THE MACROBUS SYSTEM OF GUADALAJARA: AN EVOLVED CONCEPT IN BRT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR MEDIUM CAPACITY CORRIDORS

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1 THE MACROBUS SYSTEM OF GUADALAJARA: AN EVOLVED CONCEPT IN BRT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR MEDIUM CAPACITY CORRIDORS Dario Hidalgo, PhD EMBARQ, The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport Yorgos Voukas, German Freiberg, Amilcar Lopez, Saul Alveano Center for Sustainable Transport, Mexico NACTO BRT Workshop #1 New York City April 6-7, 2010

2 Sustainable Urban Transport Pedestrian and Bicycles Public Transportation Transit Oriented Development Disincentives to Car Use

3 What is a Bus Rapid Transit system? Is a flexible, rubber-tired form of rapid transit that combines stations, vehicles, services, running ways and ITS elements into an integrated system with strong identity TCRP Report 90 Bus Rapid Transit Volume 2: Implementation Guidelines 2003 It is a high quality public transport system, oriented to the user that offers fast, comfortable and low cost urban mobility BRT Planning Guide ITDP, 2007 Photo: Karl Fjelstrom - ITDP

4 BRT Key Components Centralized Control Distinctive Image Stations with Prepayment and Level Boarding Large Buses Multiple Wide Doors Segregated Median Busways

5 Component Running Ways Traffic Engineering Stations Vehicles Services ITS Longitudinal Segregation High End BRT Geometric Adjustments Left and Right Turn Controls Traffic Signal Priorities for Buses Modern Traffic Signal Technology Enclosed Facilities Level Boarding and Prepayment Passing Lanes (when required) Multiple doors Easy Boarding/Alighting Low Emissions Mixed services (local, accelerated, express; short loops) Design according to the service needs Automatic Vehicle Location/Centralized Control Traffic Signal Priority Electronic Fare Collection/Fare Integration

6 Component Quality of Service Travel Time Reliability Comfort Cost Externalities High User Acceptance Easily Accessible Low waiting time High commercial speed High End BRT Low variability (intervals, speeds) Low breakdowns, incidents Accepatable Occupancy Levels (buses, platforms) Good user information Seamless integration with other transport modes Perception of safety and security Relative low capital and operational costs High capital and operational productivity Low level of accidents (fatalities, injuries) Low emissions Congestion relief (attraction of motor vehicle users) Increased land values

7 About 68 systems in developed and developing countries 11 USA-Canada 15 Latin America 20 Europe 2 Africa 16 Asia 4 Australia-New Zealand

8 Curitiba, RIT, 72 km median busways 1.2 million pax/day Initial Corridor 1974

9 Quito, Metrobús-Q, 37 Km median busways, 440,000 pax/day Initial corridor in 1995

10 Bogotá, TransMilenio, 84 Km median busways, 1,6 million pax/day Initial Corridor 2000

11 Bogotá TransMilenio Eje Ambiental Avenida Jiménez Photo ITDP

12 Expressway Lanes TransMilenio, Bogota

13 Sao Paulo, 104 Km median busways + preferential buslanes, 5,761,000 pax/day Initial busways 1980, Reconstructed in 2003

14 León de Guanajuato, México, Optibús, 25 Km median busways (60% segregated) Initial corridor 2003

15 México City, Metrobús, 30 Km median busways, 450,000 pax/day Initial Corridor 2005

16 Pereira, Colombia, Megabús, 27 Km Busways, 155,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2006

17 Pereira, Colombia Photos courtesy of Megabus, Pereira, Colombia

18 Guayaquil, Ecuador, Metrovía, 16 Km Busways, 96,000 pax/day Initial Corridor 2006 Photos by D. Hidalgo

19 Santiago, Chile, 19 Km busways + 63 Km of road improvements, Integrated Network for 5 Million Trips/day Initial Operation in 2007

20 Guatemala City, February 2007 Photo: Sapfan (Jan Pesula)

21 Photo: Metrocali Cali, Colombia 27 Km busways 130,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2009

22 Green Line Curitiba 18 Km busway 2010 Photos: Prefeitura de Curitiba, Parana

23 Bucaramanga, Colombia 8.4 Km busways 14 Km prority buslanes Started Operation in Dec com_content&view=article&id=39

24 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México Area: - City 151 km2 (58 square miles) - Metro 2,734 km2 (1056 square miles) Population (2008) - City 1,579,174 - Density 10,458/km2 (27,227/square mile) - Metro 4,300,000 - Metro Density 1,572/km2 (4,071/square mile)

