GeorgeAlmeida.com. Learn IP Subnetting in 15 minutes

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1 GeorgeAlmeida.com Learn IP Subnetting in 15 minutes George Almeida

2 Contents Preface... 2 Terms and Definitions... 3 Introduction... 3 Obtaining an IP Address for the Internet... 4 Verifying TCP/IP with IPCONFIG and PING... 4 Microsoft TCP/IP Protocol Suite... 4 IP Addressing... 5 Address Classes... 5 Addressing Guidelines... 6 Private 10 Network... 6 Converting IP addresses from Binary to Decimal... 7 Subnetting... 7 What is a segment?... 8 Subnet Masks... 8 Default Subnet Masks... 9 Implementing Subnetting... 9 Defining a Subnet Mask(one Octet) Example - Subnetting one Octet: Subnetting More than One Octet Example - Subnetting more than one Octet: Finding a Network ID given the IP address of a host and the subnet og 1

3 Preface I wrote this tutorial as part of a training session I conducted for co-workers back in Back then, TCP/IP was relatively new to many in the IT field, especially those of us who were just started to migrate to an Ethernet network. I knew that I needed to understand the basic concepts of TCP/IP if I was to progress in my career. Therefore I took some courses and read a lot of material between and put together this brief tutorial. I have distributed this book to several IT folks over the years. Many of them who were struggling to fully understand the concept of calculating the IP subnet for various scenarios. For example, would you like to know how to manually calculate the IP scheme for a company r example uses a private class A subnet and needs 1,000 networks with an average of 750 hosts per subnet. I know that today there are IP calculators that do all of this work for you so why should you have to read or even understand the concepts of IP concepts, specifically subnetting? I feel if you understand how IP works and how to calculate hosts and subnets manually, without a calculator, then it will help you get a better grasp of the topic. This is especially true for those who are studying to take certification exams which require mastering the understanding of calculating IP addressing without use of a calculator or other reference. If you want to fully grasp and understand the calculations behind figuring out IP subnet configurations in real world environments then please continue reading. After reading the next 14 pages, I am confident that you will be more confident in your understanding of TCP/IP protocol specifically from a subnetting perspective. og 2

4 Terms and Definitions Here are some terms that will be used through out the documentation: packet is a unit of information transmitted as a whole from one device to another on a network. Each packet contains a set amount of data along with a header, containing information about the type of packet and the network address to which it is being sent. routable - TCP/IP packets can be routed on the Internet or on a company Intranet. Routing is the process of choosing a path over which to send packets. Routing occurs at a TCP/IP host when it sends IP packets and routing also occurs at an IP router. router - a router is a device that forwards the packets from one physical network to another. Routers are commonly referred to as gateways. In both cases a decision has to be made as to where the packet is to be forwarded. To make these decisions, the IP layer consults a routing table that is stored in memory on a router and chooses the best possible path to send the packets. host - an IP host can is any device with a valid IP address on a network. It can be an Ethernet adapter, router, and a physical port on a router, a jet direct card connected to a printer. segment - when we refer to a segment or a physical segment in these notes, we are referring to a physical portion, or section of a network. Our network at XCompany is segmented. We have a segment in Branch Office 1 and a segment in branch office 2. You will see examples later. subnetting - a subnet is NOT the same as a segment. Subnetting is used to minimize network traffic and as a way of organizing IP addresses. It's a way to apply one network across multiple physical segments. subnet mask - A subnet mask is a 32-bit address used to: Block out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the network ID from the host ID. Specify whether the destination host's IP address is located on a local network or a remote network. Introduction What is TCP/IP? Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is an industrystandard suite of communication protocols designed for wide area networks. Some of the advantages of TCP/IP include: A standard routable enterprise networking protocol. All modern operating systems offer TCP/IP support. og 3

