Research Paper. Singla et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology E-ISSN

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2 technology, many of PV cells (involving 36 to 72 cells) are connected in series to form a PV module. These modules can be interconnected in series and/or parallel to form a PV panel. In case these modules are connected in series, their voltages are added with the same current. Nevertheless, when they are connected in parallel, their currents are added while the voltage is the same. Also three major families of PV cells are Monocrystalline technology, Polycrystalline technology and Thin film technologies. The monocrystalline and polycrystalline technologies are based on microelectronic manufacturing technology and their efficiency is in general between 10% and 15% for monocrystalline and between 9% and 12% for polycrystalline. For thin film cells, the efficiency is 10% for a-si, 12% for CuInSe2 and 9% for CdTe [9]. Thus, the Monocrystalline cell has the highest efficiency. B. Characteristics of Solar Cell PV system naturally exhibits a nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics which vary with the radiant intensity and cell temperature. The typical I-V and P-V characteristics of solar cell are shown in fig 2. Fig. 2 Typical Characteristics of solar cell The fundamental parameters related to solar cell characteristics are Short circuit current (Isc), Open circuit voltage (Voc), Maximum power point (MPP) and Fill factor. Short Circuit Current is the current that corresponds to the short circuit condition when the impedance is low and it is calculated when the voltage equals to zero. It is the greatest value of the current generated by a cell. I (at V=0) = I SC Open Circuit Voltage is the voltage when the open circuit occurs and there is no current passing through the cell. V (at I=0) = V OC Maximum Power Point is the operating point at which the power is maximum across the load. Pm = Vm.Im where, Vm is the maximum voltage and Im is the maximum current. Fill Factor (FF) is essentially a measure of quality of the solar cell. It is calculated by comparing the maximum power to the theoretical power (Pt) that would be output at both the open circuit voltage and short circuit current together. Fill Factor (FF) = P m / (V OC.I SC ) The fill factor is a measure of the real I-V characteristic. Its value is higher than 0.7 for good cells. Typical fill factors range from 0.5 to The fill factor diminishes as the cell temperature is increased. Also the open circuit voltage (Voc) increases logarithmically with the ambient irradiation, while the short circuit current (Isc) is a linear function of the ambient irradiation. The dominant effect with increasing cell s temperature is the linear decrease of the open circuit voltage, the cell being thus less efficient. The short circuit current slightly increases with the cell temperature C. Solar Cell Model & Characteristic Equations A general mathematical description of I-V output characteristics for a PV cell has been studied for over the past four decades [10]-[12]. Such an equivalent circuit-based model is mainly used for the MPPT technologies. The simplest equivalent circuit of the general model which consists of a photo current, a diode, a parallel resistor expressing a leakage current, and a series resistor describing an internal resistance to the current flow, is shown in Fig.3 Fig. 3 PV Cell Equivalent Circuit Model. The output of the current source is directly proportional to the light falling on the cell (photocurrent Iph). During darkness, the solar cell is not an active device; it works as a diode, i.e. a p-n junction. It produces neither a current nor a voltage. However, if it is connected to an external supply (large voltage) it generates a current I D, called diode (D) current or dark current. The diode determines the I-V characteristics of the cell. The voltage-current characteristic equation of a solar cell is given as I = I PH I S [exp ( q(v + IR S ) / kt C A) 1] (V + IR S ) / R SH Where I PH is a light-generated current or photocurrent, I S is the cell saturation of dark current, q (= C) is an electron charge, k (= J/K) is a Boltzmann s constant, T C is the cell s working temperature, A is an ideal factor, R SH is a shunt resistance, and R S is a series resistance. The photocurrent mainly depends on the solar insolation and cell s working temperature, which is described as I PH = [I SC + K I (T C T Ref )]λ Where I SC is the cell s short-circuit current at a 25 C and 1kW/m 2, K I is the cell s short-circuit current temperature coefficient, T Ref is the cell s reference temperature, and λ is the solar insolation in kw/m 2. On the other hand, the cell s saturation current varies with the cell temperature, which is described as Is= I RS (Tc /T Ref ) 3 exp[qe G (1/T Ref - 1/T C )/ ka] Where I RS is the cell s reverse saturation current at a reference temperature and a solar radiation, E G is the bang-gap energy of the semiconductor used in the cell. The ideal factor A is dependent on PV technology and is listed in Table I. Table I Ideality Factor A dependence on PV technology D. Solar Module and Array Model Since a typical PV cell produces less than 2W at 0.5V approximately, the cells must be connected in seriesparallel configuration on a module to produce enough high power. A PV array is a group of several PV

