Body Fluid. Transport Processes. Anatomical Fluid Compartments

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1 Body Fluid Transport Processes Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for any commercial purpose. Permission requests should be addressed to Stephen G. Davenport, Link Publishing, P.O. Box 15562, San Antonio, TX, All the cells of the body are linked together by body fluid. This fluid serves as the transport medium for oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, antibodies, etc. Cells organize the body into two anatomic fluid compartments, the (1) intracellular and the (2) extracellular compartments. In order for fluids to enter the body and to move from compartment to compartment, they must pass through the plasma membranes of cells. Anatomical Fluid Compartments Intracellular Fluid Compartment The intracellular fluid compartment is the compartment formed by all of the spaces within the cells of the body, and it contains intracellular fluid (ICF). Intracellular fluid accounts for about 63% of the body s total fluid. The two anatomical fluid compartments of the body are the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Fig. 5.1 Extracellular Fluid Compartment The extracellular fluid compartment is the compartment consisting of the spaces surrounding the cells of the body, and it contains extracellular fluid (ECF). The two major divisions of the extracellular compartment are the (1) interstitial compartment and the (2) intravascular compartments. These extracellular fluid compartments function to maintain the normal fluid volume and chemical concentration of the intracellular compartment. Interstitial Compartment The Interstitial Compartment consists of the microscopic spaces, the interstices, among adjacent cells. The interstitial compartment contains interstitial fluid. Interstitial fluid accounts for about 30% of the body s total fluid volume. Fig

2 Intravascular Compartment The Intravascular Compartment consists of the spaces within the body s blood and lymphatic vessels. Its fluid accounts for about 7% of the body s total fluid volume. Plasma is the fluid component of blood, and lymph is the fluid component of the lymphatics. Fig. 5.3 Fig. 5.4 Photograph of developing adipose tissue with blood vessels showing extracellular and intracellular compartments (430x). Transport Processes Transport across the plasma membrane is by passive and active processes. Passive movement processes do not directly require the expenditure of energy (ATP) by the cell, whereas active processes do. Passive processes include simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and dialysis and filtration. Active processes include transport processes across the plasma membrane. Two active transport processes are ATP driven membrane proteins that include carrier proteins and solute pumps and ATP driven vesicular (bulk) transport processes such as endocytosis and exocytosis. MIXTURES A mixture is produced when two or more components are physically combined and which retain their own properties. Three common mixtures include solutions, colloids, and suspensions. A solution is a homogeneous mixture (has uniform composition throughout) formed by dissolving a solute (solid, liquid, or gas) in a solvent (liquid, usually water). A solution is described as a single-phase system. A solute is the substance that is dissolved by the solvent. A solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute and is usually present in the greater amount. Solution Fig. 5.5 Colloid A colloid mixture contains solutes or larger particles (macromolecules to microscopic in size) than those of a solution but not so large as to settle out (as in a fine suspension). Usually, the particles interfere with the transmission of light and cause light to scatter. Typically, when a colloid consists of a substance such as starch or gelatin, and the solvent is water, the resulting colloidal mixtures are of a gelatinous or gel Fig. 5.6 consistency 2

3 A suspension is a mixture that contains particles larger than those of a colloid. A suspension is considered to be a twophase system where a solid phase (fine particles) is intermixed with a liquid phase (water). Typically, over time the phases separate and the solids (particles) settle out. Suspension Fig. 5.7 Lab Activity 1 Molecular and Particle Movement This lab activity is designed to visually demonstrate molecular and particle movement resulting from kinetic energy. Fig. 5.9 India Ink Movie Milk s Brownian Motion Movie Passive Movements PASSIVE MOVEMENT ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cell. The passive movement of water and dissolved substances across the membrane requires permeability through the membrane. Passive processes that allow permeability are diffusion and filtration. Processes of diffusion are simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and dialysis. Osmosis, the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, and dialysis, the separation of solutes by a selectively permeable membrane, are processes that utilize simple diffusion. 3