5 A technology for connecting dissimilar systems. Many standard connectivity utilities are available to access and transfer data between dissimilar systems, including FTP and Telnet. Offers a method of gaining access to the Internet. The Internet made TCP/IP popular. Obtaining an IP Address for the Internet When you plan to connect your network to the worldwide Internet, you must obtain the network ID portion of the IP address to guarantee IP network ID uniqueness. The network ID and host id are covered in more detail in the IP Addressing section. For domain name registration and IP network number assignment, you must contact InterNIC and register. As of this writing, the only IP addresses being assigned are Class C addresses. As more and more people register domain names, IP addresses are now becoming scarce under the current release of IP version 4. The initial design did not anticipate the growth of the Internet and the eventual exhaustion of the IP Version 4 address space. Therefore a new version of IP is needed. This new version (version 6) is an entirely new packet structure, which currently is incompatible with IPv4 systems. IPv6 has 129-bit source and destination IP addresses (4 times larger than IPv4). Verifying TCP/IP with IPCONFIG and PING ipconfig - does the same thing as winipcfg but is used for Windows NT. ping - after the connection is verified with the winipcfg or ipconfig utility, you can use the PING utility to test connectivity. The PING utility is a diagnostic tool that tests TCP/IP configurations and diagnoses connection problems. The command syntax is: ping IP_address Microsoft TCP/IP Protocol Suite Other topics of interest concerning the architecture of TCP/IP for Microsoft are: The Microsoft TCP/IP Protocol Suite - a four-layer model Transport Layer - TCP versus UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP does not guarantee that packets will be delivered. Application Layer - Windows Sockets and NetBIOS. Windows Sockets service provides a standard application programming interface (API) to many transport protocols such as TCP/IP and IPX. NetBIOS provides a standard og 4

6 interface to protocols that support the NetBIOS naming and messaging services, such as TCP/IP and NetBEUI. Internet Layer - ICMP and IGMP management protocols. ARP (address resolution protocol) converts IP addresses to mac addresses. Network Layer - LAN technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI. WAN technologies such as Serial Lines, Frame Relay, T1 and others. IP Addressing What is an IP address? Each TCP/IP address is identified by a logical IP address. A unique IP address is required for each host and network component that communicates using TCP/IP. Each IP address consists of the network ID and host ID. The network ID identifies the systems that are located on the same physical segment. All systems on the same physical segment must have the same network ID. The network ID must be unique to the internetwork. The host ID identifies a workstation, server, router or other TCP/IP host within a segment. The address for each host must be unique to the network ID. < Bits > Network ID Host ID Example: Each IP address is 32 bits long and is composed of four 8-bit fields, called octets. Octets are separated by periods. The octet represents a decimal number in the range of This format is called dotted decimal notation. If not for this format, you would have remember the binary equivalent of : I'm not sure about you, but I feel it's much easier to remember Address Classes The Internet has defined five IP address classes to accommodate networks of varying sizes. We will learn about the three most widely used classes, A, B and C. The class of each address defines three things: 1. which bits are used for the network ID 2. which bits are used for the host ID 3. the possible number of networks and the number of hosts per network. The following chart shows the three different classes and the information regarding the number of networks and hosts allowed for each class: og 5

7 Number of Networks Number of Hosts per Network Range of Network IDs (1 st Octet) Class A ,777, Class B 16,384 65, Class C 2,097, Addressing Guidelines The following guidelines must be followed when assigning network Ids and host Ids: The network ID cannot be 127. This ID is reserved for loopback functions. The network ID and host ID bits cannot all be 1's. If all bits are set to 1, the address is interpreted as a broadcast rather than a host ID. The network ID and host ID bits cannot be all 0's. If all bits are set to 0, the address is interpreted to mean, "This network only." The host ID must be unique to the local network ID. Figure 1 In the example above, there are 3 subnets numbered 1, 2 and 3. The host on subnet 1 with an IP address of would need to have a default gateway of , in order to communicate with any of the hosts on subnet 3. Notice, each port on the routers have an IP address and so do the communication link ports into those routers. Private 10 Network Because of the limited number of IP addresses in the world, many corporations, including XCompany, have adopted the IP addressing scheme for its Intranet. These IP addresses are NOT valid IP addresses in the Internet. There are used only as part of the XCompany Intranet. Because this addressing og 6

8 scheme is not valid on the Internet, each time a PC on the XCompany network accesses the Internet, there is some address translation happening (I believe on the proxy server) which translates our 10.x.x.x address to something in the within the range. Converting IP addresses from Binary to Decimal 8 Bits Decimal Value Each bit position in an octet has an assigned decimal value. A bit that is set to 0 always has a zero value. A bit that is set to 1 can be converted to a decimal value. The low-order bit represents a decimal value of one. The high-order bit represents a decimal value of 128. The highest decimal value of an octet is that is, when all bits are set to 1. The following table shows how the bits in one octet are converted from binary code to a decimal value. Binary code Bit values Decimal value Subnetting One of the main reasons for subnetting is to minimize network traffic. What do we mean by this? Without getting too technical, XCompany uses 100 megabit Fast Ethernet as their network backbone. Ethernet works by "broadcasting" requests to every host in the local network. TCP/IP sends the packet from the source to every host on the local network. The destination hosts will either accept or reject the request. If you have a network of 400, 800, 1000 or more hosts, you can imagine the amount of network traffic created each time one workstation makes a request (for example, sending someone on the network). The request will be "broadcast" out to all 1000 or more hosts (hosts can mean other workstations, og 7

