3. The diagram below illustrates a biochemical process that occurs in organisms.

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1 1. Base your answer to the following question on Which cellular organelle is represented by the diagram below? 3. The diagram below illustrates a biochemical process that occurs in organisms. A) cell wall B) molecules C) cell membrane D) protein 2. An antibiotic is effective in killing 95% of a population of bacteria that reproduce by the process shown below. Which statement best describes future generations of these bacteria? A) They will be produced by asexual reproduction and will be more resistant to the antibiotic. B) They will be produced by sexual reproduction and will be more resistant to the antibiotic. C) They will be produced by asexual reproduction and will be just as susceptible to the antibiotic. D) They will be produced by sexual reproduction and will be just as susceptible to the antibiotic. The substance labeled "catalyst" is also known as A) a hormone B) an enzyme C) an inorganic compound 4. The function of a specific enzyme is most directly influenced by its A) molecular size B) physical shape C) carrying capacity D) stored energy 5. Sheep were the first species of mammals to be cloned. Which statement about cloned sheep is correct? A) Different kinds of body cells in a cloned sheep contain different DNA. B) Cloned sheep cannot produce offspring if they are mated with noncloned sheep. C) Two sheep cloned from the same parent cannot mate and have offspring. D) Many cells in cloned sheep have two identical nuclei, instead of a single nucleus. 6. Compared to a normal body cell, a normal egg cell contains A) the same number of chromosomes B) half the number of chromosomes C) twice the number of chromosomes D) four times the number of chromosomes 7. The presence of lactic acid in the cells of an animal's muscle tissue is an indication that the A) animal is not adapted to the use of glucose B) number of mitochondria in the muscle cells has increased C) animal carries on a complex form of respiration during daylight hours D) muscle cells have been active during a period of oxygen deficiency

2 8. An organism that reproduces asexually will have offspring that have A) the same genetic information as both of its parents B) different genetic information from either of its parents C) the same genes as its parent D) different genes from its parent 9. The temporary storage of energy in ATP molecules is part of which process? A) cell division B) cellular respiration C) protein synthesis D) DNA replication 10. One difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells do not have A) a nucleus B) chloroplasts C) endoplasmic reticulum 11. Which statement best describes the enzyme represented in the graphs below? 12. Offspring that result from fertilization each have A) twice as many chromosomes as their parents B) one-half as many chromosomes as their parents C) gene combinations different from those of either parent D) gene combinations identical to those of each parent A) This enzyme works best at a temperature of 35 C and a ph of 8. B) Temperature and ph have no effect on the action of this enzyme. C) This enzyme works best at a temperature above 50 C and a ph above 12.

3 13. The diagram below represents a technique used to produce carrots. Which reproductive process determines the traits present in the cluster of cells? A) meiosis B) mitosis C) fertilization D) differentiation 14. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents stages in the digestion of a starch, and on your knowledge of biology. 15. In the diagram below, which substance belongs in area Z? The structure labeled X most likely represents A) a receptor molecule B) an enzyme C) a hormone A) water B) nitrogen C) carbon 16. Which substance is most likely represented by letter X in the equation below? amino acid + amino acid dipeptide + X A) salt B) hydrochloric acid C) water D) fatty acid 17. Asexual reproduction of a diploid cell normally results in new cells that contain A) more chromosomes than are found in the parent cell B) the n number of chromosomes C) the 2n number of chromosomes D) fewer chromosomes than are found in the parent cell

4 18. Which developmental process is represented by the diagram below? A) fertilization B) differentiation C) evolution D) mutation 19. An investigation was carried out and the results are shown below. Substance X resulted from a metabolic process that produces ATP in yeast (a single-celled fungus). Which statement best describes substance X? A) It is oxygen released by protein synthesis. B) It is glucose that was produced in photosynthesis. C) It is starch that was produced during digestion. D) It is carbon dioxide released by respiration. 20. The diagram below represents some stages that occur in the formation of an embryo..which statement best describes stage X? A) Stage X is a zygote and contains half the number of chromosomes as the body cells of the parents. B) Stage X is formed by the process of meiosis and is known as a gamete. C) Stage X is a zygote and is formed as a result of the process of fertilization. D) Stage X is formed by mitosis and is known as an egg cell.

