DRAFT Revised November 28, Experimental Research Plan: Resistance of Heat and Naturally Aged Class H Asphalt Shingle to Mechanical Uplift

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1 Experimental Research Plan: Resistance of Heat and Naturally Aged Class H Asphalt Shingle to Mechanical Uplift SERRI Proj. No : Residential Roof Covering Investigation of Wind Resistance of Asphalt Shingles Forrest J. Masters a, David O. Prevatt a, Kurtis R. Gurley b, Craig R. Dixon c, Dany Romero c a Assistant Professor, b Associate Professor, c Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida 1. Summary The objective of this experiment is to quantify the effects of heat exposure on the wind uplift resistance of lightweight three-tab fiberglass asphalt shingles. The goal is to better understand how weathering affects the performance of shingles in extreme wind events. Shingle samples prepared in conformance with ASTM D 6381 will be continuously heated in a forced air dark oven at 158 F for up to 12 weeks. Samples will be removed on a set schedule for testing of mechanical uplift resistance (ASTM D 6381) and rigidity (ASTM D 7158). PRI Asphalt Technologies will analyze samples to quantify rheological properties (ASTM D 7175) and chemical composition (modified ASTM D 4124 / Gel Permeation Chromatography). The rheological/chemical tests will be performed on asphalt that is chemically extracted from the specimens following ASTM D 2172 and ASTM D 5404, or when available from shingle manufacturers, on pure asphalt used in the production of the shingle specimens. For comparison, samples will be placed outdoors for natural aging for up to 5 years. The test matrix will consist of three Class H (rated for 150 mph) products from different manufacturers in order to develop a baseline for the highest level of shingle wind resistance a homeowner can obtain today. Future research will be directed towards Class D (90 mph) and Class G (120 mph) products. Combined heat, UV and water tests are also planned. Figure 1. Experimental Procedure 1 of 7

2 2. Experimental Procedure The experimental procedure (illustrated in Figure 1) is presented in four components: specimen preparation (Section 3), accelerated thermal and natural aging (Section 4), testing (Section 5), and analysis (Section 6). 3. Preparation of Asphalt and Shingle Specimens 3.1. Preparation of Asphalt Shingle Specimens The test subject is an ASTM D 3462 Class H lightweight three-tab fiberglass asphalt shingle. Three products from different manufacturers will be used in the study (the identities of these manufacturers will remain anonymous). Two types of aging will be performed: accelerated thermal aging and natural aging. Tests will be performed at the end of 10 and 12 aging intervals, respectively. Two mechanical mechanical uplift tests will be performed following ASTM D 6381 Procedures A and B on 10 replicates. Therefore, a total of 1320 specimens must be prepared: Table 1. Test Matrix Number of Acc. Thermal Aging Natural Aging Products 3 3 Aging Intervals Mechanical Uplift Tests 2 2 Replicates Subtotals Total 1320 Specimens will be prepared in accordance with Procedures A and B in ASTM D The cut sheet is shown in Figure 2, and the assembled specimens are shown in Figure 3. In Procedure A, the top shingle sample is loose laid over the bottom shingle sample with the leading edge of the top piece aligning with the manufacturer s required location (Figure 3a). In Procedure B, the top shingle sample is centered over the bottom shingle sample (Figure 3b). Heat exposure seals the samples together. During assembly, the samples will be photographed in order to quantify the area of linear sealant coverage, which varies from shingle to shingle. Figure 2. Plan view of locations of specimen extraction from asphalt shingles 2 of 7

