# Measuring National Output and National Income

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1 Measuring National Output and National Income 6 C H A P T E R O U T L I N E Gross Domestic Product Final Goods and Services Exclusion of Used Goods and Paper Transactions Exclusion of Output Produced Abroad by Domestically Owned Factors of Production Calculating GDP The Expenditure Approach The Income Approach Nominal versus Real GDP Calculating Real GDP Calculating the GDP Deflator The Problems of Fixed Weights Limitations of the GDP Concept GDP and Social Welfare The Informal Economy Gross National Income per Capita Looking Ahead 1 of 31

2 national income and product accounts Data collected and published by the government describing the various components of national income and output in the economy. While there are literally thousands of variables in the national income and product accounts, in this chapter we discuss only the most important. 2 of 31

3 Gross Domestic Product gross domestic product (GDP) The total market value of all final goods and services produced within a given period by factors of production located within a country. GDP is the total market value of a country s output. It is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a given period of time by factors of production located within a country. Final Goods and Services final goods and services Goods and services produced for final use. intermediate goods Goods that are produced by one firm for use in further processing by another firm. value added The difference between the value of goods as they leave a stage of production and the cost of the goods as they entered that stage. 3 of 31

4 In calculating GDP, we can sum up the value added at each stage of production or we can take the value of final sales. We do not use the value of total sales in an economy to measure how much output has been produced. TABLE 6.1 Value Added in the Production of a Gallon of Gasoline (Hypothetical Numbers) Stage of Production Value of Sales Value Added (1) Oil drilling \$3.00 \$3.00 (2) Refining (3) Shipping (4) Retail sale Total value added \$ of 31

5 Exclusion of Used Goods and Paper Transactions GDP is concerned only with new, or current, production. Old output is not counted in current GDP because it was already counted when it was produced. GDP does not count transactions in which money or goods changes hands but in which no new goods and services are produced. Exclusion of Output Produced Abroad by Domestically Owned Factors of Production GDP is the value of output produced by factors of production located within a country. gross national product (GNP) The total market value of all final goods and services produced within a given period by factors of production owned by a country s citizens, regardless of where the output is produced. 5 of 31

6 Calculating GDP expenditure approach A method of computing GDP that measures the total amount spent on all final goods and services during a given period. income approach A method of computing GDP that measures the income wages, rents, interest, and profits received by all factors of production in producing final goods and services. 6 of 31

7 The Expenditure Approach There are four main categories of expenditure:! Personal consumption expenditures (C): household spending on consumer goods! Gross private domestic investment (I): spending by firms and households on new capital, that is, plant, equipment, inventory, and new residential structures! Government consumption and gross investment (G)! Net exports (EX IM): net spending by the rest of the world, or exports (EX) minus imports (IM) GDP = C + I + G + (EX IM) 7 of 31

8 TABLE 6.2 Components of U.S. GDP, 2012: The Expenditure Approach Billions of Dollars Percentage of GDP Personal consumption expenditures (C) 11, Durable goods 1, Nondurable goods 2, Services 7, Gross private domestic investment (l) 2, Nonresidential 1, Residential Change in business inventories Government consumption and gross investment (G) 3, Federal 1, State and local 1, Net exports (EX IM) Exports (EX) 2, Imports (IM) 2, Gross domestic product 15, Note: Numbers may not add exactly because of rounding. 8 of 31

9 Personal Consumption Expenditures (C) personal consumption expenditures (C) Expenditures by consumers on goods and services. durable goods Goods that last a relatively long time, such as cars and household appliances. nondurable goods Goods that are used up fairly quickly, such as food and clothing. services The things we buy that do not involve the production of physical things, such as legal and medical services and education. 9 of 31

10 E C O N O M I C S I N P R A C T I C E Where Does ebay Get Counted? ebay s business is to provide a marketplace for exchange. In doing so, it uses labor and capital and creates value. In return for creating this value, ebay charges fees to the sellers that use its site. The value of these fees enter into GDP. Items that people sell on ebay do not contribute to current GDP. The cost of finding an interested buyer for those goods, however, does get counted. THINKING PRACTICALLY 1. John has a 2009 Honda Civic. In 2013, he sells it to Mary for \$10,000. Is that \$10,000 counted in the GDP for 2013? 2. If John is an automobile dealer, does that change your answer to Question 1 at all? 10 of 31

11 Gross Private Domestic Investment (I) gross private domestic investment (I) Total investment in capital that is, the purchase of new housing, plants, equipment, and inventory by the private (or nongovernment) sector. nonresidential investment Expenditures by firms for machines, tools, plants, and so on. residential investment Expenditures by households and firms on new houses and apartment buildings. change in business inventories The amount by which firms inventories change during a period. Inventories are the goods that firms produce now but intend to sell later. Change in Business Inventories GDP = Final sales + Change in business inventories 11 of 31

12 Gross Investment versus Net Investment depreciation The amount by which an asset s value falls in a given period. gross investment The total value of all newly produced capital goods (plant, equipment, housing, and inventory) produced in a given period. net investment Gross investment minus depreciation. capital end of period = capital beginning of period + net investment 12 of 31

13 Government Consumption and Gross Investment (G) government consumption and gross investment (G) Expenditures by federal, state, and local governments for final goods and services. Net Exports (EX IM) net exports (EX IM) The difference between exports (sales to foreigners of U.S.-produced goods and services) and imports (U.S. purchases of goods and services from abroad). The figure can be positive or negative. 13 of 31

