# OLS is not only unbiased it is also the most precise (efficient) unbiased estimation technique - ie the estimator has the smallest variance

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1 Lecture 5: Hypothesis Testing What we know now: OLS is not only unbiased it is also the most precise (efficient) unbiased estimation technique - ie the estimator has the smallest variance (if the Gauss-Markov assumptions hold)

2 We also know that: OLS estimates given by b0 = Y b1 X b 1 = OLS estimates of precision given by _ ) s X Var( β = 1+ Var ( β1 ) = N Var( X ) 2 RSS s = N k Cov( X, Y ) Var( X ) N * Var( X ) At same time usual to work with the square root to give standard errors of the estimates (standard deviation refers to the known variance, standard error refers to the estimated variance) s.e.(β ) = s 2 _ N 1+ X Var(X ) 1 ) s s. e.( β = N * Var( X ) s 2

3 Now need to learn how to test hypotheses about whether the values of the individual estimates we get are consistent with the way we think the world may work Eg if we estimate the model by OLS C=b0 + b1y + u and the estimated coefficient on income is b1 = 0.9 is this consistent with what we think the marginal propensity to consume should be? Now common (economic) sense can help here, but in itself it is not rigorous (or impartial) enough which is where hypothesis testing comes in

4 Hypothesis Testing If wish to make inferences about how close an estimated value is to a hypothesised value or even to say whether the influence of a variable is not simply the result of statistical chance (the estimates being based on a sample and so subject to random fluctuations) then need to make one additional assumption about the behaviour of the (true, unobserved) residuals in the model

5 Hypothesis Testing If wish to make inferences about how close an estimated value is to a hypothesised value or even to say whether the influence of a variable is not simply the result of statistical chance then need to make one additional assumption about the behaviour of the (true, unobserved) residuals in the model (the estimates being based on a sample and so subject to random fluctuations) then need to make one additional assumption about the behaviour of the (true, unobserved) residuals in the model We know already that ui ~ (0, σ 2 u) ie true residuals assumed to have a mean of zero and variance σ 2 u

6 Hypothesis Testing If wish to make inferences about how close an estimated value is to a hypothesised value or even to say whether the influence of a variable is not simply the result of statistical chance then need to make one additional assumption about the behaviour of the (true, unobserved) residuals in the model (the estimates being based on a sample and so subject to random fluctuations) then need to make one additional assumption about the behaviour of the (true, unobserved) residuals in the model We know already that ui ~ (0, σ 2 u) ie true residuals assumed to have a mean of zero and variance σ 2 u Now assume additionally that residuals follow a Normal distribution

7 Now assume additionally that residuals follow a Normal distribution ui ~N(0, σ 2 u)

8 Now assume additionally that residuals follow a Normal distribution ui ~N(0, σ 2 u) (Since residuals capture influence of many unobserved (random) variables, can use Central Limit Theorem which says that the sum of a large set of random variables will have a normal distribution)

9 If u is normal, then it is easy to show that the OLS coefficients (which are a linear function of u) are also normally distributed with the means and variances that we derived earlier. So 0 β ~ ~ 1 1 N ( β, Var( β )) and β N ( β, Var( β ))

10 If u is normal, then it is easy to show that the OLS coefficients (which are a linear function of u) are also normally distributed with the means and variances that we derived earlier. So 0 β ~ ~ 1 1 N ( β, Var( β )) and β N ( β, Var( β )) Why is that any use to us?

11 If a variable is normally distributed we know that it is Symmetric

12 If a variable is normally distributed we know that it is Symmetric

13 If a variable is normally distributed we know that it is Symmetric centred on its mean (use the symbol μ) and that the symmetry pattern is such that: 66% of values lie within mean ±1*standard deviation

14 If a variable is normally distributed we know that it is Symmetric centred on its mean (use the symbol μ ) and that the symmetry pattern is such that: 66% of values lie within mean ±1*standard deviation (use the symbol σ )

15 If a variable is normally distributed we know that it is Symmetric centred on its mean (use the symbol μ) and that the symmetry pattern is such that: 66% of values lie within mean ±1*standard deviation (use the symbol σ ) 95% of values lie within mean ±1.96*σ

16 If a variable is normally distributed we know that it is Symmetric centred on its mean (use the symbol μ) and that the symmetry pattern is such that: 66% of values lie within mean ±1*standard deviation (use the symbol σ ) 95% of values lie within mean ±1.96*σ 99% of values lie within mean ±2.9*σ