3 (a) Procedure A (b) Procedure B Figure 3. Asphalt shingle specimens prepared in accordance with ASTM D Preparation of Asphalt Specimens Asphalt specimens are required for the dynamic shear rheometer, molecular weight distribution, and asphalt fraction tests. If available, asphalt used in the production of the asphalt shingle specimens will be obtained from the shingle manufacturer. If pure asphalt samples are not available, PRI Asphalt Technologies will chemically extract the asphalt from one of the aged asphalt shingle specimen following ASTM D 2172 and ASTM D Specimen Aging 4.1. Accelerated Thermal Aging A total of 600 specimens (300 for Procedure A and 300 for Procedure B) will be placed in a forced air dark oven conforming to ASTM E 145. The interior temperature will be controlled digitally and the distribution of heating within the oven will be experimentally determined to ensure an even heat exposure for all specimens. If necessary, the specimens will be periodically rotated throughout the oven to account for temperature variations. The specimens will be looselaid over the stainless steel racks, and subjected to a continuous interior oven temperature of 158 Fahrenheit. Specimens will be removed and tested in accordance with the aging schedule shown in Figure 4. The mechanical, rheological and chemical properties are expected to change more rapidly in the beginning of the heat exposure; hence the time between tests increases with exposure time. The first test (at 16 hours) corresponds to the initial cure time and provides the control (no aging) baseline. The upper bound of 12 weeks was chosen based on durations used in prior studies (Shiao et al. 2003; Terrenzio et al. 1997). 16 Hours 1/2 Week 1 Week 1-1/2 Weeks 2 Weeks 3 Weeks 5 Weeks 7 Weeks 9 Weeks 12 Weeks Time (Hours) Figure 4. Aging schedule (Note: rheological/chemical tests will also be performed at 0 hours) 3 of 7

4 4.2. Natural Aging The remaining 720 asphalt shingle specimens will be placed outside of the Powell Family Structures and Materials Laboratory at the Eastside Campus of the University of Florida. The specimens will be mounted on a south facing 6 in. on 12 in. sloped substrate with a southern exposure. A weather station located at the research site will record outdoor temperature, UV exposure, and rainfall data. Specimens will be removed and tested in accordance with the aging schedule shown in Figure 5. Similar to the accelerated thermal aging schedule, the rate of change in specimen properties for the natural exposure aging is expected to be greater in the beginning of the exposure period, therefore the time between tests increases with exposure time Months 6 Months 9 Months 12 Months 18 Months 24 Months 30 Months 36 Months 42 Months 48 Months 54 Months 60 Months Time (Months) Figure 5. Natural aging schedule 5. Specimen Testing Following the aging schedule, 20 shingles from each manufacturer will be removed from the oven at each time increment, and rested for a minimum of one hour to lower the temperature to 73 ± 4 degrees Fahrenheit, as required by ASTM D Next, UF will perform the uplift and rigidity tests (discussed in Section 5.1). Finally, UF will ship samples to PRI Asphalt Technologies, Inc., to perform the remaining tests (discussed in Section 5.2) Mechanical Uplift Resistance A mechanical uplift device was designed to meet requirements set forth in ASTM D 6381 (Figure 6). A Tritex TLM20 electric linear actuator applies the uplift force on the shingle and records its displacement. The device can perform procedure A and Procedure B, and it will be able to simulate fluctuating loads (future work). The device is supported on a lightweight, selfreacting aluminum frame welded to an aluminum base plate, making the system portable for use in field testing of shingles installed on existing homes (future work). The base plate will also include interchangeable mounts to conform to ASTM procedure A or B, as well as field and lab mount settings. In this experiment, the machine will be used to determine the uplift resistance of the sealant (following Procedures A and B in ASTM D 6381) and the modulus of rigidity (following ASTM 7158). The load will be increase linearly from zero load to failure at a rate of 5 in/min, which is in accordance with ASTM D Studies suggest that this rate of loading is conservative for design. Shao et al. (2004) has shown that the resistance of the sealant strip is inversely proportional to the duration of the load. The maximum uplift resistance, associated deflection, and failure mode will be recorded at the conclusion of each test. The state of the linear sealant will be also documented to determine if an adhesive, cohesive or mixed failure mode occurred. 4 of 7