4 Diffusion Diffusion is a process of equalization which involves movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (along a concentration gradient). Net diffusion is a measurement of how much equalization occurs. The greater the difference in concentrations (concentration gradient), the greater the equalization (net diffusion). The driving force for equalization is molecular motion. Molecular motion is described as disordered and is associated with molecular internal energy, the microscopic energy on the atomic and molecular scale. Diffusion The rate of diffusion is how fast the molecules move through their environment. The movement of molecules (and particles) through their environment is influenced by (1) kinetic energy (temperature), (2) the nature of the environment (gas, liquid, or solid) and (3) the size of the molecules (and particles), and (4) electrical charge. Temperature Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy associated with the random microscopic motion of atoms and molecules. Increasing the temperature results in an increase of molecular motion and the rate of diffusion. Decreasing the temperature decreases the rate of molecular motion and the rate of diffusion. Environment The nature of the environment relates to the permeability of the molecules for the environment. Molecules move faster through environments of increasing permeability and slower through environments of decreasing permeability. Size The size of the molecules infers that larger molecules have more mass, offer more resistance, and move slower than smaller molecules (when in the same system of internal energy). Thus, in the same environment larger molecules diffuse at a slower rate than smaller molecules. Charge Molecules with electrical charges interact with other charged molecules in the environment. Molecules and atoms having opposite charges are attracted one to another, and molecules and atoms having the same charge are repelled. Thus, a positively charged substance would diffuse faster into a negatively charged environment than into a positively charged environment. 4

5 Fig Fig Consider the influence of temperature, size, environment, and charge. Lab Activity 2 Molecular Movement and Weight In a mixture (of equal temperature), all the molecules or particles are subjected to the same amount of internal energy. Since influenced by the same amount of energy, the smaller particles (less mass) move faster than the larger particles (more mass). This activity studies the influence of size (weight) on the rate of diffusion. The diffusion of methylene blue (molecular weight of 320) is compared to the diffusion of potassium permanganate (molecular weight of 158). Fig Fig Fig Fig Simple Diffusion Simple Diffusion Across the Plasma Membrane Diffusion is a process of equalization which involves movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (along a concentration gradient). Permeability of the substance may be due to solubility in the membrane s phospholipid bilayer, the presence of membrane channels, or The presence of carrier proteins. Generally, substances are soluble in the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane if they are small, nonpolar, and lipid soluble. Substances such as oxygen and carbon dioxide easily diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer the plasma membrane. 5

6 Lipid Solubility Membrane Channels Fig Lipid solubility allows small nonpolar molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse through the plasma membrane. Diffusion follows a concentration gradient, from high to low. Fig Membrane channels allow the diffusion of specific substances across the plasma membrane. Diffusion always follows a concentration gradient, from high to low. Facilitated Diffusion Facilitated diffusion utilizes carrier proteins that participate in the movement of the substance across the membrane. An interaction of the membrane proteins with the diffusing substance causes the membrane proteins to transport the substance across the membrane. Facilitated diffusion typically involves the diffusion of large molecules, such as the facilitated diffusion of glucose into the cell. Fig MOVEMENT OF WATER BY HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of water against a wall or membrane. Sources of Hydrostatic Pressure Blood (hydrostatic) pressure Three of the sources of hydrostatic pressure in our body are the contraction of the heart (blood pressure), osmotic movement of water (water volume changes), and gravity (such as venous blood pooling in the legs of a standing individual). Blood (hydrostatic) pressure is the driving force for the movement of water and various solutes from blood vessels called capillaries into the interstitial spaces. Fig

7 Osmosis The osmotic movement of water facilitates water flow from one area to another. Osmosis is essential in interstitial water reabsorption at the capillaries and water reabsorption by the kidneys. Net water movements cause changes in the shape of cells, in pressure, and the location of water (interstitial vs intracellular environments). Filtration Filtration is the forced movement of a substance through a filter. A filter is a porous substance or structure used to separate suspended material in liquids or gases. Filtration requires a driving pressure to force the liquid or gas through the filter. The pore size of the filter determines which materials will pass through. The product of fluid filtration is called a filtrate. Lab Activity 3 Filtration Lab Activity 3 Filtration What are the test results for filtration of solution of copper sulfate and starch? What determined passage through the membrane? Fig A setup for a filtration apparatus and expected results due to pore size of filter paper. Fig Filtration at the Plasma Membrane Filtration at the Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane contains protein channels that function as pores and is selectively permeable. Selective permeability means that the plasma membrane selects what substances can pass through because the size of its pores or other physical characteristics of the membrane. Fig Blood pressure provides the driving force for filtration at the capillary. Filtration is one way fluid and solutes are delivered into the interstitial spaces (forming interstitial fluid) to support cellular metabolism. 7