17

18 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution which has a mean (μ) of 0 and variance (σ 2 u ) of 1 ui ~N(0, 1)

19 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution, z which has a mean (μ) of 0 and variance (σ 2 u ) of 1 ui ~N(0, 1) - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation

20 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution, z which has a mean (μ) of 0 and variance (σ 2 u ) of 1 ui ~N(0, 1) - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation 1 ~ 1 1 ie Given β N ( β, Var( β ))

21 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution, z which has a mean (μ) of 0 and variance (σ 2 u ) of 1 ui ~N(0, 1) - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation β ie Given β1 ~ N ( β1, Var( ) then 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.(

22 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution which has a mean of 0 and variance of 1 - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation β ie Given β1 ~ N ( β1, Var( ) then 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( Since the mean of this variable is zero and because a normal distribution is symmetric and centred around its mean, and the standard deviation=1, we know that

23 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution which has a mean of 0 and variance of 1 - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation β ie Given β1 ~ N ( β1, Var( ) then 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( Since the mean of this variable is zero and because a normal distribution is symmetric and centred around its mean, and the standard deviation=1, we know that 66% of values lie within mean ±1*σ

24 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution which has a mean of 0 and variance of 1 - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation β ie Given β1 ~ N ( β1, Var( ) then 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( Since the mean of this variable is zero and because a normal distribution is symmetric and centred around its mean, and the standard deviation=1, we know that 66% of values lie within mean ±1*σ so now 66% of values lie within 0 ±1

25 Easier to work with the standard normal distribution which has a mean of 0 and variance of 1 - this can be obtained from any normal distribution by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation β ie Given β1 ~ N ( β1, Var( ) then 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( Since the mean of this variable is zero and because a normal distribution is symmetric and centred around its mean, and the standard deviation=1, we know that 66% of values lie within mean ±1*σ so now 66% of values lie within 0 ±1 Similarly 95% of values lie within mean ±1.96*σ

26 99% of values lie within mean ±2.9*σ

27 (these thresholds, ie 1, 1.96 and 2.9, are called the critical values ) A graph of a normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance % of values lie within 0 ± 1.96

28 so the critical value for the 95% significance level is 1.96 Can use all this to test hypotheses about the values of individual coefficients Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u

29 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = β1 0

30 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = β1 0 (which says that we think the true value is equal to a specific value)

31 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = β1 0 (which says that we think the true value is equal to a specific value) Alternative hypothesis: H1: β1 β1 0

32 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = β1 0 (which says that we think the true value is equal to a specific value) Alternative hypothesis: H1: β1 β1 0 (which says that the true value is not equal to the specific value)

33 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = β1 0 (which says that we think the true value is equal to a specific value) Alternative hypothesis: H1: β1 β1 0 (which says that the true value is not equal to the specific value) But because OLS is only an estimate we have to allow for the uncertainty in the estimate as captured by its standard error

34 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient Model: Y = β0 + β1 X + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = β1 0 (which says that we think the true value is equal to a specific value) Alternative hypothesis: H1: β1 β1 0 (which says that the true value is not equal to the specific value) But because OLS is only an estimate we have to allow for the uncertainty in the estimate as captured by its standard error Implicitly the variance says the estimate may be centred on this value but because this is only an estimate and not the truth, there is a possible range of other plausible values associated with it

35 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient The most common hypothesis to be tested (and most regression packages default hypothesis) is that the true value of the coefficient is zero

36 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient The most common hypothesis to be tested (and most regression packages default hypothesis) is that the true value of the coefficient is zero - Which is the same thing as saying the effect of the variable is zero Since β1 = dy/dx

37 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient The most common hypothesis to be tested (and most regression packages default hypothesis) is that the true value of the coefficient is zero - Which is the same thing as saying the effect of the variable is zero Since β1 = dy/dx Example Cons = β0 + β1income + u

38 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient The most common hypothesis to be tested (and most regression packages default hypothesis) is that the true value of the coefficient is zero - Which is the same thing as saying the effect of the variable is zero Since β1 = dy/dx Example Cons = β0 + β1income + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = 0

39 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient The most common hypothesis to be tested (and most regression packages default hypothesis) is that the true value of the coefficient is zero - Which is the same thing as saying the effect of the variable is zero Since β1 = dy/dx Example Cons = β0 + β1income + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = 0 Alternative hypothesis: H1: β1 0

