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1 Lab 3-1 assignment check list **Please post your answers on the bulletin board. ** Lab 3.1 o Questions Lab 3.2 o Questions Lab 3.3 o Questions o Questions o Questions 3.3.3

2 Lab 3.1 Decimal to Binary Conversion Objective Learn to convert decimal values to binary values. Practice converting decimal values to binary values. Background Knowing how to convert decimal values to binary values is valuable when converting human readable IP addresses in dotted decimal format to machine-readable binary format. This is normally done for calculation of subnet masks and other tasks. The following is an example of an IP address in 32-bit binary form and dotted decimal form. Binary IP Address: Decimal IP Address: A tool that makes the conversion of decimal values to binary values simple is the following table. The first row is created by counting right to left from one to eight, for the basic eight bit positions. The table will work for any size binary value. The value row starts with one and doubles, Base 2, for each position to the left. Position Value The same conversion table and simple division can be used to convert binary values to decimal values Steps To convert 207 to binary: 1. Start with the digit farthest to the left. Determine if the decimal value can be divided by it. Since it will go one time, put a 1 in row three of the conversion table under the 128 value and calculate the remainder, Since the remainder can be divided by the next value, 64, put a 1 in row three under the 64 value of the table. 3. Since the remainder cannot be divided by either 32 or 16, put 0s in row three of our table under the 32 and 16 values.

3 4. Continue until there is no remainder. 5. If necessary, use row four to check the work. Position Value = 207 Question Convert the following decimal values to binary values: a b c d e f g h i j

4 Lab 3.2 Binary to Decimal Conversion Objective Learn the process of converting binary values to decimal values. Practice converting binary values to decimal values. Background The following is an example of an IP address in 32-bit binary form and dotted decimal form. Binary IP Address: Decimal IP Address: Binary data is made up of ones and zeros. Ones represent on and zeros represent off. Binary data can be grouped in varying increments, 110 or In TCP/IP binary data is usually grouped in eight digit groups called a Byte. A Byte, 8 bits, can range from to creating 256 combinations with decimal values ranging from 0 to 255. IP addressing uses 4 bytes, or 32 bits, to identify both the network and specific device. The specific device can be a node or host. The example at the beginning of this lab is an example of an IP address in both binary decimal formats. A tool that makes the conversion of binary to decimal values simple is the following table. The first row is created by counting right to left from one to eight for the basic eight bit positions. The tale will work for any size binary value. The value row starts with one and doubles, base 2, for each position to the left. Position Value Steps 1. Enter the binary bits in row three. For example Put the decimal values in row four only for the third row 1s. Technically the row two values are being multiplied by row three. 3. Now just add row four across.

5 Position Value = 185 Question Convert the following binary values to decimals: a b c d e f g h i j

9 Step 4 Determine which IP host addresses are valid for commercial networks For the following IP host addresses, determine which are valid for commercial networks and indicate why or why not. Valid means it could be assigned to any of the following: Question Workstation Server Printer Router interface Any other compatible device Fill in the following table: IP Host Address No Valid Address? (Yes/No) Why or Why Not This is a broadcasting address for a Class B network address Yes This is a valid Class B address No This is a network address for a Class C network Yes This is a valid Class A address No 2 nd octet (nor any other) cannot be higher the No No Class A Network 127 is reserved for loopback and diagnostic functions. This is a class D network that would be reserved for multicasting.

16

18 Lab 3.6 Subnetting a Class B Network Objective The objective of this lab is to provide a subnetting scheme using a Class B network Background / Preparation This is a written lab and is to be performed without the aid of an electronic calculator. ABC Manufacturing has acquired a Class B address, The company needs to create a subnetting scheme to provide the following: 36 subnets with at least 100 hosts 24 subnets with at least 255 hosts 10 subnets with at least 50 hosts It is not necessary to supply an address for the WAN connection since it is supplied by the Internet service provider. Question 3.6.1: Given this Class B network address and these requirements answer the following questions 1. How many subnets are needed for this network? There are 70 subnetworks that are needed. 2. What is the minimum number of bits that can be borrowed? 7 bits must be borrowed. 3. What is the subnet mask for this network? Dotted decimal? Binary? Slash format /23 5. How many usable subnetworks are there? There are which equals 126 usable subnetworks. 6. How many usable hosts are there per subnet? There are which equals 510 hosts per subnet.

19 Question 3.6.2: Complete the following chart listing the first three subnets and the last 4 subnets Subnetwork # Subnetwork ID Host Range Broadcast ID 1 st Subnet nd Subnet rd Subnet th Subnet th Subnet th Subnet th Subnet What is the host range for subnet two? The host range would be What is the broadcast address for the 126th subnet? The broadcast address for the 126 th subnet would be What is the broadcast address for the major network? The broadcast address for the major network is

20 Lab 3.7 Subnetting a Class C Network Objective The objective of this lab is to provide a subnetting scheme using a Class C network. Background / Preparation This is a written exercise and is to be performed without the aid of an electronic calculator. The Classical Academy has acquired a Class C address, The academy needs to create subnets to provide low level security and broadcast control on the LAN. It is not necessary to supply an address for the WAN connection. It is supplied by the Internet service provider. The LAN consists of the following, each of which will require its own subnet: Classroom #1 28 nodes Classroom #2 22 nodes Computer lab 30 nodes Instructors 12 nodes Administration 8 nodes Question 3.7.1: Given this Class C network address and these requirements answer the following questions 1. How many subnets are needed for this network? Five usable subnets are needed for this network. 2. What is the subnet mask for this network? Dotted decimal? Binary? Slash format: /27 4. How many usable hosts are there per subnet? There are usable hosts per subnet which is 30.

21 Question 3.7.2: Complete the following chart Subnetwork # Subnetwork IP Host Range Broadcast ID 0 Subnet st Subnet nd Subnet rd Subnet th Subnet th Subnet th Subnet th Subnet What is the host range for subnet six? The range is What is the broadcast address for the 3rd subnet? The broadcast address for the 3 rd subnet would be What is the broadcast address for the major network? The broadcast address for the major network is

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