Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

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1 Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity: Third Edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

2 Scope of the Presentation Status and trends of global biodiversity: based on the third Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3) report taking into account findings of other studies and assessments Biodiversity scenarios for 21st century based on experimental models and observed trends Strategic response/ action needed to stem the negative trends

3

4 Recent Reports on the Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity GBO-3, May 2010 Global Forest Reources Assessment (FAO, 2010) Second Report on the State of the World s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2010) State of the World s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2007) Global Environment Outlook, GEO-4 (by UNEP, 2007) Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) Global Biodiversity Assessment (UNEP, 1995)

5 Findings of Recent Assessments Unfortunately all recent assessments have come to a similar general conclusion: biodiversity continues to be lost at very alarming rates, largely due to human activities Changes in biodiversity have been more rapid in the past 50 years than at any time in human history and are expected to continue at the same pace or even to accelerate Unprecedented additional efforts are needed to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss at all levels

6 Prepared by the SCBD, in collaboration with UNEP- WCMC; Advisory Board Information sources: 110 National Reports Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (WCMC -coordinated) Biodiversity Futures Study (led by Diversitas & UNEP-WCMC) 500 scientific papers Open review process (comments from 200+ orgs & individuals; panel of scientists) Released in May 2010

7 Structure Status of Biodiversity as of 2010 Biodiversity Futures for the 21 st Century Towards a Strategy for Reducing Biodiversity Loss Required responses

8 2010 Biodiversity Target to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth

9 The 2010 Biodiversity Target not met No sub-target completely achieved Most indicators negative No government claims success Direct pressures constant or increasing

10 General global biodiversity trends Status and trends of biodiversity components Habitats in most parts of the world are declining in extent Most species with limited population size & distribution reduced Risk of extinction increased for many threatened species Genetic variety of cultivated species is declining Most terrestrial & aquatic ecosystems increasingly fragmented Threats to biodiversity Pressure on biodiversity from nutrient pollution increasing No. & rate of spread of alien invasive species is increasing Ecological footprint of humanity is increasing - consumption

11 The global Living Planet Index (LPI), i.e. state of global biodiversity based on trends in vertebrate populations of species, has declined by more than 30% since 1970, The Tropical LPI has declined by almost 60%. The Temperate LPI showed an increase of 15%, reflecting the recovery of some species populations in temperate regions Source: WWF/ZSL Source: WWF/ZSL

12 The Red List Index (RLI) for corals, birds, mammals & amphibians is decreasing. Coral species are moving most rapidly towards greater extinction risk Amphibians are, on average, the group most threatened. Source: IUCN

13 Trends in habitats are varied but show declines over all: Wetlands, salt marshes, coral reefs, seagrass beds and sea ice continue to decline Extensive fragmentation of forests and rivers Rate of mangrove loss slowing (except in Asia) The condition of many terrestrial habitats is deteriorating (degrading) Source: NSIDC

14 Livestock breeds at risk Source: FAO

15 Some positive global trends Significant increase in coverage of protected areas (management effectiveness?) Considerable efforts underway to increase the extent of areas of land under sustainable management. The rate of mangrove loss has slowed globally since the 1990s, though this is not true for Asia ODA for biodiversity has increased over the past few years (3.1b GEF replenishment in 2010)

16 Protected areas increasing Source: UNEP- WCMC Source: UNEP-WCMC

17 Amazon loss slowing in Brazil Source: INPE

18 SUMMARY: Trends as shown by agreed indicators

19 State Pressure Response Source: GBO-3, after Butchart etal 2010

20 Biodiversity Scenarios for the 21st Century Key Findings: Projections show continuing and accelerating extinctions, habitat loss, changes in distribution and abundance of biodiversity High risk of dramatic biodiversity loss and degradation of services; risk of crossing tipping points and the consequences Loss preventable and even reversible, if urgent and comprehensive action is taken at various levels

21 Ecosystems approaching tipping points

22 Tipping Points Amazon dieback Eutrophication Coral reef collapse

23 Tipping Point Amazon dieback Current Path Widespread shift from forest to savanna resulting from the Interaction of deforestation, climate change and fires Becomes more likely at 20%-30% deforestation Alternative Path Keep deforestation below 20%- 30% of original forest area Minimize use of fire for clearing Keep global climate warming below 2-3 degrees Self-perpetuating Regional rainfall and global climate impacts, massive biodiversity loss

24 Tipping Point Freshwater eutrophication Current Path Alternative Path The buildup of nutrients from fertilizers and sewage shifts freshwater bodies into a eutrophic state causing: Low oxygen levels and widespread kills of plants, fish, invertebrates Loss of nutrition from fisheries, toxic blooms make water unfit for drinking or recreation Reduce nutrient inputs from sewage, detergents and agriculture Reforestation of watersheds Restoration of wetlands Economic incentives to close nutrient cycle on farms

25 Tipping Point Coral reef collapse Current Path Bleaching severe with temperature rise great than ca. 2 o C Ocean acidification prevents corals forming skeletons Reefs become degraded and algae-dominated Livelihood threat to hundreds of millions through loss of fisheries and tourism Alternative Path Reduce local stressors including: Destructive fishing practices Coastal pollution Over-exploitation of herbivores such as sea urchins and fish Strict climate mitigation to keep CO 2 levels below 450 ppm and 2 o C.

26 Broadening action on biodiversity Enhancing synergies

27 Key strategy elements: Greater efficiency in use of land, energy and fresh water to meet growing demand Use of market incentives and avoidance of perverse subsidies Strategic planning Restoration of ecosystems Equitable sharing of benefits from use of and access to genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge Support and facilitate local action Communication, education and awareness-raising

28 The action taken over the next decade will determine whether the relatively stable environmental conditions on which humankind has depended for the past years will continue beyond this century. If we fail to use this opportunity, many ecosystems will cross the tipping points beyond which their capacity to provide for the needs of present and future generations will be highly uncertain. Inaction is more expensive in the long run than investing in action now

29 For further information on Global Biodiversity Outlook 3 and related products please see:

30 Group Exercise 1. Compile of a list of the major ecosystem habitat types in your country which have lost a significant amount of their total original area; 2. List the ecosystem services associated with this habitat type; 3. For which of these habitat types are there successful examples of restoration/improved resilience in your country? 4. What are the limiting factors to further increasing area/improving quality of these habitat types?

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