40 Testing A Hypothesis Relating To A Regression Coefficient The most common hypothesis to be tested (and most regression packages default hypothesis) is that the true value of the coefficient is zero - Which is the same thing as saying the effect of the variable is zero Since β1 = dy/dx Example Cons = β0 + β1income + u Null hypothesis: H0: β1 = 0 Alternative hypothesis: H1: β1 0 and this time β1 = dcons/dincome

41 In order to be able to say whether OLS estimate is close enough to hypothesized value so as to be acceptable, we take the range of estimates implied by the estimated OLS variance and look to see whether this range will contain the hypothesized value.

42 In order to be able to say whether OLS estimate is close enough to hypothesized value so as to be acceptable, we take the range of estimates implied by the estimated OLS variance and look to see whether this range will contain the hypothesized value. To do this we can use the range of estimates implied by the standard normal distribution

43 In order to be able to say whether OLS estimate is close enough to hypothesized value so as to be acceptable, we take the range of estimates implied by the estimated OLS variance and look to see whether this range will contain the hypothesized value. To do this we can use the range of estimates implied by the standard normal distribution 1 ~ 1 1 So given we now know β N ( β, Var( β ))

44 In order to be able to say whether OLS estimate is close enough to hypothesized value so as to be acceptable, we take the range of estimates implied by the estimated OLS variance and look to see whether this range will contain the hypothesized value. To do this we can use the range of estimates implied by the standard normal distribution 1 ~ 1 1 So given we now know β N ( β, Var( β )) then we can transform the estimates into a standard normal β1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.(

45 In order to be able to say whether OLS estimate is close enough to hypothesized value so as to be acceptable, we take the range of estimates implied by the estimated OLS variance and look to see whether this range will contain the hypothesized value. To do this we can use the range of estimates implied by the standard normal distribution 1 ~ 1 1 So given we now know β N ( β, Var( β )) then we can transform the estimates into a standard normal β1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( and we know that 95% of all values of a variable that has mean 0 and variance 1 will lie within 0 ± 1.96

46 We know 95% of all values of a variable that has mean 0 and variance 1 will lie within 0 ± 1.96 (95 times out of a 100, estimates will lie in the range 0± 1.96*standard deviation) or written another way

47 We know 95% of all values of a variable that has mean 0 and variance 1 will lie within 0 ± 1.96 (95 times out of a 100, estimates will lie in the range 0± 1.96*standard deviation) or written another way Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95

48 We know 95% of all values of a variable that has mean 0 and variance 1 will lie within 0 ± 1.96 (95 times out of a 100, estimates will lie in the range 0± 1.96*standard deviation) or written another way Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s d.( β ). 1 sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95

49 β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 Pr 1.96 β1 β1 s. d.( 1.96 = 0.95

50 β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 β Pr β = ( 1) s d β or equivalently multiplying the terms in square brackets in by s. d.(

51 β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 β Pr β = ( 1) s d β or equivalently multiplying the terms in square brackets in by s. d.( -1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1

52 β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 β Pr β = ( 1) s d β or equivalently multiplying the terms in square brackets in by s. d.( -1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1 and 1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1 <= 1.96* s. d.(

53 β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 β Pr β = ( 1) s d β or equivalently multiplying the terms in square brackets in by s. d.( -1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1 and 1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1 <= 1.96* s. d.(

54 and taking β 1 to the other sides of the equality gives β Since 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( sub. this into Pr[ <= z <= 1.96] = 0.95 β Pr β = ( 1) s d β or equivalently multiplying the terms in square brackets in by s. d.(

55 -1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1 and 1.96* s. d.( <= β1 β1 <= 1.96* s. d.( and taking β 1 to the other sides of the equality gives Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95

56 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 is called the 95% confidence interval

57 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 is called the 95% confidence interval and says that given an OLS estimate and its standard deviation we can be 95% confident that the true (unknown) value for β1 will lie in this region

58 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 is called the 95% confidence interval and says that given an OLS estimate and its standard deviation we can be 95% confident that the true (unknown) value for β1 will lie in this region (If an estimate falls within this range it is said to lie in the acceptance region )

59 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = is called the 95% confidence interval and says that given an OLS estimate and its standard deviation we can be 95% confident that the true (unknown) value for β1 will lie in this region (If an estimate falls within this range it is said to lie in the acceptance region ) Unfortunately we never know the true standard deviation of β1, only ever have an estimate, the standard error