25 Macrobús, Guadalajara, México

26 16 Km, 27 Stations, 41 Articulated Buses Feeder Buses

27 Macrobús, Guadalajara, México Initial Operation: March 10, 2009 Total Ridership: Peak Load: Commercial Speed: Operational Productivity: Capital Productivity: Infrastructure Investment: Equipment Investment: User Fare: 127,000 passengers/day 5,000 passengers/hour/direction 20.8 km/hour (12.2 mph) 10 passengers/bus-km (5.9 boardings/bus-mile) 3,100 passengers/bus/day USD 46.2 million USD 2.9 million/km (USD 1.7 million/mile) ~USD 15 million USD 0.9 million/km (USD 0.5 million/mile) USD 0.38/trip ( feeder LRT)

28 Macrobús, Guadalajara, México Good integration with Light Rail and feeder services Wide stations with adequate space for internal circulation and sliding doors Passing lanes in every station Good pavements and protection devices for the bus lanes; Buses with advanced emission control (Euro IV) and use of ultra low sulfur Diesel Wide zebra crossings at signalized intersections Good static information, including maps, signs, and instructions consistent with the overall system image Smaller occupancy standards than similar systems in Latin America Flexible payment system: coins + smartcard

29 Macrobus, Guadalajara, Mexico

30 Component Running Ways Traffic Engineering Stations Vehicles Services ITS Longitudinal Segregation High End BRT Geometric Adjustments Left and Right Turn Controls Traffic Signal Priorities for Buses Modern Traffic Signal Technology Enclosed Facilities Level Boarding and Prepayment Passing Lanes (when required) Multiple doors Easy Boarding/Alighting Low Emissions Mixed services (local, accelerated, express; short loops) Design according to the service needs Automatic Vehicle Location/Centralized Control Traffic Signal Priority Electronic Fare Collection/Fare Integration

31 Component Advances Elements to Improve Running Ways Traffic Engineering Stations Vehicles Services ITS Strong longitudinal segregation Median Busways Good pavement structure Left turning movements eliminated Adequate Changes in Roadway Geometry Wide enclosed facilities Level Boarding and Prepayment Passing lanes for express routes Articulated vehicles (18 m), with Euro IV ULSD Easy Boarding/Alighting Combination of local and express services Integrated feeder services CCTV, Centralizad Dispatch Geometry in selected points (narrow returns) Quality of the reflective material Signs to channel left detours Complete pedestrian crossing in far side of stations Complete traffic signals Complete interior signage Open far side doors and pedestrian crossings (expected) Improve internal ventilation Adjust service plan to demand Introduce dual services (feeder + trunk, to reduce transfers) Central control and dispatch Variable message signs

32 Component Advances Elements to Improve Running Ways Traffic Engineering Stations Vehicles Services ITS Strong longitudinal segregation Median Busways Good pavement structure Left turning movements eliminated Adequate Changes in Roadway Geometry Wide enclosed facilities Level Boarding and Prepayment Passing lanes for express routes Articulated vehicles (18 m), with Euro IV ULSD Easy Boarding/Alighting Combination of local and express services Feeder services CCTV, Centralized Dispatch Geometry in selected points (narrow returns) Quality of the reflective material Signs to channel left detours Bus priority systems Improve internal signage Improve internal ventilation (AC?) Secure hangers Introduce dual services (feeder + trunk, to reduce transfers) Automatic Vehicle Location Variable message signs

33

34 Component Quality of Service Travel Time Reliability Comfort Cost Externalities High User Acceptance Easily Accessible Low waiting time High commercial speed High End BRT Low variability (intervals, speeds) Low breakdowns, incidents Acceptable Occupancy Levels (buses, platforms) Good user information Seamless integration with other transport modes Perception of safety and security Relative low capital and operational costs High capital and operational productivity Low level of accidents (fatalities, injuries) Low emissions Congestion relief (attraction of motor vehicle users) Increased land values

35 Component Advances Elements to Improve User Acceptance High users approval (90%) and rate (7.8 out of 10) Monitor user perception through periodic surveys Enhance user education, especially on the use of card vending/recharging machines Travel Time Good accessibility through atgrade pedestrian crossings at signalized intersections Acceptable frequency: 5 minute intervals High Commercial speed: 20.8 km/hour Complete the implementation of traffic signals for pedestrians Further increase the commercial speed for buses through improved driver s training Reliability Regular dispatch at terminal points using radio controlled operations Complete the implementation of automatic vehicle location (GPS) for the bus fleet

36 Component Advances Elements to Improve User Acceptance High users approval (90%) and rate (7.8 out of 10) Enhance user education Travel Time Good accessibility through atgrade pedestrian crossings at signalized intersections Acceptable frequency: 5 minute intervals High Commercial speed: 20.8 km/hour Further increase the commercial speed for buses through bus priority at intersections Reliability Regular dispatch at terminal points using radio controlled operations Complete the implementation of automatic vehicle location Monitor and manage reliability