9 servers, routers, etc.). In most cases you will have many users making many requests all day long. Hence the reason to subnet your network. Organizations use subnetting to apply one network across multiple physical segments. See Figure 2. What is a segment? XCompany has a segmented network as do most medium to large companies. If you segment your network, you would need to install routers or bridges at specified zones. Then you could break up your network into subnets using subnet masks. This way, two workstations communicating together on the same physical segment, would not broadcast their request out to the other segments, thereby reducing network traffic. See the following diagram: Figure 2 Any host on Subnet 1 (Branch Office 1), can communicate with all other hosts on the subnet without broadcasting to the main network ( ) or to the remote network (Branch Office 2). The request only gets broadcast to the remote networks when it is determined that the destination host is not local to the network. Subnet Masks What is a subnet mask? A subnet mask is a 32-bit address used to: Block out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the network ID from the host ID. og 8

10 Specify whether the destination host's IP address is located on a local network or a remote network. Some subnetting benefits are: Allows you to mix different technologies, such as Ethernet and token ring. Overcome limitations of current technologies, such as exceeding the maximum number of hosts per segment. Reduce network congestion by redirecting traffic and reducing broadcasts. Default Subnet Masks A default subnet mask is used on TCP/IP networks that are not divided into subnets. All TCP/IP hosts require a subnet mask, even on a single-segment network. The default subnet mask you will use depends on the address class. All bits that correspond to the network ID are set to 1. The decimal value in each octet is 255. All bits that correspond to the host ID are set to 0. Class B Example: IP Address Subnet Mask Network ID 10.1.y.z Host ID w.x Implementing Subnetting Before we continue with the implementation of subnetting, it's important to understand how XCompany has chosen to implement subnetting. There is basically two ways to implement subnetting. First, you can choose to subnet entire octets (use all 8 bits), therefore your subnet mask will always be , or , or , depending on the IP class being used. XCompany has chosen to subnet the network segment in Highland Heights to a class B scheme using as the subnet mask. However, XCompany remote locations, which include Agents, RDC and Plants are being subnetted to a class C scheme using as the subnet mask. If IP addresses are limited, then you may want to choose NOT to use all 8 bits in an octet. Instead, you may choose to use only the bits needed, therefore your subnet mask may be something like We will be explaining this in more detail in the following sections. Before you implement subnetting, you need to determine your current requirements and plan for future requirements. Follow these guidelines: og 9

11 1. Determine the number of physical segments on your network. 2. Determine the number of required host addresses for each physical segment. Each TCP/IP host requires at least one IP address. 3. Based on your requirements, define: a) One subnet mask for your entire network. b) A unique subnet ID for each physical segment. c) A range of host Ids for each subnet. Defining subnet masks can be very confusing, especially if you are not using the default subnet of 255. I feel the best way to explain subnetting is to use examples. The following examples will hopefully clarify how and why you would want to use subnetting. Before we begin, there are two very important formulas to know: 1. Calculating the number of subnets needed: 2 ^ (# of bits used) ^ 8-2 = 254 subnets 2. Calculating the number of hosts per subnet: 2 ^ (# of bits left) - 2 These formulas will hopefully make sense later. Defining a Subnet Mask(one Octet) Before you define a subnet mask, you should determine the number of subnets and hosts per subnet you will require in the future. Example - Subnetting one Octet: Assume we have a private network - Class B network Requirement: We need 6 subnets. Steps to Defining a Subnet Mask 1. Once you have determined the number of subnets in your network environment, convert this number to binary. Convert decimal number 6 to binary: (4 + 2 = 6) 8 Bits Decimal Value og 10

