Lecture 2 The Koryo Dynasty: Korea between Worlds

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1 Lecture 2 The Koryo Dynasty: Korea between Worlds Koryo Dynasty Transition-Military/Aristocratic to Confucian Aristocratic and Military Rule Neo-Confucianism/tohok/ Learning of the Way Response to Buddhism and Daoism Man and universe as one Achieving the dao through li (principle) and qi (mater Gewu investigation of things Influence on Korea Printing press-exam system More Confucianism/fewer aristocrats The Lion in the North: Interaction with the steppe Suzerain/ Suzerainty Society and the family The yangban The slaves Women and men Mongol Invasion King Gongmin/Kongmin & Queen Noguk Conclusion: Lessons learned on the way to centralization

2 Transition between Silla and Yi Chosan Korea (Korean culture we recognize) Interaction with steppe world Interaction and importance of military affairs The Palgwanhoe Palace

3 Won Kon- King Taejo Mixture aristocracy/confucian Scholars Grandson King Kwangjong ( ) Limit slaves to aristos More exams- but only for aristo sons Hands out prebends- tax estates Like Japanese shoen

4 Lion in the North- The steppes in the north 9th century Khitan and the Liao 10th century 30 years war with the Jurchen/Jin Suzerain/ Suzerainty A polity is a tributary to a more powerful entity which controls its foreign affairs. The tributary has limited domestic autonomy Dominant power is called a suzerain.

5 Connections to China direct overland connections broken economy shrunk imported luxury goods and technology Boat, Koryo, Mongol Period 13th century

6 Buddhism under patronage of royal family and aristocrats Resists Confucianism Military houses resist militarily

7 Celadon- Koryo Porcelain Inlaid Bowl, Koryo, Osaka Museum of Porcelain Celadon Vase, Koryo, National Museum, Seoul

8 Neo-Confucian formulation, li in itself is pure and perfect, but with the addition of qi, base emotions and conflicts arise gewu -Investigation of Things-- essentially an academic form of observational science, based on the idea that li lies within the world.

9 Neo- Confucianism Song response to Buddhist and Daoist popularity link man and universe Big question- integration of Man in the Cosmos Answers the Buddhist transcendence of the mundane by transcendentally grounding the mundane Way (Tao) of Heaven (Tian) is expressed in principle or li but that it is sheathed in matter or qi. The Vinegar Tasters, Koryo 12th cent The Buddha, Laozi, and Confucius all drinking from same vinegar vat, symbolizing Neo-Confucian unity

10 Neo-Confucianism in Korea education is a duty statecraft is a duty Eventually decline in Buddhism Will support the strong caste system

11 Society and family yangban --the upper class slaves-estimated 30% of the population

12 Women still high status Owned and kept property Married men often moved to women s home Kinship determined from both mother and father Wondering what to buy your Korean grandchild? Get them the Koryo Royal family action figures!

13 Mongol Koryo Koryo becomes tribute state Elite quickly becomes Mongolized Trade, technological interactions increase The Kangnido world map 1402, done under successor dynasty the Yi, but with Chinese and Islamic scholarship imported when Koryo was a Mongol vassal.

14 Mongol Empire Mongols Rule Korea

15 Movable type metal type invented Koryo 1234 The Jikji (Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests), the world s oldest extant book printed with movable metal type. Published Heungdeok Temple 1377, 78 years before the Gutenberg Bible. Only the last volume survives.

16 The Tripitka Koreana complete copy of Buddhist scriptures commissioned during Mongol war (print blocks carved ) Haeinsa Temple

17 Haeinsa Temple founded 9th century, rebuilt 19th After fire that burnt all but the library

18 Did Europeans traders in Yuan/Mongol China bring movable type to Europe? Latin Tombstone Yang-chou China 1342 Kublai Khan, Mongol Ruler of China and Korea

19 Confucian text by King Gongmin on world s first movable type (invented 1234, printed 1363)

20 King Kongmin (1351) and Mongol Queen Noguk 15th century

21 Yuan (Mongol) Empire crumbling Falls in China 1368 Kongmin asserts Neo-Confucian revival Appoints Sin Ton- ex slave as reformer in the administration Aristocrats Rebel A Hunt in the Heavenly Mountains painted by King Kongmin National Museum of Korea

22 Confucian text by King Gongmin on world s first movable type (invented 1234, printed 1363)

23 Queen Noguk dies 1365 Kongmin murdered by aristocrats 1374 Their graves- The Hyonjongrung Royal Tomb Hauson-ri, Kaepung County, Kaesong, North Korea

24 Koryo- Korea between the aristocratic and Confucian worlds Still links to northern steppe, military culture Neo-Confucianism basis of anti-mongol, anti-aristocratic dynastic renewal New dynasty- the Yi- will learn these lessons

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