3 modules which are electrically connected in series and parallel circuits to generate the required current and voltage. The equivalent circuit for the solar module arranged in N P parallel and N S series is shown in Fig.4. The terminal equation for the current and voltage of the array becomes as follows [13]- [16]. I = N P I PH N P I S [exp (q(v / N S + IR S / N P ) / kt C A) 1] (N P V / N S + IR S )/R SH Fig. 4 General PV Module Equivalent Circuit Model. III. SIMULATION OF SOLAR PV MODULE IN MATLAB A. Building of PV Module Model The use of equivalent electrical circuit makes it possible to model characteristics of a photovoltaic cell. The method used here is implemented in MATLAB / Simulink software for simulations. The same modeling technique is also applicable for modeling a PV module. A general PV model is built using MATLAB/Simulink [17] to illustrate and verify the nonlinear I-V and P-V output characteristics of PV module. The proposed model is implemented and is shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 5 Simulink Model Implementation for PV Module (Modeling stage) Fig. 5 shows the contents of functional block used in modeling of PV Module. It is important to build a general model suitable for all of the PV cell, module and array. Being illuminated with radiation of sunlight, PV module converts part of the photovoltaic potential directly into electricity with both I-V and P- V output characteristics. Fig. 6 shows the Masked implementation of PV Module model used in simulation. The input variable i.e Insolation value can be varied & the variation effect on I-V & P-V output characteristics of PV module can be seen by change in its output value in the curve accordingly. Also, In order to get benefit from the developed model of module, an array of 6 PV modules has been constructed. In fact, these PV modules are Fig. 6 Masked Implementation for PV Module Model interconnected in series and all of them are connected to the external control block as shown in Fig. 7.

4 The PV array model is simulated similarly to the model of the PV module and the obtained results are shown well in next section. The Solarex MSX60 PV module is chosen as reference example for modeling, due is well-suited to traditional applications of photovoltaics. The MSX 60 module provides 60 watt of nominal maximum power and has 36 series connected polycrystalline silicon cells. The used Solarex MSX60 PV module key specifications are shown in Table II. Table II- Solarex MSX 60 PV Module Specifications (1kW/m 2, 25 C) Fig. 7 Masked Implementation for PV Array model. B. Simulation Results of PV Module & Array Model For a PV cell with an ideal I-V characteristic, its open circuit voltage and short-circuit current are given as V OC = V and I SC = 2.0 A, respectively. In addition, N S = N P = 1 for a PV cell. The electrical characteristics of PV module are generally represented by the current versus voltage and power versus voltage curves. Both I-V and P-V output characteristics of general PV model for a module at various insolation are shown in Figs.8-9. The nonlinear nature of PV module is apparent as shown in the figs. i.e., the output current and power of PV module depend on solar insolation. Also, we observe that with increase of solar insolation, the short-circuit current of the PV module increases, and the maximum power output increases as well. The reason is the open-circuit voltage is logarithmically dependent on the solar irradiance, yet the shortcircuit current is directly proportional to the radiant intensity. Fig. 8 I-V Output Characteristics of PV Module for different insolation (λ) Fig. 9 P-V Output Characteristics of PV Module for different insolation (λ) The peak value of the product of V and I represent the maximum power point (MPP) Pmax of the solar module. The current and voltage of PV module at the MPP are denoted by Imp and Vmp, respectively. The solar module should always be operated in this region so as to extract the maximum power for given input conditions. For this purpose various maximum power point algorithms can be used. The PV Array typical I- V & P-V Curves are shown in figs. 10 and 11.

