Agrément Certificate 2008/350

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1 Agrément Certificate 2008/350 Copyright Agrément South Africa, October 2008 The master copy of this document appears on the website: Validity Users of any Agrément certificate should check its status: all currently valid certificates are listed on the website. In addition, check whether the certificate is Active or Inactive. The certificate holder is in possession of a confirmation certificate attesting to his/her status. Code of Practice Foundations and superstructures for single storey residential buildings of masonry construction, Joint Structural Division of SAICE and IStructE, as adopted by the NHBRC Quick guide Contents page 3 Preamble page 4 Conditions of certification page 5 Assessment page 7 Compliance with the National Building Regulations page 8 Technical description page 9 Use Subject: CMA Building Foundation Beams Certificate holder: Concrete Manufacturers Association PO Box 168 HALFWAY HOUSE 1685 Telephone: Fax: The certificate covers CMA Building Foundation Beams for use in all areas of South Africa in non-standard foundation systems of the type referred to in the certificate and on sites with founding conditions classified as Class C or H (classified in accordance with the site classification system published in Foundation and superstructures for single storey residential buildings of masonry construction - SAICE & IStructE, 1995). The beams are to be used in systems supporting single storey buildings of maximum plan size of 6,6 x 6,2 m with the foundation beam length in the 6,2 m direction. This certificate and Agrément South Africa s assessment apply only to CMA Building Foundation Beams utilised in foundation systems that are: designed and built under the control of and on eligible sites classified by competent persons designed and built as described and illustrated in this certificate and where the terms and conditions of certification are complied with. PO Box 395 Pretoria 0001 Telephone Fax Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 1 of 13

2 General description CMA Building Foundation Beams are pre-cast, pre-stressed concrete rectangular beams 200 mm wide and 400 mm deep used in non-standard foundation systems of the type referred to in this certificate. All aspects pertaining to the manufacture and use of these beams are under the control of a professional engineer or approved competent person who will ensure that the requirements of this Certificate as set out in Part 1 are met. Where necessary, superstructure walls are to be designed and built to accommodate expected movements by way of, for example, articulated walls and/or the introduction of masonry reinforcement or ring beams. The suspended floor slab that supports the walls is also part of the superstructure and must have appropriate long-term capability. The design and manufacture of CMA Building Foundation Beams are controlled by relevant established practice and associated codes of practice. Aggregate and sand used in production complies with SANS 1083, cement to SANS ENV 197 and the pre-stressing strands to comply with BS TYPICAL SECTION THROUGH THE FOUNDATION Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 2 of 13

3 CONTENTS PREAMBLE PART 1: CONDITIONS OF CERTIFICATION PART 2: ASSESSMENT Table 1: Performance Table 2: Quality management system PART 3: TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Description and manufacture Transportation and site handling Technical requirements Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 3 of 13

4 PREAMBLE This certificate is issued by Agrément South Africa in terms of the powers granted to it by the Minister of Public Works. This certificate: has been granted after a technical appraisal of the performance of CMA Building Foundation Beams for the uses covered by the certificate is independent of any patent rights that may or may not subsist in the subject of the certificate does not relieve the certificate holder from the obligation to obtain the prior approval of the building authority concerned for the use of the subject. Agrément South Africa is of the opinion that the quality and performance of the CMA Building Foundation Beams will be satisfactory provided that the requirements stipulated in this certificate are adhered to. However, Agrément South Africa does not on behalf of itself, or the state, or any of its employees or agents guarantee such quality or performance. Responsibility for compliance with the requirements of this certificate and the quality of the finished foundations resides with the certificate holder. No action for damages, or any other claim whatsoever, lies against Agrément South Africa, its members, the state or any of its employees should the said components and materials fail to comply with the standard set out in this certificate. Building authorities or users who are in any doubt about any details or variation, should contact Agrément South Africa. The validity of this certificate is reviewed every three years. The certificate shall remain valid as long as Agrément South Africa is satisfied that: the certificate holder complies with the general and specific conditions of certification and the technical requirements stipulated in the certificate the performance-in-use of the subject is acceptable any changes in building legislation, regulations, relevant standards or Agrément performance criteria have not invalidated the technical assessment that formed the basis of certification. Agrément South Africa reserves the right to withdraw the certificate at any time, should reasonable cause exist. Notices affecting the validity of this certificate will be published in the Government Gazette. Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 4 of 13