14 The Income Approach national income The total income earned by the factors of production owned by a country s citizens. compensation of employees Includes wages, salaries, and various supplements employer contributions to social insurance and pension funds, for example paid to households by firms and by the government. proprietors income The income of unincorporated businesses. rental income The income received by property owners in the form of rent. corporate profits The income of corporations. net interest The interest paid by business. 14 of 31

15 indirect taxes minus subsidies Taxes such as sales taxes, customs duties, and license fees less subsidies that the government pays for which it receives no goods or services in return. net business transfer payments Net transfer payments by businesses to others. surplus of government enterprises Income of government enterprises. TABLE 6.3 National Income, 2012 Billions of Dollars Percentage of National Income National income 13, Compensation of employees 8, Proprietors income 1, Rental income Corporate profits 1, Net interest Indirect taxes minus subsidies Net business transfer payments Surplus of government enterprises of 31

16 net national product (NNP) Gross national product minus depreciation; a nation s total product minus what is required to maintain the value of its capital stock. statistical discrepancy Data measurement error. personal income The total income of households. TABLE 6.4 GDP, GNP, NNP, and National Income, 2012 Dollars (Billions) GDP 15,676.0 Plus: Receipts of factor income from the rest of the world Less: Payments of factor income to the rest of the world Equals: GNP 15,913.1 Less: Depreciation 2,011.4 Equals: Net national product (NNP) 13,901.7 Less: Statistical discrepancy 68.5 Equals: National income 13, of 31

17 disposable personal income or after-tax income Personal income minus personal income taxes. The amount that households have to spend or save. personal saving The amount of disposable income that is left after total personal spending in a given period. personal saving rate The percentage of disposable personal income that is saved. If the personal saving rate is low, households are spending a large amount relative to their incomes; if it is high, households are spending cautiously. 17 of 31

18 TABLE 6.5 National Income, Personal Income, Disposable Personal Income, and Personal Saving, 2012 Dollars (Billions) National income 13,833.2 Less: Amount of national income not going to households Equals: Personal income 13,402.4 Less: Personal income taxes 1,471.9 Equals: Disposable personal income 11,930.6 Less: Personal consumption expenditures 11,119.5 Personal interest payments Transfer payments made by households Equals: Personal saving Personal saving as a percentage of disposable personal income: 3.9% 18 of 31

19 Nominal versus Real GDP current dollars The current prices that we pay for goods and services. nominal GDP Gross domestic product measured in current dollars. weight The importance attached to an item within a group of items. 19 of 31

20 Calculating Real GDP TABLE 6.6 A Three-Good Economy (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) GDP in GDP in GDP in GDP in Year 1 in Year 2 in Year 1 in Year 2 in Production Price per Unit Year 1 Year 1 Year 2 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2 Prices Prices Prices Prices Q 1 Q 2 P 1 P 2 P 1 Q 1 P 1 Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 2 Q 2 Good A 6 11 \$0.50 \$0.40 \$3.00 \$5.50 \$2.40 \$4.40 Good B Good C Total \$12.10 \$15.10 \$18.40 \$19.20 Nominal GDP in year 1 Nominal GDP in year 2 base year The year chosen for the weights in a fixed-weight procedure. fixed-weight procedure A procedure that uses weights from a given base year. 20 of 31

21 Calculating the GDP Deflator Policy makers not only need good measures of how real output is changing but also good measures of how the overall price level is changing. The GDP deflator is one measure of the overall price level. The Problems of Fixed Weights Many structural changes took place in the U.S. economy between the 1950s and The use of fixed-price weights does not account for the responses in the economy to supply shifts. The fixed-weight procedure ignores the substitution away from goods whose prices are increasing and toward goods whose prices are decreasing or increasing less rapidly. 21 of 31

22 Limitations of the GDP Concept GDP and Social Welfare If crime levels went down, society would be better off, but a decrease in crime is not an increase in output and is not reflected in GDP. An increase in leisure is also an increase in social welfare, sometimes associated with a decrease in GDP. Most nonmarket and domestic activities, such as housework and child care, are not counted in GDP even though they amount to real production. GDP also has nothing to say about the distribution of output among individuals in a society. 22 of 31

23 The Informal Economy informal economy The part of the economy in which transactions take place and in which income is generated that is unreported and therefore not counted in GDP. Gross National Income per Capita gross national income (GNI) GNP converted into dollars using an average of currency exchange rates over several years adjusted for rates of inflation. 23 of 31

24 FIGURE 6.1 Per Capita Gross National Income for Selected Countries, of 31

25 R E V I E W T E R M S A N D C O N C E P T S base year change in business inventories compensation of employees corporate profits current dollars depreciation disposable personal income, or after-tax income durable goods expenditure approach final goods and services fixed-weight procedure government consumption and gross investment (G) gross domestic product (GDP) gross investment gross national income (GNI) gross national product (GNP) gross private domestic investment (I) income approach indirect taxes minus subsidies informal economy intermediate goods national income national income and product accounts net business transfer payments 25 of 31

26 R E V I E W T E R M S A N D C O N C E P T S net exports (EX IM) net interest net investment net national product (NNP) nominal GDP nondurable goods nonresidential investment personal consumption expenditures (C) personal income personal saving personal saving rate proprietors income rental income residential investment services statistical discrepancy surplus of government enterprises value added weight Expenditure approach to GDP: GDP = C + I + G + (EX IM) GDP = Final sales + Change in business inventories capital end of period = capital beginning of period + net investment 26 of 31

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