5 Fig. 10 P-V Output Characteristics of PV Array for insolation (λ =1 kw/m 2 ) It is clear that as the modules are connected in series in an array, the current remains the same whereas the voltage adds up (I-V Curve). Similarly the output power of an array is equal to sum of individual PV module power (P-V Curve). Both the above curves are drawn for typical value of Insolation, λ=1 kw/m 2. The effect of insolation variation is same as in the case of PV Module. Fig. 11 I-V Output Characteristics of PV Array for insolation (λ =1 kw/m 2 ) IV. CONCLUSION The paper presents an improved Matlab /Simulink simulation model. An accurate PV module electrical model is presented for a typical 60W solar panel. The proposed model takes sunlight irradiance & current as input parameters and outputs the I-V and P-V characteristics under various conditions. The results from the model show excellent correspondence to manufacturer s published curves. A number of discrete data points can be shown on the curves. These are points taken directly from the manufacturer s published curves, and show excellent correspondence to the model. Finally the developed model is used to show the effect of insolation on output characteristics. This paper is the first step to develop a solar photovoltaic power system in simulation. The final objective develops a general model to simulate the electrical behavior of the PV system. Future work will present results for using the presented model in the simulation and design of a complete solar PV renewable energy system. V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is a part of the M.Tech thesis work of Mr. Vineet Singla conducted during the time period July 2012-May 2013 under the able guidance of Mr. Vijay Kumar Garg, Asst Prof., University Institute of Engineering & Technology (U.I.E.T), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. REFERENCES 1. L.A.C Lopes and Lienhardt, A.-M. A simplified nonlinear power source for simulating PV panels. Power Electronics Specialist,2003. PESC 03. IEEE 34th Annual Conference on, Volume 4, pp June Wang Q., Qiu H. N. Situation and outlook of solar energy utilization in Tibet, China // Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Elsevier, No. 13(8). P R. Messenger and J. Ventre, Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, CRC Press, 2000, pp Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission Document 5. B. Kroposki, R. DeBlasio, Technologies for the New Millennium: Photovoltaics as a Distributed Resource. Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, IEEE, Vol. 3, p.p ,16-20 July Y-C. Kuo, T-J. Liang, and J-F. Chen. Novel Maximum-Power-Point- Tracking Controller for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System, IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 3, June 2001,pp M. A. S. Masoum, H. Dehbonei, and E. F. Fuchs. Theoretical and Experimental Analyses of Photovoltaic Systems with Voltage- and Current-Based Maximum Power-Point Tracking, IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 17, No. 4, December 2002, pp L. Fangrui, Y. Kang, Y. Zhang, and S. Duan. "Comparison of P&O and Hill Climbing MPPT Methods for Grid-Connected PV Converter," Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2008,ICIEA rd IEEE Conference on. pp Savita Nema, R.K. Nema, Gayatri Agnihotri, MATLAB/Simulink based study of photovoltaic cells / modules / array and their experimental verification, International journal of Energy and Environment, vol.1, No.3, pp , S. W. Angrist,, Direct Energy Conversion, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 4 th edition, 1982, pp O. Wasynczuk, Dynamic behavior of a class of photovoltaic power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-102, no. 9, 1983, pp J. C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, and J. R. Philips, Accurate analytical method for the extraction of solar cell model parameters, Electronics Letters, vol. 20, no. 10, 1984, pp M. Veerachary, T. Senjyu, and K. Uezato, Voltagebased maximum power point tracking control of PV system, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 38, no. 1, 2002, pp M. Veerachary and K.S. Shinoy, V2-based power tracking for nonlinear PV sources, IEE Proceedings- Electric Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 5, 2005, pp I. S. Kim and M. J. Youn, Variable-structure observer for solar array current estimation in a photovoltaic power-generation system, IEE Proceedings-Electric Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 4, 2005, pp I. S. Kim, M. B. Kim, and M. J. Youn, New maximum power point tracker using sliding-mode observer for estimation of solar array in the grid-connected photovoltaic system, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, 2006, pp J. B. Dabney and T. L. Harman, Mastering Simulink, Pearson Education,Inc., 2004.

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