5 21. Base your answer to the following question on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The ph of the internal environment of lysosomes (organelles that contain digestive enzymes) is approximately 4.5, while the ph of the surrounding cytoplasm is approximately 7. The average ph of the human stomach during digestion is approximately 2.5, while the average ph of the small intestine during digestion is about 8. The graph below shows how ph affects the enzyme activity of four different enzymes, A, B, C, and D. Which enzyme functions best in a ph environment most similar to that of human stomach enzymes? A) A B) B C) C D) D 22. Which sequence of terms is in the correct order from simplest to most complex? A) cells tissues organs organ systems B) cells tissues organ systems organs C) organs organisms organ systems cells 23. The diagram below represents a cell structure involved in converting energy stored in organic molecules into a form used by animal cells. The arrows represent the movement of which substances? A) carbon dioxide and sugar B) oxygen and ATP C) ATP and carbon dioxide D) oxygen and sugar

6 24. Which cell organelle is composed of a series of channels throughout the cytoplasm that functions in the transport of molecules? A) lysosome B) cell wall C) endoplasmic reticulum 25. Which phrase is an example of autotrophic nutrition? A) a cow eating grass in a field B) a mushroom digesting a dead log C) an apple tree making its own food D) a tapeworm feeding in the body of a dog 26. What would most likely result if mitosis was not accompanied by cytoplasmic division? A) two cells, each with one nucleus B) two cells, each without a nucleus C) one cell with two identical nuclei D) one cell without a nucleus 27. In human skin cells, the products of a normal mitotic cell division are A) 4 diploid cells B) 2 diploid cells C) 2 monoploid cells D) 4 monoploid cells 28. Which sequence best represents sexual reproduction? A) mitosis gametes zygote fertilization B) gametes meiosis mitosis fertilization C) fertilization gametes meiosis zygote D) meiosis gametes fertilization zygote 29. The diagram below represents early stages of embryo development. 31. In what way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar? A) They both occur in chloroplasts. B) They both require sunlight. C) They both involve organic and inorganic molecules. D) They both require oxygen and carbon dioxide. inorganic produce 32. Some deep-sea bacteria live near underwater volcanoes and make their own food using energy derived from minerals coming from the volcanoes. These bacteria would be classified as A) consumers B) producers C) photosynthetic D) abiotic 33. A particular species of shark normally reproduces sexually. In captivity, it was found that a female could also reproduce asexually. One negative result from asexual reproduction is A) increased gene recombinations B) increased number of males produced C) decreased number of eggs used D) decreased biodiversity within the species The greatest amount of differentiation for organ formation most likely occurs at arrow A) A B) B C) C D) D 30. Most of the starch stored in the cells of a potato is composed of molecules that originally entered these cells as what substance? A) enzymes B) simple sugars C) amino acids D) minerals

7 Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. A small water plant (elodea) was placed in bright sunlight for five hours as indicated below. Bubbles of oxygen gas were observed being released from the plant. 34. The bubbles of oxygen indicate that the plant is A) producing sugar B) making protein C) releasing energy from water D) carrying on active transport 35. What substance did the plant most likely absorb from the water in order to produce the oxygen gas? A) dissolved nitrogen B) carbon dioxide C) an enzyme D) a hormone 36. From which flower part does structure A in the diagram below develop? 37. Sexual reproduction in a species usually results in A) an increase in the chromosome number in the offspring B) offspring genetically identical to the parent C) recombination of genes D) a decrease in biodiversity 38. Which process uses energy to combine inorganic molecules to synthesize organic molecules? A) respiration B) digestion C) photosynthesis D) decomposition A) stamen B) petal C) anther D) ovary

8 39. The diagram below represents a plant cell. 41. Spider plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually. The diagram below represents a spider plant reproducing asexually by a method known as vegetative propagation. For the process of photosynthesis, the arrow labeled A would most likely represent the direction of movement of A) carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy B) oxygen, sugar, and solar energy C) carbon dioxide, oxygen, and heat energy D) sugar, water, and heat energy 40. An experimental setup is shown below. Which hypothesis would most likely be tested using this setup? A) Light is needed for the process of reproduction. B) Glucose is not synthesized by plants in the dark. C) Protein synthesis takes place in leaves. D) Plants need fertilizers for proper growth. Which statement best describes the relationship between the parent plant and the offspring in the diagram? A) The cells of the offspring contain half the amount of DNA as the cells of the parent plant. B) The parent plant provides genetic material to the offspring through its gametes. C) The cells of the offspring have the same genetic content as the cells of the parent plant. D) The cells of the parent plant have more genetic diversity, compared to the cells of the offspring. 42. A student is examining a specimen with a compound microscope. Some of the steps she takes are listed below. A Focus under high power using the fine adjustment. B Center the specimen under low power. C Scan the field of view under low power. D Focus under low power using the coarse adjustment. E Adjust the diaphragm opening. What sequence of steps should the student follow? A) A-E-B-C-D B) D-E-B-C-A C) C-E-D-B-A D) C-E-B-A-D E) A-E-D-C-B