5 Tritex TLM20 Linear Actuator Aluminum Reaction Frame Location of Procedure A and Procedure B Tests (See Figure 6) Futek LRF325 Load Cell Figure 6. Mechanical uplift device designed to conform to ASTM D 6381 specifications ASTM D 6381 Procedure A. The Procedure A samples will be placed on a test fixture, and clamps will secure the specimen to the fixture (Figure 7a). The top clamp assembly will be fixed to the leading edge of the top piece of the shingle specimen with care being taken to not disturb the specimen sealant strip. The top clamp will be attached to the linear actuator. Following testing, all specimens not designated for asphalt extraction will be loose laid back to their original position and placed into the dark oven for an additional two week thermal exposure. After two weeks the specimens will be removed from the oven and subjected to a second Procedure A uplift test to determine the shingles resealing performance. ASTM D 6381 Procedure B. The Procedure B samples will be placed on a test fixture, and an aluminum T section will be epoxied to the top piece of the shingle specimen. Care will be taken to ensure that the adhesive seal is not disturbed while the T section is attached to the shingle. After the epoxy has cured, the specimen will be placed into the test fixture (Figure 7b), and the T section will be attached to the linear actuator. Samples will be discarded after testing. (a) Procedure A (b) Procedure B Figure 7. ASTM D 6381 Procedures A and B 5 of 7

6 ASTM D 7158 Determination of the Shingle Uplift Rigidity (EI). This test will follow the shingle uplift rigidity procedure outlined in ASTM D The bottom piece of specimens tested for Procedure B uplift resistance will be used for this method. The Procedure A testing apparatus will be used for this test. After each Procedure B specimen has been tested, the bottom piece will be cut to a 3.75 in. by 4 in. rectangular specimen. A 3.75 in. by 3.5 in. metal shim will be placed on the base plate of the testing apparatus against one clamp stop and the shingle specimen will be placed over the shim and clamped. The specimen s leading edge will be pulled upward using the mechanical uplift apparatus described earlier. The EI value is computed directly from a cantilevered tip deflection equation. Dynamic Shear Rheometer. Dynamic shear rheometer tests will conform to ASTM D 7175 (modified for roofing asphalts). This test will provide the change in the asphalt s elastic and viscous properties during the heat aging process Chemical Composition Tests SARA Fraction and n-heptanes Insoluble Test. The SARA fraction and n-heptanes tests will conform to an IATROSCAN modified ASTM D Changes in the asphalts molecular composition due to heat aging can be quantified with this test procedure. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The GPC molecular weight distribution test provides the molecular size and weight distributions within the asphalt. The chemical changes that can occur within the asphalt during aging can be detected with the GPC method. 6. Analysis The following information will be tabularized for each aging increment (Figure 4): Procedure A and B uplift resistance (an average, standard deviation, and range for 10 values), the modulus of rigidity, dynamic shear modulus, asphalt fraction composition, and asphalt molecular weight distribution. The results of the physical performance and chemical composition tests will link the aged asphalt shingles wind uplift performance to the shingle s aging kinetics. Uncertainties will be quantified, when possible. A secondary goal of the project will be to develop a simplified mathematical model to compute the modulus of rigidity directly from force/displacement data collected during the ASTM D 6381 Procedure A test. 7. References ASTM D , Standard Test Method for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from Bituminous Paving Mixtures ASTM D a, Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles Made from Glass Felt and Surfaced with Mineral Granules ASTM D , Standard Test Method for Separation of Asphalt into Four Fractions ASTM D , Standard Practice for Recovery of Asphalt from Solution Using Rotary Evaporator ASTM D , Standard Test Method for Measurement of Asphalt Shingles Mechanical Uplift Resistance ASTM D d, Standard Test Method for Wind Resistance of Asphalt Shingles 6 of 7

7 ASTM D , Standard Test Method for Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer ASTM E145-94, Standard Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens Shiao, M. L., Nester, D. A., and Terrenzio, L. A., 2003, "On the Kinetics of Thermal Loads for Accelerated Aging," Roofing Research and Standards Development, 1, p. 17. Shiao, M. L., Snyder, R. A., Livsey, R. D., and Kalkanoglu, H. M., 2004, "Measuring uplift resistance of asphalt shingles," ASTM Special Technical Publication(1451), pp Terrenzio, L. A., Harrison, J. W., Nester, D. A., and Shiao, M. L., 1997, "Natural vs. Artificial Aging: Use of Diffusion Theory to Model Asphalt and Fiberglass-reinfoced Shingle Performance," Proc. Fourth International Symposium on Roofing Technology. 7 of 7

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