WINTER CYCLING in EDMONTON

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1 WINTER CYCLING in EDMONTON Can User Perspective Inform Infrastructure Design and Management? By: Dianne Gillespie

2

3 OUTLINE Background Winter Cycling Literature Methodology Results Mapping Voice Typologies Winter Cycling Nuances Conclusion/ Recommendations A. Leach

4 EDMONTON Edmonton s population on April 1, 2014 was over 870,000. (Source: City of Edmonton) Edmonton s population is growing by 3.7 % every year adding over 30,000 people/year. Need to encourage non motorized transportation.

5 BACKGROUND Transportation Master Plan The Way We Move Providing appropriate infrastructure for cyclists supports year-round cycling and encourages people to choose cycling as a safe, healthy and efficient alternative to driving. Complete Streets Design vs Standards Based Design A complete street is designed to integrate all road users safely, including pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, truck drivers, and public transportation users of all ages and abilities.

6 CYCLING LITERATURE Connectivity, bike lanes, pathways, flat terrain, low traffic volume, and green spaces have all been identified as LOS features, which correlate positively with route choices. Some abstract influences on route choice include time, speed, level-of-stress, and other area type effects. Some research has included more concrete influences such as pavement and sidewalk quality.

7 LITERATURE Cont d Still other research has found built environment features that cyclists specifically avoid, including hills, lights and crossings. Some research is focused on winter cycling, some finding that winter cycling is an important mode of transportation for a growing segment of the population. Other research has found that improved winter maintenance results in increased willingness to cycle in the winter.

8 THE GAP There is a significant gap in the existing research examining the relationship between the built environment in winter conditions and route choices. R. Franchuk

9 METHODOLOGY Stated preference approach Recruited winter cyclists through the EBC Society In person surveys of 33 participants Participants drew commuting routes and utility routes on maps

10 RESULTS Sample Characteristics Gender Age Years Winter Cycling Male: : 4 1-5: 17 Female: : : : : : : : 4 >20: : : : 3

11 RESULTS Cont d Male: Female = 18:15 (55%:45%) Age Groups: (12%), (52%), (36%) Years of Cycling: less or equal to 5 years (52%), 6-10 years (21%), more than 10 years (27%)

12 RESULTS Cont d Frequency of cycling to work / school: Daily (58%) 1-4/week (33%) Other (9%) Recreational winter cycling: 1-4 times per week (27%) Other (9%), N/A (64%) Running errands on bicycle in the winter: 1-4 times per week (52%), Other (24%), N/A (24%) J. Staszuk

13 RESULTS Barriers & Facilitators Barriers Lack of snow clearing/ packed snow Icy Roads Pot holes/ uneven pavement Lack of connectivity Lack of space on road/ aggressive drivers Conflict with pedestrians Facilitators Consistent snow clearing Route options/ more bike paths Studded tires Google maps R. Franchuk

14 RESULTS What Participants Want more road clearing education/ policies promotion cycling protected bike lanes / cycle tracks better connectivity R. Franchuk

15 MAPPING VOICE Participants drew their routes on individual maps. Old school stated preference method. Micro details about route choice emerged. 2 winter cycling typologies indicated. Complex set of strategies & environmental negotiations.

16 Mapping Voices

17 Route Destinations

18 SAVVY CYCLIST (N=22) Avoid street level infrastructure and cycle mainly on the multiuse trails, sidewalks, side streets with minimal traffic, parking lots and utility roads that are separated from major arterial roads. The main factors influencing where these cyclists ride are safety concerns and snowy conditions. A synergistic relationship between snow filled streets, decreased road space and safety issues forces the Savvy Cyclist to opt for routes, which circumvent busier roads.

19 RIGHT OF WAY Cyclist (N=11) This group is characterized by their willingness to cycle on roads with high traffic volumes most of the time. Potholes, uneven pavement and dumps of sand on the roads are barriers that are more predominant for winter cyclists who ride mostly on main roads. Several of the Right of Way cyclists indicated that they choose to ride on busier streets with more traffic because the side streets with less traffic often have worse road conditions with more potholes, more uneven pavement and less snow clearing.

20 WINTER CYCLING.Nuances Some cyclists deviate from the most direct route and some do not. The Right of Way cyclist route choice does not correspond to experience.but negotiation of space on the roads does. Some Savvy Cyclists opt for MUT s etc, because they are experienced and know the dangers of cycling on the road R. Franchuk

21 CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATIONS Shift bicycle infrastructure design to account for winter conditions. Incorporate local knowledge and expertise into the infrastructure design process. If winter conditions affect the performance of bicycle infrastructure in winter cities, more research examining winter cycling route choices is required in order to inform bicycle infrastructure design. R. Drinkwater

22 Acknowledgements Edmonton Bicycle Commuters Society Dr. Manish Shirgaokar: Urban Planning, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta

23 QUESTIONS?

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