9 43. Scientists have successfully cloned animals, including large mammals such as sheep. Which statement provides the most likely reason that a human has not yet been cloned? A) Humans have DNA that is structurally very different from other mammals. B) Cloning can only he performed on animals that normally reproduce asexually. C) Human genes are made of too many different types of simple sugars. D) Some people consider human genetic experiments unethical. 44. The diagram below shows stages of human reproduction. 45. The diagram below represents a change in guard cells that open and close pores in a plant. This change directly helps to A) increase heterotrophic nutrition B) absorb minerals C) regulate water loss D) reduce seed production 46. The diagram below shows how a coverslip should be lowered onto some single-celled organisms during the preparation of a wet mount. The direct result of fertilization is represented at A) A B) B C) C D) D Why is this a preferred procedure? A) The coverslip will prevent the slide from breaking. B) The organisms will be more evenly distributed. C) The possibility of breaking the coverslip is reduced. D) The possibility of trapping air bubbles is reduced.

10 47. In the setup shown below, which color light will cause the plant to produce the smallest number of gas bubbles? 49. Which process is illustrated in the diagram below? A) asexual reproduction B) sexual reproduction C) reduction division D) nuclear fusion 50. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below of a microscope and on your knowledge of biology. A) red B) orange C) blue D) green 48. The graph below shows the results of an experiment in which a container of oxygen-using bacteria and strands of a green algae were exposed to light of different colors. Which statement best explains the results of this experiment? A) The rate of photosynthesis is affected by variations in the light. B) In all environments light is a vital resource. C) The activities of bacteria and algae are not related. D) Uneven numbers and types of species can upset ecosystem stability. While viewing a specimen under high power, a student noticed that the specimen was out of focus. Which part of the microscope should the student use to obtain a clearer image? A) A B) B C) D 51. A variety of plant produces small white fruit. A stem was removed from this organism and planted in a garden. If this stem grows into a new plant, it would most likely produce A) large red fruit, only B) large pink fruit, only C) small white fruit, only D) small red and small white fruit on the same plant

11 52. Which phrase, if placed in box X, would correctly complete the flowchart shown below? A) Increased use of starch in root cells B) Increased concentration of glucose in leaf cells C) Decreased ATP in root cells D) Decreased concentration of oxygen in leaf cells 53. Some variation must be present in a population in order for natural selection to take place. These variations arise from mutations in the DNA and A) sorting of chromosomes during sexual reproduction B) combining of chromosomes during organ development C) changing of chromosomes during cloning D) removal of chromosomes during selective breeding 54. An ecosystem is represented below. The organisms represented as algae and seaweed are found in the area shown due to which factor? A) ph B) sediment C) light intensity D) colder temperature

12 55. The diagram below represents part of a life process in a leaf chloroplast. 57. The diagram below represents some chemical events that take place in one type of autotrophic nutrition. If the process illustrated in the diagram is interrupted by a chemical at point X, there would be an immediate effect on the release of A) chlorophyll B) nitrogen C) carbon dioxide D) oxygen 56. The green aquatic plant represented in the diagram below was exposed to light for several hours. The arrows labeled A best represent A) carbon dioxide B) glucose C) energy D) lactic acid 58. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph illustrates the growth curves for two types of bacteria (A and B) under differing ph values. Which gas would most likely be found in the greatest amount in the bubbles? A) oxygen B) nitrogen C) ozone D) carbon dioxide In what environment did bacteria A grow best? A) neutral B) slightly acidic C) slightly basic D) very basic 59. Which substance is a suitable indicator for detecting the presence of starch in a plant cell? A) Fehling's solution B) ph paper C) bromthymol blue D) iodine solution 60. A brown-colored indicator was placed on the cut surfaces of several bean seeds after the seeds had been soaked in water. A blue-black color was observed on each of the surfaces. The indicator was most likely used to test for the presence of A) acid B) starch C) a simple sugar D) carbon dioxide

13 61. When an organism reproduces asexually, it usually has A) only one parent, and half as much DNA as the parent B) only one parent, and the same chromosome number as the parent C) two parents, and twice as much DNA as either parent D) two parents, and the same chromosome number as each parent 62. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which represents a cross section of part of a leaf. Which life functions are directly regulated through feedback mechanisms associated with the actions of the structures labeled X? A) excretion and immunity B) digestion and coordination C) circulation and reproduction D) respiration and photosynthesis

