Active Transport Two types of Active Transport distinguished by the source of energy used

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1 K+ Active Transport (e.g. solute pumps) Uses to move solutes (e.g.,, Ca ++ ) uphill against concentration gradients and across a membrane Requires carrier proteins Active Transport Two types of Active Transport distinguished by the source of energy used Primary Active Transport: Uses Secondary Active Transport: Substance pumped against its gradient can do work as it leaks back in. -Coupled transport: more than one type of substrate at a time. is released and sites are ready to bind again; the cycle repeats. Extracellular fluid Binding of cytoplasmic to the pump protein stimulates phosphorylation by. Primary Active Transport / pump Na+ Cell Concentration gradients of and Na+ P ADP Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its shape. P The concentration gradients are 0-fold greater for each element Required for muscle & nerve cells to functions and for cells to maintain their fluid volume & leak across the membrane so the / pump is continuously working Loss of phosphate restores the original conformation of the pump protein. P P i The shape change expels to the outside, and extracellular binds. binding triggers release of the phosphate group. Types of Active Transport Symport system two substances are moved across a membrane in the same direction Antiport system two substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions Seconday Active Transport Secondary active transport use of an exchange pump (such as the - pump) indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes Or in other words Substance pumped against its gradient can do work as it leaks back in.

2 Types of Active Transport Vesicular Transport Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes Exocytosis moves substance from the cell interior to the extracellular space Endocytosis enables large particles and macromolecules to enter the cell Trafficking moving within the cell Figure. Vesicular Transport Vesicular Transport Transcytosis moving substances into, across, and then out of a cell Vesicular trafficking moving substances from one area in the cell to another Fluid-phase endocytosis the plasma membrane infolds, bringing extracellular fluid and solutes into the interior of the cell Receptor-mediated endocytosis clathrin-coated pits provide the main route for endocytosis and transcytosis Phagocytosis pseudopods engulf solids and bring them into the cell s interior Exocytosis Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis -Stimulated by a cell surface signal: e.g. binding of a hormone to a membrane receptor -Substance to be released is encased in a made of phospholipid -Docking via intertwining V-snare and Snare proteins All energized by or GTP Figure.2a Main route for endocytosis & transcytosis of bulk solids, macromolecules, fluids Infolding of coated pits (clathrin protein) encloses the substance to be taken in. Once inside, clathrin is lost and fuses w/ the endosome for sorting: Recycled to plasma membrane Combined w/ lysosome and digested Exocytosis (via transcytosis) 2

3 Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Phagocytosis Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Extracellular fluid Clathrincoated pit Recycling of membrane and receptors (if present) to plasma membrane Ingested Exocytosis substance of contents Clathrin protein Endosome Uncoated Detachment of clathrincoated Transcytosis 2 Clathrincoated for digestion Uncoating To lysosome Plasma membrane Uncoated and release of contents fusing with endosome (a) Clathrin-mediated endocytosis -Large material is engulfed by the cell -Particles bind to receptors on the cell surface -ic extensions (pseudopods) form and flow around the particle -The endocytotic is called a phagosome -The phagosome fuses with the lysosome for digestion Figure.a Figure.b Pinocytosis Fluid phase endocytosis Infolding of the plasma membrane pinches off a small volume of extracellular fluid Used by intestinal cells to sample the environment Receptor Mediated Endocytosis -Very selective -Receptors are plasma membrane proteins -Receptors and bound substrate are internalized -Used to internalize enzymes, insulin, hormones, etc Figure.c Passive Membrane Transport Review Active Membrane Transport Review Process Energy Source Example Process Simple diffusion Energy Source Kinetic energy Example Movement of O 2 through membrane Active transport of solutes Exocytosis Movement of ions across membranes Neurotransmitter secretion Facilitated diffusion Kinetic energy Movement of glucose into cells Endocytosis White blood cell phagocytosis Osmosis Kinetic energy Movement of H 2 O in & out of cells Fluid-phase endocytosis Receptor-mediated endocytosis Absorption by intestinal cells Hormone and cholesterol uptake Filtration Hydrostatic pressure Formation of kidney filtrate Endocytosis via caveoli Cholesterol regulation Endocytosis via coatomer s Intracellular trafficking of molecules