60 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 Unfortunately we never know the true standard deviation of β1, only ever have an estimate, the standard error ie don t have s.d.(β 1) = σ 2 N *Var(X) since σ 2 (the true residual variance) is unobserved

61 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 Unfortunately we never know the true standard deviation of β1, only ever have an estimate, the standard error 2 ie don t have 1 ) σ s. e.( β = N * Var( X ) since σ 2 (the true residual variance) unobserved but we now know that s. e.( β 1) = N 2 s * Var( X )

62 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 Unfortunately we never know the true standard deviation of β1, only ever have an estimate, the standard error 2 ie don t have 1 ) σ s. d.( β = N * Var( X ) since σ 2 (the true residual variance) unobserved but we now know that 2 s s. e.( β 1) = (replacing σ 2 with s 2 ) N * Var( X ) so can substitute this into the equation above

63 Pr β1 1.96* s. d.( β1 β * s. d.( β 1 ) = 0.95 Unfortunately we never know the true standard deviation of β1, only ever have an estimate, the standard error 2 ie don t have 1 ) σ s. d.( β = N * Var( X ) since σ 2 (the true residual variance) unobserved but we now know that 2 s s. e.( β 1) = (replacing σ 2 with s 2 ) N * Var( X ) so can substitute this into the equation above

64 Pr β * s.e.(β 1) β 1 β * s.e.(β 1) = 0.95

65 However when we do this we no longer have a standard normal distribution

66 However when we do this we no longer have a standard normal distribution and this has implications for the 95% critical value thresholds in the equation Pr β * s.e.(β 1) β 1 β * s.e.(β 1) = 0.95

67 β ie no longer 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.(

68 β ie no longer 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( but instead the statistic

69 However when we do this we no longer have a standard normal distribution, β ie no longer 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s d.( β ). 1 but instead the statistic t = β1 β1 s. e.(

70 ie no longer ) (0,1 ~ ).( N d s z β β β = but instead the statistic ).( β β β s e t = ) ( ~ ) ( * 1 1 k N t s X Var N = β β

71 β ie no longer 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( but instead the statistic t = β1 β1 s. e.( = 1 β β 1 N s * Var( X ) ~ t( N k) The ~ means the statistic is said to follow a t distribution with N-k degrees of freedom

72 β ie no longer 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( but instead the statistic t = β1 β1 s. e.( = 1 β β 1 N s * Var( X ) ~ t( N k) The ~ means the statistic is said to follow a t distribution with N-k degrees of freedom N = sample size

73 β ie no longer 1 β1 z = ~ N(0,1) s. d.( but instead the statistic β1 β t = 1 s. e.( = 1 β β 1 N s * Var( X ) ~ t( N k) The ~ means the statistic is said to follow a t distribution with N-k degrees of freedom N = sample size k = no. of right hand side coefficients in the model (so includes the constant)

74 Student s t distribution introduced by William Gosset and developed by Ronald Fisher

75 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels When the number of degrees of freedom is large, the t distribution looks very much like a normal distribution (and as the number increases, it converges on one)

76 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels which vary, unlike the standard normal distribution, with the degrees of freedom in the model,

77 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels which vary, unlike the standard normal distribution, with the degrees of freedom in the model, N-K

78 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels which vary, unlike the standard normal distribution, with the degrees of freedom in the model, N-K which means the degrees of freedom depend on the sample size and the number of variables in the model)

79 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels which vary, unlike the standard normal distribution, with the degrees of freedom in the model, N-K which means the degrees of freedom depend on the sample size and the number of variables in the model) Also since the true mean is unknown we can replace it with a hypothesized value and still have a t distribution

80 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels which vary, unlike the standard normal distribution, with the degrees of freedom in the model, N-K which means the degrees of freedom depend on the sample size and the number of variables in the model) Also since the true mean is unknown we can replace it with a hypothesized value and still have a t distribution β So 1 β t = 1 s. e.(

81 Now this t distribution is symmetrical about its mean but has its own set of critical values at given significance levels which vary, unlike the standard normal distribution, with the degrees of freedom in the model, N-K which means the degrees of freedom depend on the sample size and the number of variables in the model) Also since the true mean is unknown we can replace it with any hypothesized value and still have a t distribution So β1 β t = 1 and also t s. e.( β 0 1 β 1 s. e.( β1 ) = ~t(n-k)

82

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