12 2. Count the number of bits required to represent the number of subnets in binary. For example, if you need 6 subnets, the binary value is 110. Representing 6 in binary requires 3 bits. 3. Convert the required number of bits to decimal format in high order (from left to right). For example, if 3 bits are required, configure the first 3 bits of the host ID as the subnet ID. Remember, we have a Class B network and start off using the default subnet mask of The first two octets (or the first 16 bits) are already set to 255 each (all bits are set to 1's). < st Octet > < nd Octet > Value = 255 Value = 255 < rd Octet > < th Octet > Value = 224 Value = 0 The decimal value for is 224. The subnet mask is (for a class B address) 4. Calculate the number of hosts per subnet by using the following formula: 2 ^ (# of bits left) - 2 If we are a Class B, we have 16 bits total to use. We are using only 3. This leaves 13 bits unused 2^13-2 = 8190 hosts per subnet. Calculate valid Network ID ranges 1. Take lower value for subnet 224 ( ). The lowest value is 32. See below: 8 Bits Decimal Value The subnet mask for the network ID will increment by In this example, the valid network ranges will be: 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224 ** Note - value 0 (all 0's) is not valid, neither would be 224 (all 1's). 3. So if our Class B address is , our ranges would be: og 11

13 Bit Values Decimal Value Beginning Range Value Ending Range Value Invalid Invalid Invalid Invalid Subnetting More than One Octet Before you define a subnet mask, you should determine the number of subnets and hosts per subnet you will require in the future. Example - Subnetting more than one Octet: Assume we have a private network - Class A Requirement: We need almost 1,000 subnets and with an avg. of 750 hosts per subnet. What do we already know? We know the following information assuming each class is assigned their default subnet: The default subnet will only give us a total of 1 network. You need to begin subnettting the 2 nd octet. If we subnet the entire 2 nd octet, can have up to 254 subnets with 65,534 hosts per subnet. Remember the following formulas: 1. Calculating the number of subnets needed: 2 ^ (# of bits used) ^ 8-2 = 254 subnets 2. Calculating the number of hosts per subnet: 2 ^ (# of bits left) ^ 16-2 = 65,534 The first octet is already used by default because the default subnet mask for a class A network is So we begin by subnetting the entire 2 nd subnet. If we use the formula to calculate the number of subnets 2 ^ (# of bits used). As stated, we are using all 8 bits of the 2 nd octet so the calculation is 2 ^ 8-2 = 254 subnets. We need 1,000 subnets. We not even close to that. og 12

14 < st Octet > < nd Octet > Value = 255 Value = 255 < rd Octet > < th Octet > Value = 248 Value = 0 We will have to subnet more than one Octet, but we do not need ALL 8 bits in the 3rd Octet. If we took all 8 bits, we could have up to 65,534 subnets and only 254 hosts. This doesn't cut it also. So we need something in the middle, we need to subnet to the bit level. Steps to Defining more than one Octet 1. The default subnet mask for a Class A network is We know from the diagram above that if we use all 8 bits of the second Octet, ( ) we will it still not have enough subnets. Why? Let do the calculation again: Calculating Number of Subnets Convert the 255 to binary, it is equal to We are using ALL 8 bits for the number 255. Use the following formula: 2 ^ (# of bits used) ^ 8-2 = 254 subnets If we subnet both the 2 nd Octet and a portion of the 3 rd Octet, we can meet the requirements with some growth, all with one network id. See below: Network ID Subnet mask Subnet mask (binary) The 1 st Octet represents the default subnet = 1 subnets. We're using 8 bits ( ) in the 2 nd Octet = 254 subnets. We decide to use an additional 5 bits of the 3 rd Octet = 8,190 subnets. Calculated using formula 2^(# of bits used) - 2: 2^13-2 = 8,190 subnets Calculating Number of Hosts Use the following formula: 2^(# of bits left) - 2. The (# of bits left are the last 11 bits NOT USED for subnetting. 2^11-2 = 2046 hosts per subnet og 13

15 Finding a Network ID given the IP address of a host and the subnet Information given: IP address x Subnet Steps to finding the Network ID ranges 1. Convert subnet 192 to binary: 3 rd Octect 8 Bits Decimal Value 2. Take the lower value bit, in this case, 64. The network id will increment by Now we list out all our possible combinations as far as network ID ranges: Remember that we are using the 1 st 2 bits in the 3 rd Octet, and we have to increment by 64. Therefore, our ranges are: 3 rd Octet Convert to decimal = 00 - Invalid, can't use (all 0's) = 64 - Network ID = = Network ID = = Invalid, can't use (all 1's) 4. The valid host IP address ranges are: Network ID Valid Host IP addresses og 14

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