37

38 Component Advances Elements to Improve Comfort Cost Bus stations provide very good protection - wide, tall and well ventilated Bus occupancy, especially in non peak hours is low Very good and comprehensive maps, signs Good connectivity with other modes Low capital investment cost (USD 3.8 million /km) Low operational costs (USD 1.9/ bus-km trunk services) Improve the ventilation inside the buses Activate variable message signs in stations to provide real time information on bus arrivals Introduce dual services Collect data on capital and operational productivity Externalities Expected reductions in emissions, accidents, urban development Monitor and report externalities (accidents, emissions, land use development)

39

40 Component Advances Elements to Improve Comfort Cost Bus stations provide very good protection - wide, tall and well ventilated Bus occupancy, especially in non peak hours is low Very good and comprehensive maps, signs Good connectivity with other modes Low capital investment cost (USD 3.8 million /km) Low operational costs (USD 1.9/ bus-km trunk services) Activate variable message signs in stations to provide real time information on bus arrivals Introduce dual services Collect data on capital and operational productivity Externalities Expected reductions in emissions, accidents, urban development Monitor and report externalities (accidents, emissions, land use development)

41 Key Questions About the System Was BRT the best technological option for transit improvement in the selected corridor? Was it appropriate to start operations without all the components in place? Are trunk-feeder operations better than an open system? How much is the reserved capacity?

42 Cost Benefit-Analysis 16 Km, 5K pax/hour/direction, 100K pax/day, Average Trip Distance 8 Km, Value of Time USD 0.7/hour Present Value 12% 20 Years (USD Million) ,000-1,200-1,400-1,600-1, Do Nothing Busway-28 Light Rail Metro BRT ,068-1,368-1,609 Time Savings Operational Cost Savings Other Benefits Costs Net Benefits

43 Incomplete implementation did not cause major disruptions of the service BRT operations improved transport conditions for most users, even with incomplete components at the beginning All the components were completed in the first fourth months Gradual implementation also allowed for focused attention on critical aspects Political interference was reduced (commissioning happened before the start of local elections campaigns)

44 Most convenient operational design Feeder- trunk (closed system) Very good control of the trunk section Enhanced speed, capacity and reliability, in the trunk section Reduced fleet and vehicle-km; reduced emissions and decreased system costs High proportion of the trips requiring at least one transfer. May result in user inconvenience and lack of system acceptance Open system Direct connections to the users without the need for transfers, Increased fleet, costs and emissions. Control in the trunk section is difficult and operations are slower and unreliable Dual Hybrid Operation Reduced transfers; higher user acceptace Good control in the trunk section Controlled costs (fleet, vehiclekm)

45 How much is the reserved capacity? Ca[Pax/hour] Nsp i 1 X i 3600[sec/hour] Tsb[sec/bus] (1 Dir ) To[sec/bus] i Cp[Pax/bus] Ca[pax/hour] Nsp Tsb[sec/bus] To [sec/bus] (1-Dir i ) Cp[pax/bus] X i Capacity in a given section, passengers per hour per direction Number of stoping bays Loading/undloading time. Interval between two succesive buses Percent of the buses that stop at the stoping bay Bus load Accepted saturation level

46

47 Bus Bay A B Tsb[sec/bus] To [sec/bus] (1-Dir i ) 50% 50% Cp[pax/bus] X i Ca[Pax/hora] 14,305 14,305 Bus Bay A B Tsb[sec/bus] To [sec/bus] (1-Dir i ) 50% 50% Cp[pax/bus] X i Ca[Pax/hora] 10,490 10,490 Total Practical Capacity [Pax/hora] 28,610 Total Practical Capacity [Pax/hora] 20, times 4.2 times

48

49 Lessons from Guadalajara The BRTS has been a successful project: rapid implementation, relative low cost, high quality, good performance and high user acceptance The BRT improved the current practices in Latin America: median busways with good pavements, strong segregation, wide/well ventilated stations, passing lanes, good operational planning System has extraordinary reserved capacity The system still requires some improvements, especially the implementation of a performance monitoring system to enhance reliability and comfort

50 Guadalajara BRTS: important reference for transit professionals considering low cost, rapid implementation, high impact transit alternatives

51 Gracias! Diego Monraz, SITEUR Sebastian Nieto, MACROBUS Enrique Hernandez (SDG), Aleida Martinez (SI99), Claudio Varano (Consultants) Universidad de Guadalajara D.K. Radio EMBARQ Global Strategic Partners CATERPILLAR FOUNDATION CTS Mexico Guadalajara Project Partners Hewlett Foundation Andean Development Corporation CAF

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