8 Filtration at the Plasma Membrane MOVEMENT OF WATER BY OSMOSIS Fig Fenestrated glomerular capillaries in the kidney produce plasma filtrate. The filtrate passes through a series of tubes where it is modified by reabsorption (and secretion) into urine. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane such as the plasma membrane. OSMOSIS Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane such as the plasma membrane. Water diffuses through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and through plasma membrane water channels called aquaporins. Net water movement occurs when the concentration of a solute that is impermeable to the plasma membrane differs between the intracellular and the extracellular fluid. OSMOSIS A difference in impermeable solute concentrations means that there is a difference in water concentration, and net water movement is from the region of higher water concentration to the region of lower water concentration. Water osmotically moves out of a cell when the extracellular fluid has less water (because it has more impermeable solutes) than the cell. In this case, the movement of water out of the cell causes the cell to shrink because the cell s water (hydrostatic) pressure decreases. In this illustration, the extracellular fluid contains a higher concentration of impermeable solutes than the intracellular fluid. Thus, the extracellular fluid has a lower concentration of water, and there is net water diffusion out of the cell. OSMOSIS Fig Effects of Osmotic Solutions- Osmolality and Tonicity Osmolality The osmolality of a solution is a measure of the number of particles present in the solution, regardless of the size or weight of the particles. To be osmotically effective, the particles must be impermeable to the membrane and at different concentrations on each side of the membrane. 8

9 Osmolality and Permeability The osmolality of a solution is a measure of the number of particles present in the solution If, as shown in this illustration, both the solute (Na+ and Cl-) and the solvent (water) is permeable to the membrane, there is no osmotic effect. Both the solute and the solvent (water) reach equilibrium. Fig Tonicity Tonicity Tonicity is the effective osmolality, and is the sum of the solutes that have the ability to affect the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane. In the consideration of osmolality of a solution, both particles that are permeable and impermeable to the cell membrane are considered. Fig Tonicity only considers the particles that are osmotically effective, the particles that are impermeable, and have the ability to affect water movement across the membrane. Tonicity Fig Osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure is the pressure exerted by the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane that separates two solutions with different concentrations of solute. A solution s osmotic pressure is proportional to the solution s concentration of membrane impermeable solutes. Osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure results because of the osmotic movement of water and is measured (expressed) as the pressure required to oppose the water s movement. Fig Tonicities of Solutions There are three possible tonicities of solutions: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic. 9

10 Isotonic Solution An isotonic solution is a solution that has the same concentration of impermeable solutes as within the cell. Equal concentrations of impermeable solutes means that there are equal concentrations of water. There is no net diffusion of water and no change in hydrostatic pressure. There is no net diffusion of water and no change in hydrostatic pressure. Animal cells maintain a normal shape. Plant cells maintain normal turgor, the normal state of Fig distension of the cell and wall. Hypotonic Solution A hypotonic solution is a solution that has a lower concentration of impermeable solutes than within the cell. Since the solution has a lower concentration of solutes, it has a higher concentration of water, and net water diffusion is into the cell. Water movement into the cell increases its hydrostatic pressure. Hypotonic Solution Cells bounded by only their plasma membranes, such as animal cells, increase in size (swell) and may rupture (lysis). Plant cells, bounded by cell walls, have an increase of turgor, the normal state of distension of the cell and wall. The Fig plant tissue becomes firm and rigid. Hypertonic Solution A hypertonic solution is a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than within the cell. Since the solution has a higher concentration of solutes, it has a lower concentration of water, and net water diffusion is out of the cell. Hypertonic Solution Cells bounded by only their plasma membranes, such as animal cells, decrease in size (shrink). Plant cells, bounded by cell walls, have a decrease of turgor, the normal state of distension of the cell and wall, and the plasma membranes pull away from their walls. The cells shrink, and the plant tissue becomes soft and pliable. Fig