14 Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents two solutions, A and B, separated by a selectively permeable membrane. 63. A sample from solution A and solution B were each tested with blue-colored glucose indicator solution before the solutions were placed in the beaker. Which row represents the results? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) Which statement best describes the outcome after 20 minutes? A) Solution A will contain approximately the same number of glucose molecules as solution B. B) Solution A will contain all of the water molecules. C) Solution B will remain unchanged. D) Solution B will lose all of the glucose molecules to solution A. 65. Which term best defines a bacteria that can survive without oxygen? A) aerobic B) anaerobic C) heterotrophic D) saprophytic

15 66. The diagram below represents movement of a large molecule across a membrane. Which process is best represented in this diagram? A) active transport B) diffusion C) protein building D) gene manipulation 67. The fluid-mosaic model of the cell membrane suggests that the membrane is primarily composed of A) proteins and starches B) carbohydrates and lipids C) sugars and proteins D) proteins and lipids 68. Red onion cells undergo the change represented in the diagram below. This change is most likely caused by the cell being transferred from A) distilled water to salt water B) salt water to tap water C) salt water to distilled water

16 69. In the diagram below, which letter indicates the cell part in which the changes involved in mitosis first become evident? A) A B) B C) C D) D 70. The diagram below represents a specialized cell located in the root of a plant. The arrows in the diagram indicate the movement of molecules of oxygen and water into the cell. Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the process responsible for the movement of each type of molecule represented in the diagram? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

17 71. Which process accomplishes the movement of gases illustrated by the arrows in the diagram below? 75. The sequence of events occurring in the life cycle of a bacterium is listed below. (A) The bacterium copies its single chromosome. (B) The copies of the chromosome attach to the cell membrane of the bacterium. (C) As the cell grows, the two copies of the chromosome separate. (D) The cell is separated by a wall into equal halves. (E) Each new cell has one copy of the chromosome. A) transpiration B) diffusion C) phagocytosis D) osmosis 72. The diagram below shows a microscopic view of the lower epidermis of a maple leaf. This sequence most closely resembles the process of A) recombination B) zygote formation C) mitotic cell division D) meiotic cell division 76. Which is a true statement about the process illustrated below? The area indicated by letter X is known as A) a stomate B) a lenticel C) xylem tissue D) phloem tissue 73. All the information necessary for growth, development, and eventual reproduction of sexually reproducing organisms is present in A) sperm cells, only B) egg cells, only C) zygotes D) either sperm cells or egg cells 74. While viewing a specimen under high power of a compound light microscope, a student noticed that the specimen was out of focus. Which part of the microscope should the student turn to obtain a clearer image under high power? A) eyepiece B) coarse adjustment C) fine adjustment D) nosepiece A) It is the beginning of embryonic development and occurs only in a freshwater environment. B) It is the beginning of regeneration and occurs only within the female. C) It is the beginning of embryonic development and occurs within the female or in water. D) It is the beginning of ovule formation and occurs on the stigma of flowers.

18 77. A student observed a wet mount of some stained plant cells in the high-power field of a compound light microscope. Diagram A represents the general appearance of these cells. The student then added several drops of a liquid to the wet mount and continued the observations. Diagram B represents the general appearance of the cells a few minutes after adding the liquid. 79. The diagram below illustrates the movement of materials involved in a process that is vital for the energy needs of organisms. The liquid that the student added to the wet mount was most likely A) salt water B) distilled water C) pond water D) tap water 78. The diagram below represents specialized cells in the surface of the leaf of a green plant. The process illustrated occurs within A) chloroplasts B) mitochondria C) ribosomes D) vacuoles The main function of these cells is to A) change the size of the stomate to regulate water loss B) close the stomate to keep dust and dirt out of the leaf C) directly provide leaf cells with the water involved in photosynthesis D) allow newly formed glucose to be released from the leaf

19 80. A student used a microscope to observe a single-celled organism. As he watched, it looked as if the organism split into two cells. He made drawings, shown below, of the organism over a short period of time. Which process did the student record in his drawings? A) genetic engineering B) asexual reproduction C) selective breeding D) gamete formation 81. Which situation is least likely to result in new inherited characteristics? A) altering genetic information B) changes in the structure of genes C) producing new individuals by means of cloning D) changes in the structure of individual chromosomes 82. The type of molecule represented below is found in organisms. Which statement correctly describes the sequence of bases found in this type of molecule? A) It changes every time it replicates. B) It determines the characteristics that will be inherited. C) It is exactly the same in all organisms. D) It directly controls the synthesis of starch within a cell.

