which might interfere transmission km is minimal distance from the interfering transmitters Station should be best placed in a valley. As far as possible from Sea In rural area Very long lifetime compared to satellite Possibility of airplane entering the beam is very small 4*10-8 for 24 m antenna 1.6*10-8 for 64 m antenna Deanovec, Croatia 2

4 Position selection ESA space center in Funico, Italy, one of the largest centres on Earth 3

5 Earth station scheme 4

6 Astra TV satellite receiving system Required: 90 cm antenna dish and with LNB converter, digital satellite receiver and clear sky looking south. 90 cm antenna LNB converter Satellite receiver 5

7 Astra Astra has several geostationary satellites at 19.2 degrees east. Weight of a satellite is about 3 tons. For orbit correction there is fuel enough for years of service. Power amplifier used is travelling wave tube (63 W). EIRP is 51 dbw. Channel bandwidth is 26 MHz. Downlink frequencies are around GHz and uplink frequency is around 14 GHz. 6

8 Astra Figure shows antenna dish size necessary for good signal from ASTRA satellites. For most of Croatia, 90 cm is enough. 7

9 Astra LNB converter On receiving side there is a LNB - Low-Noise Block Down converter connected to parabolic antenna. LNB converts the 11 GHz bandwidth to frequency range from 950 MHZ to 2150 MHz. LNB has noise factor around 0.6 db. Temperature noise (in K) can be calculated form T = NF K [ ] LNB gain is from 55 db to 65 db, and attenuation between horizontal and vertical polarization is 25 db. LNB has two local oscillators operating on 10.6 GHz and 9.75 GHz. 8

10 Astra Receiver Switching from horizontal to vertical polarization is realized with 22 khz, 15 V DC in amplitude. LNB receives the power from satellite receiver by a co-axial cable. 11 GHz LNB 10 GHz LO MHz Co-axial cable Satellite antenna Satellite receiver Down converter Local oscillator Polarization setting MF amplifier Detection MHz 9

11 Astra Receiver Receiver converts signal from LNB ( MHz) to MF (55 MHz). It amplifies the signal, process it and gives at the output signal on 470 MHz to 860 MHz (21-69 channel). The minimum signal level at the input of receiver is -25 dbm to -65 dbm. For improved signal level, in-line satellite amplifier can be used. In line amplifier works in frequency bandwidth from 950 MHz to 2250 MHz, has 20 db gain, 75 ohms impedance, noise 5 db and maximum output equal to 105 dbµv. 10

12 Astra Frequencies From earth satellite station to satellite GHz From satellite to earth satellite station GHz From LNB converter to satellite receiver MHz Down conversion in satellite receiver to 55 MHz (MF) From satellite receiver to TV (39 channel) MHz The signal changes the frequency from earth satellite station, satellite, LNB, and satellite receiver, but the quality of signal must be preserved. The reason for lowering the frequency at LNB is that cables attenuate more higher frequencies than lower. For the similar reason, amplification at 55 MHz is much cheaper and easier than at 1 or 2 GHz. 11

13 Transmitter Reliability of Earth satellite station is 99,7%. S/N ratio should be as large as possible S / N S signal strength N d Downlink nooise N u Uplink noise = ( S N N N N N ) N i Intermodulation noise between carrier in output stage on satellite transmitter N n Intermodulation noise from other carriers of earth satellite stations N S Noise from other services in the same frequency range Good design results in only the first three components. d u i n S 12

14 Transmitter Transmitted power per channel is 1-2 W. Total transmitter power from earth satellite station is usually around 3 kw. Allowed power density is 10 mw/cm 2 It can lead to temperature rise of 1 degree Celsius in humans Same level applies for fuel and flamable materials Effective radiated power (dbm) Transmitted power (db) cable loss (dbm) + antenna gain (dbi) 13

15 Quality parameters Effective isotropic radiated power - EIRP Power density - S Figure of merit of station G/T S 14

16 Quality parameters Effective isotropic radiated power - EIRP Product of transmitted power multiplied with the antenna gain Typical value for TV transmitting station is about dbw. EIRP = Pt G t 15