11 Lab Activity 4 Osmometer An osmometer is a device used to measure osmotic force Osmometer Thistle Tube A typical laboratory osmometer and setup for laboratory demonstration is shown in this illustration. In this illustration the solution surrounding the membrane is and water moves (into / out of) the thistle tube. Fig Semi-permeable Membrane Lab Activity 5 Osmosis and Red Blood Cells Fig Isotonic Solution - Red Blood Cells A normal (isotonic) saline solution is 0.9% NaCl. Red blood cells in a isotonic solution have normal shape and size. Each red blood cell is a biconcave disc with a thin central region Fig Hypertonic Solution - Red Blood Cells A hypertonic solution has a higher concentration of solutes than within the cell. Since the solution has a higher concentration of solutes, it has a lower concentration of water, and net water diffusion is out of the cell. Water movement out of the cell decreases its hydrostatic pressure, and the cell shrinks. Red blood cells in a hypertonic solution are crenated. Fig

12 Hypotonic Solution - Red Blood Cells A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solutes than within the cell. Since the solution has a lower concentration of solutes, it has a higher concentration of water, and net water diffusion is into the cell. Water movement into the cell increases its hydrostatic pressure, and the cell swells. Fig Lab Activity 6 Osmosis and Potato Cells Isotonic Solution - Potato Cells Hypotonic Solution - Potato Cells Potato cells have a slightly flexible wall bounded internally by the plasma membrane. Turgor pressure (water pressure) of the cytoplasm maintains the normal state of distension of the cell wall. Osmotic changes that result in an increase or a decrease of water volume change the cell s turgor. Fig Distilled water is hypotonic to the potato. In a hypotonic solution, water diffuses into the cells of the potato and their turgor pressure increases. Increased turgor pressure results in increased rigidity of the potato slice. Fig Hypotonic Solution - Potato Cells Hypertonic Solution - Potato Cells The 10%NaCl solution is hypertonic to the potato. In a hypotonic solution, water diffuses out of the potato cells and their turgor pressure decreases. Decreased turgor pressure results in decreased rigidity of the potato slice. Fig Fig Fig

13 Hypertonic Solution - Potato Cells Hypotonic & Hypertonic Solutions Reversing the solutions reverses the osmotic effect. Plasmolyzed cells become rigid, and rigid cells become plasmolyzed. Fig Fig Fig Normal Turgor Lab Activity 7 Osmosis and Elodea Fig Fig Elodea cells with normal turgidity. The plasma membranes are not seen because they are in intimate contact with the cell walls. Hypertonic Solution - Elodea Plasmolysis occurs when plant cells are placed in an osmotic solution that promotes the outward movement of water. As cytoplasmic water loss occurs, spaces form between the plasma membranes and the cell walls. Fig

14 Hypotonic Solution - Elodea A hypotonic or an isotonic solution will produce normal turgor pressure in a plant cell. Turgor pressure is limited by the non-flexible cell wall. A plasmolyzed cell subjected to a hypotonic solution will show an increase of turgor pressure Lab Activity 8 - Osmosis and Paramecium Hypotonic Environment The unicellular Protozoa that live in fresh water, such as Paramecia and Amoebas, live in a hypotonic environment. The hypotonic environment results in continued MOVEMENT of fluid into the organism. Organelles called contractile vacuoles eject excess fluid from the organism maintaining cytoplasmic osmolarity (solute concentration). Fig

15 DIALYSIS Dialysis is the separation of solutes according to their size by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane. Depending upon the size of the pores of the membrane, solutes will either diffuse across the membrane or be restricted by their size. Dialysis Membrane Dialysis is the separation of solutes according to their size by the utilization of a selective permeable membrane. Solutes that are small enough to diffuse through the membrane s pores are separated from the larger solutes. Lab Activity 9 - Osmosis and Dialysis using Dialysis Tubing (membrane) Fig OSMOSIS USING DIALYSIS MEMBRANE DIALYSIS USING DIALYSIS MEMBRANE Which solute/s passed through the dialysis membrane? If a solute passed through the membrane, it would seem that the dialysis bag would lose weight. However, the dialysis bag gained weight explain this event. Fig Fig Which line (in any) most correctly matches the change in weight of the bag? Fig Fig