20 83. The molecule represented below is found in living things. Which statement describes one characteristic of this molecule? A) It is the template for the replication of genetic information. B) Organic catalysts are made up of these molecules. C) It is different in each cell of an organism. D) Cell membranes contain many of these molecules.

21 84. Two methods of reproduction are represented in the diagram below. How does the DNA in the offspring produced by these methods compare to the DNA in the original organism? A) The offspring contain half the original number of chromosomes in each method. B) The DNA in the offspring is genetically identical to that of the original organism in both methods. C) The offspring produced by method A contain twice the original number of genes, while those produced by method B contain half the original number of genes. D) The number of DNA bases is less than that of the original organism in method A,but more than the original number in method B. 85. Which term is defined as all the chemical reactions that are required to sustain life? A) metabolism B) nutrition C) regulation D) synthesis

22 86. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between internal leaf cells and the external environment will occur most efficiently if A) the surfaces of these cells are dry and the stomates are closed B) these cells are dry and the stomates are open C) the surfaces of these cells are moist and the stomates are open D) these cells are moist and the stomates are closed 87. The series of diagrams below represents a process carried out by a unicellular organism. 90. Asexual reproduction of a diploid cell normally results in new cells that contain A) more chromosomes than are found in the parent cell B) the n number of chromosomes C) the 2n number of chromosomes D) fewer chromosomes than are found in the parent cell 91. The graph below shows changes in the level of glucose in the blood of a person over a period of time. This process is known as A) autotrophic nutrition B) replication C) sporulation D) phagocytosis 88. Both a deer and a tree react to changes in their external surroundings, helping them to maintain a constant internal environment. This statement describes A) predation B) homeostasis C) antibiotic resistance 89. The diagram below represents a section of a plasma membrane. The graph represents the A) maintenance of dynamic equilibrium B) failure of homeostasis C) reaction of white blood cells to a pathogen D) oxygen carrying capacity of the blood What does structure X represent? A) a protein B) glucose C) a lipid D) glycogen

23 92. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of Biology. In a class, each student made three models of the small intestine using three artificial membrane tubes. They filled each of the three tubes with equal amounts of water, starch, protein, and vitamin C. They added starch-digesting enzyme to tube 1. They added protein-digesting enzyme to tube 2. No enzyme was added to tube 3. The ends of the membrane tubes were sealed and the tubes were soaked for 24 hours in beakers of pure water. The beakers were numbered 1, 2, and 3, corresponding to the number of the tube they contained. At the end of the experiment, the students removed the tubes and tested the water in the beakers for the presence of nutrients. Which statement would be a valid inference if vitamin C had been present in the water in each beaker? A) The water synthesized vitamin C. B) Vitamin C is a small molecule. C) The membrane tube produced vitamin C. D) The concentration of vitamin C is higher in the beaker than in the membrane tube. 93. Cloning an individual usually produces organisms that A) contain dangerous mutations B) contain identical genes C) are identical in appearance and behavior D) produce enzymes different from the parent 94. An example of sexual reproduction is A) regeneration in starfish B) spore formation in mushrooms C) fusion of the nuclei of gametes D) development of new plants from undifferentiated tissue 95. Which process is a form of autotrophic nutrition? A) transport B) regulation C) fermentation D) photosynthesis 96. If a chemical that interrupts cell division is added to a culture of human liver tissue, which process would stop? A) meiosis B) mitosis C) breakdown of glucose D) diffusion of nutrients 97. Steps in a reproductive process used to produce a sheep with certain traits are listed below. Step 1 The nucleus was removed from an unfertilized egg taken from sheep A. Step 2 The nucleus of a body cell taken from sheep B was then inserted into this unfertilized egg from sheep A. Step 3 The resulting cell was then implanted into the uterus of sheep C. Step 4 Sheep C gave birth to sheep D. Which sheep would be most genetically similar to sheep D? A) sheep A, only B) sheep B, only C) both sheep A and B D) both sheep A and C 98. The cloning of cells involves the process of A) meiotic cell division B) fusion of gametes C) mitotic cell division D) formation of spores 99. Which cell structure is correctly paired with its primary function? A) ribosome protein synthesis B) vacuole cell division C) nucleus storage of nutrients

24 100. The diagram below represents a sequence of events that occurs in living things. Letter X represents A) inorganic molecules B) organic molecules C) biological catalysts D) simple sugars

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