4 Membrane Potential Voltage across a membrane Voltage is Electrical potential energy resulting from the separation of oppositely charged particles In cells, ions ( and ) are the charged particles and the plasma membrane keeps them separated Membrane Potential Resting membrane potential the point where potential is balanced by the membrane potential Ranges from 20 to 200 mv Results from and concentration gradients across the membrane Differential permeability of the plasma membrane to and Steady state potential maintained by active transport of ions Generation and Maintenance of Membrane Potential Membrane Potential also influences the resting membrane potential is strongly attracted to the negatively charged cell interior and by the sodium ion s concentration gradient bring the resting membrane potential to -70mV However, the membrane is much more permeable to than it is to If passive forces only were at work, the [ ] and [ ] would eventually become equal inside and outside Active transport maintains the ionic imbalance and thus the membrane potential as well as the osmotic balance! PLAY InterActive Physiology : Nervous System I: The Membrane Potential Figure.5 Cell Environment Interactions: Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Involved in embryonic development, wound repair, immunity E.g. cadherins, integrins Anchor cells to each other & the extracellular matrix Assist in movement of cells past one another Rally protective white blood cells to injured or infected areas Mechano-receptor- stimulating synthesis or degradation of adhesive membrane junctions Involved in intracellular signaling that directs migration, proliferation, specialization during development Roles of Membrane Receptors Contact signaling touching of cells Electrical signaling voltage-regulated ion gates in nerve and muscle tissue respond to changes in membrane potential Chemical signaling neurotransmitters bind to chemically gated channel-linked receptors in nerve and muscle tissue G protein-linked receptors ligands bind to a receptor which activates a G protein, causing the release of a second messenger, such as cyclic AMP 4

5 Operation of a G Protein An extracellular ligand (first messenger), binds to a specific plasma membrane protein The receptor activates a G protein that relays the message to an effector protein The effector is an enzyme that produces a second messenger inside the cell The second messenger activates a kinase The activated kinase can trigger a variety of cellular responses Operation of a G Protein Extracellular fluid First messenger Effector (ligand) (e.g., enzyme) Active 4 second messenger 2 G protein (e.g., cyclic AMP) Membrane 5 receptor Inactive second messenger Activated (phosphorylated) kinases 6 Cascade of cellular responses (metabolic and structural changes) Figure.6 material between plasma membrane and the nucleus Site where most cellular activities happen Consists of three major elements: Cytosol Organelles Inclusions Cytosol viscous fluid that suspends the organelles and inclusions and gives cell shape. Largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes ic organelles metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusions storage areas for nutrients such as glycosomes, glycogen granules, and pigment ic Organelles Specialized cellular compartments each performing a job like the organs of the body Organelles are membranous and can maintain an isolated environment often different than the cytoplasm and other organelles Membranous Mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus Nonmembranous Cytoskeleton, centrioles, and ribosomes 5

6 Mitochondria Mitochondria Double membrane structure with shelf-like cristae Provide most of the cell s via aerobic cellular respiration Located in sites where energy is needed Contain their own DNA and RNA and can reproduce Function: Intermediate products of food fuels (e.g. glucose) are broken down into water, CO2 while a phosphate is attached to ADP Outer membrane is smooth and featureless, while the inner membrane folds inward forming cristae Ribosomes Figure.7a, b Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Granules containing protein and rrna Membranous network surrounding the nucleus Site of protein synthesis Continuous with the nuclear membrane Free ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins that function in the cytosol Accounts for ½ of the cells membranes! Membrane-bound ribosomes synthesize proteins to be incorporated into membranes or export from the cell Two varieties rough ER and smooth ER Free- and Membrane-bound ribosomes can attach and detach according to need Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough (ER) Figure.8a, c External surface studded with ribosomes Manufactures all secreted proteins Responsible for the synthesis of integral membrane proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes 6

7 Signal Mechanism of Protein Synthesis mrna ribosome complex is directed to rough ER by a signal-recognition particle (SRP) SRP is released and polypeptide grows into cisternae The protein is released into the cisternae and sugar groups are added Signal Mechanism of Protein Synthesis The protein folds into a three-dimensional conformation The protein is enclosed in a transport and moves toward the Golgi apparatus Signal Mechanism of Protein Synthesis Cytosol mrna Coatomercoated transport Signalrecognition particle (SRP) ER membrane Ribosomes 2 Signal sequence Receptor site Growing polypeptide 4 5 Transport budding off Sugar group Released Signal glycoprotein sequence removed ER cisterna Smooth ER Plays no role in protein synthesis Catalyzes the following reactions in various organs of the body In the liver lipid and cholesterol metabolism, breakdown of glycogen and, along with the kidneys, detoxification of drugs In the testes synthesis of steroid-based hormones In the intestinal cells absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats In skeletal and cardiac muscle storage and release of calcium Figure.9 7

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