16 Lab Activity 10 - Osmosis and Dialysis using Membranous (Unshelled) Egg Osmosis (using membranous egg) This activity demonstrates osmosis by the change in weight of the egg. The egg contains a high concentration of natural protein (albumins). Fig Membranous Egg - Osmosis Fig. A FLUID MOVEMENT ACROSS THE CAPILLARY Fig. B Which Figure shows effects of hypertonic and which shows hypotonic solutions? Fig Which line represents the change in weight of the membranous egg? Capillaries are the sites of vascular and interstitial fluid exchange Forces of Fluid Movement Two driving forces for movement of water between the blood plasma and interstitial fluid are: hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) and osmosis. Forces of Fluid Movement Hydrostatic Pressure Hydrostatic pressure influences fluid movement from the capillary into the interstices and fluid movement from the interstices into the capillary. Osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure influences fluid movement from the capillary into the interstices and fluid movement from the interstices into the capillary. 16

17 Fluid Movement at the Arterial End of Capillary Fluid movement across a capillary is due to filtration pressure. Net filtration pressure is determined by subtracting the net osmotic pressure from the net hydrostatic pressure. Net filtration pressures differ between the arterial and venous ends of a capillary. The difference results in fluid movement from the arterial end (due to hydrostatic pressure) and into the venous end (due to osmotic gradients). Hydrostatic Pressure at Arterial End of Capillary There are two sources of hydrostatic pressures that influencing water MOVEMENT at the arterial end of the capillary: capillary hydrostatic pressure (or capillary blood pressure) and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic Pressure at Arterial End of Capillary There are two sources of hydrostatic pressures that influencing water MOVEMENT at the arterial end of the capillary: capillary hydrostatic pressure (or capillary blood pressure) and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure. Fig Osmotic Pressure at Arterial End of Capillary There are two sources of osmotic pressures that influencing water MOVEMENT at the arterial end of the capillary: capillary osmotic pressure (blood colloidal pressure) and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure. Fig Net Driving Pressure Arterial End of Capillary Thus, to determine the net driving force (filtration pressure) at the arterial end of the capillary both the net hydrostatic pressure and the net osmotic pressure must be considered. The net filtration pressure (NFP) of the capillary is determined by subtracting the net osmotic pressure (NOP) from the net hydrostatic pressure (NHP). NFP = NHP (35 mm Hg. minus NOP (25 mm Hg.) = 10 mm Hg. Fluid Movement at the Venous End of Capillary There are two sources of hydrostatic pressures that influencing water MOVEMENT at the venous end of the capillary: capillary hydrostatic pressure (or capillary blood pressure) and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure. Fig

18 Hydrostatic Pressure at Venous End of Capillary There are two sources of hydrostatic pressures that influencing water MOVEMENT at the venous end of the capillary: capillary hydrostatic pressure (or capillary blood pressure) and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure. Fig Osmotic Pressure at Venous End of Capillary There are two sources of osmotic pressures that influencing water movement at the venous end of the capillary: capillary osmotic pressure (blood colloidal pressure) and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure. Fig Net Driving Pressure at Venous End of Capillary Thus, to determine the net driving force (filtration pressure) at the venous end of the capillary both the net hydrostatic pressure and the net osmotic pressure must be considered. The net filtration pressure (NFP) of the capillary is determined by subtracting the net osmotic pressure (NOP) from the net hydrostatic pressure (NHP). NFP = NHP (17 mm Hg. minus NOP (25 mm Hg.) = -8 mm Hg. Net Fluid Movement at Capillary Fig Fluid movements between the capillary and the interstices are driven by the differences in the net filtration pressures at the arterial and venous ends of the capillary. Summary of Driving Forces Summary of the driving forces for fluid movement between the capillary and the interstices. Most of the fluid is osmotically returned into the venous end of the capillary. Fluid that does not return into the capillary is returned to venous circulation by way of the lymphatic system. ACTIVE PROCESSES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE Active transport moves solutes across the plasma membrane with the utilization of cellular energy (ATP). Fig

