# Water Quality Problem. Hypothesis Testing of Means. Water Quality Example. Water Quality Example. Water quality example. Water Quality Example

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1 Water Quality Problem Hypothesis Testing of Means Dr. Tom Ilvento FREC 408 Suppose I am concerned about the quality of drinking water for people who use wells in a particular geographic area I will test for nitrogen, as Nitrate+Nitrite The U.S. EPA sets a MCL of 10 mg/l of Nitrate/Nitrite (MCL=Maximum contaminant level) Below the threshold is considered safe Water Quality Example A priori, I decide to test to see if my sample will result in a mean level that is above or below the EPA threshold Once again I decide to take a sample to save time and money I want to see if I have evidence to believe my sample is different from a population with a mean value of 10 mg/l Water Quality Example My sample n = 50 Mean = 7 mg/l s = 3 mg/l The sample provides an estimate, but I know other possible samples would have yielded slightly different mean levels, so I think of my sample as part of a sampling distribution Standard error = 3/(50).5 =.424 Water Quality Example If the sampling distribution of n=50 has a mean level of 10 mg/l, I could find out how rare an event it was to take a sample of 50 wells and get a mean value of 7 mg/l I can test to see if my sample is different from the hypothesized population Greater than Less than Water quality example Ho: :=10 Ha: : 10 I will check if it is different I calculate a z-score to see how far away if is from the hypothesized value z* = (7 10)/.424 z* = -3/.424 z* = Our sample estimate is more than 7 standard deviations away from the mean in relation to the sampling distribution! 1

2 What is a Hypothesis Test We are going to use a rare-event approach to make an inference from our sample to a population We define two hypotheses Null hypothesis the hypothesis that will be accepted unless we have convincing evidence to the contrary (Def8.3 p391) Alternative Hypothesis aka as the Research Hypothesis. We look to see if the data provide convincing evidence of its truth. (Def8.2 p391) Here s our strategy We set up a null hypothesis Based on expectations of no change, nothing happening, no difference, the same old same old In many ways it is a straw man (or person) and in contrast to the rare event In most cases we want to reject the null hypothesis Hypothesis strategy Then we try to state an Alternative Hypothesis which is more in line with our true expectations for the experiment or research The sample value is not equal to the hypothesized value It is greater than the hypothesized value It is less than the hypothesized value How a hypothesis test works If we assume our sample estimate comes from a population with a parameter as stated in the null hypothesis We can compare our sample estimate to this population parameter to see how likely it is that our sample comes from a sampling distribution from this population How It Works To do this we calculate a TEST STATISTIC (Def8.9 p397) z-score (or a t-score) based on: H 0 : : = some value The sample estimate of the standard deviation The Standard Error of the sampling distribution for our estimator Z * = ( x µ ) σ X Basic Elements of a Hypothesis Test H 0 : H a : Assumptions Test Statistic Calculation: Conclusion: 2

3 Water Quality Hypothesis Test Here s how it looks in pictures H 0 : Ho: :=10 H a : Ha: : 10 2-tailed Assumptions n= 50, large sample Test Statistic Calculation: Conclusion: z* = (7 10)/.424 " =.05,.025 in each tail, so I use z=1.96 z* = Reject Ho: :=10 z* = Z=-1.96 :=10 Z= 1.96 Example problem Humerus bones from the same species have the same length to width ratio, so they are often used as a means to identify bones by archeologists It is known that a Species A exhibits a mean ratio of 8.5 Suppose 41 fossils of humerus bones were unearthed in East Africa Test whether the population mean ratio from this sample differs from 8.5. Use " =.01 Example Problem The length to width ratio was calculated for the sample and resulted in the following univariate statistics n= 41 Mean = 9.26 s= 1.20 Min value = 6.23 Max value=12.00 Bone data Stem and Leaf Plot of Bone Data * * * * * * Stems are whole numbers, leafs are 2 decimal places; * represents a break point at.5 Descriptive Statistics from Excel Descriptives Mean 9.26 Standard Error 0.19 Median 9.20 Mode 9.17 Standard Deviation 1.20 Sample Variance 1.45 Kurtosis 1.07 Skewness Range 5.77 Minimum 6.23 Maximum Sum Count Confidence Level(99.0%

4 What do we do? Set up the Null Hypothesis H 0 : : =??? H 0 : : = 8.5 Alternative Hypothesis Set up the Alternative Hypothesis It takes up one of three forms H a : : > 8.5 One-tailed, upper tail H a : : < 8.5 One-tailed, lower tail H a : : 8.5 Two-tailed Alternative Hypothesis Set up the Alternative Hypothesis A one-tailed test of hypothesis is one in which the alternative hypothesis is directional, and includes either the < symbol or the > symbol. (Def8.4 p392) Alternative Hypothesis for Humerus Bones What do we want? H a : : 8.5 Two-tailed test A two-tailed test of hypothesis is one in which the alternative hypothesis does not specify a particular direction; it is different. It will be written with the symbol. (Def8.5 p392) The Assumptions of the Test You want to ask the following questions: Is the variable under study a proportion or a mean? If it is a proportion: Is the sample size sufficiently large so that I can use the normal approximation to the binomial? The assumptions of the test Is this a large sample or small sample test? Large sample use z-score Small sample ask more questions! If small sample: Is the variable distributed normally? If yes, use the t-distribution If no, you can t use this test 4