17 Quality parameters Power density S at satellite receiver S = G t Pt 4π 2 d 1 ( W/m2) 16

18 Quality parameters Power density - S Earth satellite station must provide power density of -70 db (W/m 2 ) for satellite in GEO orbit. Receiving end of earth satellite station must be able to use the power density of -140 db (W/m 2 ) created by the satellite. There are limits on radiation from earth satellite stations which are given in table. Off-boresight angle Maximum EIRP (dbw/40 khz) 2.5 < θ < logθ 7 < θ < < θ < logθ 48 < θ <

19 Quality parameters G/T S (figure of merit) Quality parameter of a receiving station Ratio of antenna gain and equivalent temperature noise of system (db/k) 11 m dish earth satellite station has G/T equal to 32 db/k Satellite station has G/T from -20 db/k up to +3 db/k 18

20 Antennas Parabolic antennas have high gain. HRT has satellite antennas with diameter of 7 m for TV program (shown on Figure). De-icing De-hydrating 19

21 Antennas De-icing Ice on antenna is a main reason for a weak signal during winter. It is therefore necessary to heat the antennas. Antenna is heated with heaters from the rear side. Temperature sensors determine when the heating is needed and then electric current stars to flow through heaters. 20

22 Antennas De-hydrating Waveguides must be de-hydrated in order to prevent moisture and thus degradation of the signal quality. Waveguide should contain dry air. The water inside waveguide can exists in three aggregate states: steam, liquid and ice. Figure shows pressure vs temperature for three. Increase of frequency leads to smaller waveguide cross-section. 21

23 Antennas De-hydrating The air inside the waveguide must be dry. Up to 10 m of length, closed system can be used. (waveguide is closed in factory under pressured in order to prevent entry of moisture). For longer waveguides, closed system with moisture indicator is used. System is occasionally purified with dry nitrogen. 22

24 Antennas De-hydrating Waveguide dimensions (intersection and length) will determine the dry nitrogen bottle size which should be placed in vicinity. Several commercial automatic or semiautomatic de-hydrators (with alarm) can be purchased. 23

25 Antennas Parabolic antenna geometry 24

26 Antennas Antenna gain G = 2 4π D πd = 2 η π η λ 2 λ effective area with ohmic losses 2 D antenna diameter (m) λ - wavelength (m) η - efficiency (usually 0.7) 25

27 Antennas Example - gain G π = η D λ 2 f (GHz) λ (m) D (m) G (db)

28 Antennas Temperature antenna noise - T a Temperature antenna noise depends on the direction of antenna. Path through the atmosphere should be as short as possible it depends on the elevation angle. The lowest usable elevation angle is 5. Table shows how elevation angle influences temperature antenna noise. f (GHz) Elevation angle ( ) T a (K)

29 Antennas Temperature antenna noise - T a Antenna is placed on Earth and is facing towards cold sky 22.2 GHz water vapour resonance 60 GHz - oxygen resonance 28

30 Antennas Main lobe width (50 % of power 3 db) D antenna diameter (m) λ - wavelength (m) Θ = λ D λ D ( rad) = 57.3 ( ) 29

31 Receiver Signal power at receiver λ Pr = Pt Gt Gr 4πd P t transmitter power G t transmitter antenna gain G r receiver antenna gain λ wavelength d distance from transmitter to receiver 2 30

32 Receiver Signal to noise ratio S/N S [ db] = 10log( S [ W] [ W] ) / N N Smallest difference in power between the wanted received signal and noise (thermal, industrial, etc...) S/N should be >0. Higher transmission rate requires higher value of S/N. 31

33 Receiver Channel or thermal noise PN = k T B k Boltzmann constant 1.38*10-23 J/K T Temperature in K B Frequency bandwidth in Hz Frequency bandwidth depends on the receiver filter. Present in all communication systems. 32

34 Receiver Receiver noise factor F = ( S / N ) in ( S / N ) out Receiver introduces its own noise into the system Less than 1 db for low noise receivers (such as LNB converter) Couple db for most receivers Receiver threshold noise Sum of channel (thermal) noise and receiver noise factor 33

35 Receiver Receiver sensitivity P = S / N P r min + N + F Minimal signal level at the input to receiver, necessary to achieve required signal to noise ratio for successful demodulation. 34

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