19 Active Transport Two active processes for transport across the cell membrane are active transport and vesicular transport. Active transport requires carrier proteins to provide the mechanism of solute movement across the plasma membrane. Vesicular transport requires that the substances be moved across the plasma membrane in membranous pouches (sacs) called vesicles. Two types of vesicular transport are endocytosis and exocytosis. Endocytosis is the movement of substances into the cell, and Exocytosis is the movement of substances out of the cell. Active Transport Active transport moves solutes across the plasma membrane with the utilization of cellular energy (ATP). Active transport requires plasma membrane carrier proteins that function as solute pumps. Solute pumps are commonly used for the movement of solutes such as ionic sodium, potassium, and calcium. Solute pumps typically transport their specific solutes from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, thus, against a diffusion gradient. Membrane Potentials Passive processes such as diffusion, osmosis, and dialysis are processes of equalization and do not require the utilization of cellular energy (ATP). Processes of equalization eliminate concentration gradients. For example, the electrical potential of excitable tissues would be eliminated by the diffusion and equalization of electrolytes such as Na+ and K+ resulting in the inability of cells to generate and conduct electrical signals Fig Membrane Potentials Excitable cells such as neurons and muscles, utilize energy (ATP) to actively maintain electrical potentials by membrane solute pumps. To maintain electrical potentials, solute pumps actively transport and maintain unequal electrolyte concentrations. Fig Membrane Potentials An action potential of a neuron is produced by the movement of Na+ and K+ ions along the portion of the neuron called the axon. The resting membrane potential is reestablished for the potential energy needed for a sequential action potential. Sodiumpotassium pumps actively maintain the membrane potential; Na+ in a high concentration outside of the cell and K+ in high concentration inside the cell. Fig Membrane Potentials An electrocardiogram shows the electrical activity of the heart. Active transport pumps maintain the electrolyte gradients needed to produce the electrical potentials. Fig

20 Lab Activity 11- Active Transport in Yeast Dead (boiled) yeast are stained red because they do not have the active transport mechanisms that prevent the entrance of the dye, Congo Red, into the cell. Living yeast cells have active transport mechanisms; thus, are not stained red. Fig VESICULAR TRANSPORT Vesicular transport requires that substances be moved either into or out of the cell in membranous pouches (sacs) called vesicles. Two types of vesicular transport are exocytosis and endocytosis. Fig Fig Secretion is the release of substances from a cell (or may be defined as a gland s product). Secretion of a substance may occur by exocytosis or by movement through plasma membrane proteins that function as channels or pumps. Secretory products released by exocytosis include hormones, mucus, milk, enzymes, etc. Secretion Fig Excretion is not a type of vesicular transport. Excretion is mentioned here to avoid confusion with secretion. Excretion is the release of modified and isolated waste matter (such as urine and sweat) from the body. Excretory products such as urine contain some secretory products that are considered as not useful to the body. Excretion Fig ENDOCYTOSIS Endocytosis is a process where substances are incorporation into the cell by of the substances being entrapped in membranous vesicles formed from the plasma membrane. Endocytosis includes phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor mediated endocytosis. Phagocytosis Phagocytosis is the process of engulfing solid materials such as bacteria or foreign bodies by a phagocytic cell. Phagocytosis involves the formation of plasma membrane extensions called pseudopods that surround and engulf the solid material into a membranous vesicle called a phagosome. The phagosome fuses with Fig organelles called lysosomes, which contribute digestive enzymes for digestion of the material. 20

21 Phagocytes Lab Activity 12 Macrophages of liver, Kupffer's cells Phagocytes in the body include macrophages and other types of white blood cells that help dispose of bacteria and other foreign or damaged substances. Most phagocytes move by a flowing of their protoplasm into forming pseudopodia, a movement called amoeboid motion. Macrophages freely roam the tissues of the body in search of potential pathogenic materials. Fig Kupffer's cells are identified on this slide preparation by the presence of phagocytized carbon particles (particles were injected into blood). Fig Fig Lab Activity 13 Amoeba - amoeboid movement and phagocytosis. Amoebas are unicellular organisms commonly found in freshwater ponds and streams. Observe for the formation of cell extensions called pseudopods. Pseudopods allow for the amoeba s slow movement and for the phagocytosis of food organisms. Observe the amoebas for phagocytosis of Euglena Fig Lab Activity 14 Paramecia and phagocytosis. Paramecium showing food vacuoles (phagosomes) containing Congo Red stained yeast (100x). Lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles and release powerful hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolytic enzymes result in a change of the color of the yeast to blue. Fig PINOCYTOSIS Pinocytosis (bulk-phase endocytosis) is the engulfment of extracellular fluids. This type of endocytosis is nonspecific and occurs by the invagination of the plasma membrane to form a membranous Fig vesicle. RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS Receptor-mediated endocytosis specifically engulfs substances according to the specificity of the receptors. Membrane receptors become concentrated in an area called a coated pit and bind only to their receptor specific molecule. Common receptors include insulin and lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Fig

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