5 Next the Test Statistic Let z* equal the calculated test statistic z* = (0 - :)/F 0 The value for : will come from the Null Hypothesis If we don t know F we use the sample estimate of F (s) to calculate the standard error z* = (0 - :)/(s//n) (p397) ( x µ ) z* = s n The test statistic This z* represents a z-score of our sample compared to the sampling distribution of the mean, if the null hypothesis was true We want to see how far away our sample estimate is from the null hypothesis population mean Z*=( )/(1.20//41) Specify a rejection region The rejection region is tied to a level of probability called ". The rejection region is the set of possible values of the test statistic for which the null hypothesis will be rejected. (Def8.10 p397) So if the calculated test statistic falls within rejection region, we reject H 0 Specify a rejection region (Cont.) Alpha (" ) is the probability level at which you are willing to be wrong when rejecting H 0, also called level of significance or significance level. (Def8.8 p394) The value at the boundary of the rejection region is called the critical value. (Def8.11 p399) Specify a We look to see where z* falls in relation to the standard normal distribution If it lies in the, in one of the tails, it is possible that it came from that hypothesized distribution -- but not very likely Because it is unlikely, I am willing to reject the Null Hypothesis We need to set the level of alpha a priori I want to pick an alpha value far out in the tail of the sampling distribution So if I find a difference, I can be reasonably sure that my sample is not part of the sampling distribution specified under the null hypothesis 5

6 " represents the probability that my sample mean actually comes from the hypothesized sampling distribution, but I m going to say it doesn t This is called a Type I Error The probability of committing a Type I Error is the probability of rejecting H 0 when H 0 is true (Def8.6 p393) For this problem, "=.01 Next I want to find a z-value that will correspond with "=.01 This is a two-tailed test as specified in the alternative hypothesis H a : : 8.5 So if "=.01, we need to split this probability level in either tail of the sampling distribution So I look for a "z-score that corresponds to a probability of.005 In the table this is a value relating to =.495 The z value from the table is So our begins at < or > Here is how it looks for the Humerus Bones example H 0 : H a : Assumptions Test Statistic Calculation: Conclusion: : = 8.5 : 8.5 two-tailed test large sample, use normal distribution and z-scores z*=( )/(1.204//41) " =.01/2 z="2.575 Critical values z*=4.03 compare z* to the Rejection Region and make a conclusion Here is how it looks for the Humerus Bones example Here s how it looks in pictures H 0 : H a : Assumptions Test Statistic Calculation: Conclusion: : = 8.5 : 8.5 two-tailed test large sample, use normal distribution and z-scores z*=( )/(1.204//41) " =.01/2 z="2.575 z*=4.03 z* > z "/2= > So we reject H 0 : : = 8.5 Critical values :=8.5 Z= Z= z* =

7 Basic Elements of a Hypothesis Test H 0 : H a : Assumptions Test Statistic Calculation: Conclusion: The Elements of a Hypothesis Test Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis Assumptions clear statement about assumptions of the population or the sampling distribution of the estimator Test Statistic the z or t score we calculate to determine if we can reject the null hypothesis The Elements of a Hypothesis Test the numerical value of the Test Statistic at which the null hypothesis will be rejected Based on a probability level " set a priori Tied to the alternative hypothesis Calculate the Test Statistic Draw a conclusion Using Excel for Hypothesis Tests and Confidence Intervals Data for speeders on a federal highway. The data are a random sample of 63 motorists on a Federal highway where the speed limit is 65 mph. Use Excel to give the descriptive statistics. Briefly (one paragraph) describe the data using the summary statistics Calculate a 99% Confidence Interval for the data Conduct a Hypothesis Test where the null hypothesis is that the average speed is 65 mph. Use an " level of.01. Descriptive Statistics MPH Mean Standard Error Median Mode Standard Deviation Sample Variance Kurtosis Skewness Range 39 Minimum 56 Maximum 95 Sum 4361 Count 63 Confidence Level(99.0% Mean Standard Error Sample Size (n) Confidence Interval 99% Confidence Interval x ± z α / 2 "= =.01 "/2 =.01/2 =.005 z.01/2 = σ " 2.575(1.016) = 8.065/(63) " Why is the BOE less than Excel s value of 2.7? x 7

8 Hypothesis Test H 0 : H a : Assumptions Test Statistic Calculation: Conclusion: : = 65 : 65 two-tailed test large sample, use normal distribution and z-scores z*=( )/(8.065//63) " =.01/2 z="2.575 z*= z* > z "/2= > So we reject H 0 : : = 65 Here s how it looks in pictures :=8.5 Z= Z= z* = Golf Course Problem Golf Course Problem Golf course designers are worried that the new equipment is making old courses obsolete. One designer says that courses need to be built with the expectation that players will be able to drive the ball an average of 250 yards or more. A sample of 135 golfers is taken and they measured their driving distance 0 = yards s = 43.4 yards Does the sample provide enough evidence to suggest that golfers are already hitting it farther than the 250 mark? Use "=.05 Also, calculate the p-value for this problem Golf Course Problem Null hypothesis H 0 : : = 250 Alternative H a : : > 250 one-tailed test,upper Assumptions Test Statistic Calculation Conclusion Large sample, normal z* = ( )/(43.4//135) z "=.05 = z* = 1.69 z* > z "= > Reject H 0 : : = 250 p=

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