2 1. DIFFUSION: The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
3 Why do molecules move from high concentration to low concentration?
4 All molecules are always in motion.
5 Concentration Gradient: The difference between the 2 concentrations of molecules.
6 Molecules move DOWN the concentration gradient.
8 Molecules bump into each other as they move. Eventually, the molecules will be evenly spread out. Equilibrium: When there is an even concentration of molecules. DIFFUSION STOPS WHEN EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED.
9 In which direction will these molecules diffuse?
10 In which cell is diffusion occurring?
11 What will happen?
12 2. Facilitated diffusion Movement of molecules from high concentration to lower concentration with the help of cell membrane protein molecules. glucose
13 3. Osmosis: The diffusion of water from high water concentration to low water concentration.
14 Hypertonic: Having a higher solute concentration. (But a lower water concentration) Hypotonic: Having a lower solute concentration. But a higher water concentration.
15 Solution is hypertonic. Water will leak out.
16 Solution is hypotonic. Water will rush in.
17 Isotonic: Same concentration.
18 Osmosis Water will rush towards the area that has more solute (salt, starch, etc.) in order to dilute it.
19 Water diffuses towards salt.
20 Salt will dehydrate and kill a slug.
21 Less water Fresh Water More water
22 Active Transport The cell uses energy (ATP) in order to move molecules from low concentration to high concentration.
24 Active Transport -but requires energy!!!!
26 Endocytosis and Exocytosis
28 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
29 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
30 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
31 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
32 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
33 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
34 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
35 In which direction will the molecules move? In which direction will the molecules move?
36 Before After
37 Before After
40 Diffusion and Osmosis do not require energy from the cell. They occur naturally due to Brownian motion.
41 Selectively Permeable Membrane Starch Molecule Water Molecule
42 Lysis: Cell bursts. Fresh Water
43 Animal cell may pop. Plant cell will just swell up.
44 Osmosis Water will rush towards the area that has more solute (salt, starch, etc.) in order to dilute it. Salt water
45 Animal cell will shrivel. Plant cell wall maintains its shape. The cell membrane and its insides will shrivel.
46 2 Ways to Look at it: 80% Water 20% Salt solute 100% Water All Water
47 OSMOSIS: Which Way? 20% Water 80% Water
48 OSMOSIS: Which Way? 50% Water 50% Salt
49 OSMOSIS: Which Way? 30% Water 40% Salt
50 Passive or Active?
51 Passive or Active?
52 Passive or Active?
53 Passive or Active?
54 Which process requires energy from the cell and which does not? Fresh Water
56 Membrane Proteins A. Some membrane proteins help communicate with other cells. B. Other proteins do active transport.
57 PASSIVE TRANSPORT No energy
58 ACTIVE TRANSPORT Requires energy
59 Passive Transport Requires no energy High to Low Diffusion Osmosis Facilatated diffusion Equilibrium is reached. Active Transport Requires energy (ATP) Low to High Pumps Contractile Vacuole Equilibrium is NOT reached.
60 Practice problems
61 Passive or Active? You soak a cell in iodine but the cell never fills with iodine.
62 Passive or Active? You soak a cell in methylene blue and eventually it becomes fully blue.
63 The biologist added a 10% salt solution to the slide and observed the cell as shown in diagram B. The change in appearance of the cell resulted from. 1. more salt moving out of the cell than into the cell 2. more salt moving into the cell than out of the cell 3. more water moving into the cell than out of the cell 4. more water moving out of the cell than into the cell
64 Go Over Quiz
65 Quiz Today! Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a. What is an indicator? Which molecules are small enough to pass through a cell membrane? starch sugar protein amino acid fat fatty acid
72 Cell Membrane
76 Does diffusion require energy from this cell?
77 Since cyanide is a poison that limits a cell's ability to manufacture ATP, a cell containing cyanide is least likely to carry on the process of.. 1. passive transport 2. active transport 3. diffusion
78 Passive or Active? A red blood cell maintains a higher concentration of Potassium inside its cell than outside.
79 Passive or Active? You soak a cell in iodine but the cell never fills with iodine.
80 Passive or Active? You soak a cell in methylene blue and eventually it becomes fully blue.
81 Passive or Active? Equilibrium is reached.
82 Passive or Active? The cell stays out of equilibrium.
83 Passive or Active? ATP is used.
84 Passive or Active? No energy is needed.
85 Which process is best represented in this diagram? 1. active transport 2. diffusion
86 With the passage of time, some molecules move from area B to area A. This movement is the result of the process of: 1. active transport 2. diffusion
87 ATP is being used to move the molecules out of which cell(s)? 1.cell A, only 2.cell B, only 3.both cell A and cell B 4.neither cell A nor cell B
88 Which process is directly responsible for the net movement of K+ and Mg++ into the cell? 1. diffusion 2. active transport
89 Which row represents Diffusion? (Passive Transport)
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