5 PART 1: CONDITIONS OF CERTIFICATION This certificate is issued on the premise that the majority of conventional masonry residential buildings have cracks caused by a number of contributing factors, regardless of the type of foundation used. The CMA foundation concept is no different. The assessment was thus made with a practical performance in mind that should be acceptable to the same degree that conventional foundations for buildings are expected to perform. Licensee - any person or company appointed by the certificate holder and registered with Agrément South Africa to manufacture and to use CMA Building Foundation Beams in accordance with this certificate and authorised by him/her to claim compliance with the certificate. It is the certificate holder s responsibility to ensure that the licensee carries out the work in compliance with this certificate and in accordance with the approved quality system. The CMA Building Foundation Beams described in this certificate must: be designed and manufactured by the certificate holder or a licensee in accordance with the certificate holder s detailed specifications and quality management manual be used in accordance with the technical description (see Part 3) comply with the Conditions of Certification. Any person required to check on details of manufacture and use in construction must refer to the documentation listed above, which is available from the certificate holder. CMA Building Foundation Beams, when used as described, are a combination of innovative and conventional aspects. A change to any one aspect could result in one or more of the other aspects no longer complying with Agrément South Africa s performance criteria. For these reasons, no change may be made to the CMA Building Foundation Beams and their intended use as described and illustrated in this certificate, unless such change is approved in writing by Agrément South Africa before it is implemented. General conditions This certificate covers the use of CMA Building Foundation Beams when used as a component in foundation systems as described in this certificate. All operations pertaining to manufacture and use of the beams will be carried out under the control of professional engineers or approved competent persons who will: ensure that beams are manufactured consistently to specification design and oversee the construction of the foundation system, specify a floor system and where necessary, design the superstructure walls ensure that founding conditions at the location of each foundation are correctly classified either Class C or H ensure that matters pertaining to under-scour of beams due to wind or water erosion are adequately addressed ensure that matters pertaining to site drainage are adequately addressed to ensure that the likelihood of water ponding adjacent to beams is prevented adhere to the requirements of this certificate. Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 5 of 13

6 CMA Building Foundation Beams Tested and approved fit for purpose when constructed as specified in CERTIFICATE 2008/350 Marking Where possible and appropriate, marketing brochures and packaging are to be marked with Agrément South Africa s identification logo and certificate number as illustrated in this certificate. Reappraisal must be requested by the certificate holder prior to implementing changes to the product will be required by Agrément South Africa if there are changes to the National Building Regulations or to Agrément criteria. This certificate may be withdrawn if the certificate holder or a registered licensee fails to comply with these requirements. Validity The continued validity of this certificate is subject to a satisfactory review by Agrément South Africa every three years. Quality monitoring The certificate holder is required to participate in Agrément South Africa s post-certification quality management system, which requires: that the certificate holder shall continue to implement and manage the quality management system approved by Agrément South Africa in the assessment of CMA Building Foundation Beams the cooperation of the certificate holder in facilitating post-certification quality monitoring by Agrément South Africa or its authorised agents. On behalf of the Board of Agrément South Africa Signed Chairperson 22 October 2008 Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 6 of 13

7 PART 2: ASSESSMENT Scope of assessment This assessment applies to those innovative aspects of CMA Building Foundation Beams described in Part 3 of the certificate. The novel aspect is the use of a pair of precast concrete beams to serve as the foundation for small single storey buildings, as opposed to the conventional in situ concrete foundations. Assessment In the opinion of Agrément South Africa, CMA Building Foundation Beams as described in the certificate are suitable for use as components in foundations of the type described in this certificate on sites classified as C or H (classified in accordance with the Code of Practice Foundations and superstructures for single story residential buildings for masonry construction published by the Joint Structural Division of SAICE and IStructE, as adopted by the NHBRC), where the expected differential displacement does not exceed 4 mm, provided that: the properties of the soil have been determined and the possible performance of the beams checked by a competent person to meet the essential design requirements the pre-cast floor units are adequately stiff in the long term and the superstructure properly designed to ensure the desired performance from the building. The performance in use of buildings erected with CMA Building Foundation Beams will be such that they will satisfy: the requirements of the National Building Regulations as stated in Table 1 Agrément South Africa s performance criteria and requirements for durability and quality management. Agrément South Africa s detailed comments on the assessment are set out in Tables 1 and 2 below. Each aspect of performance was assessed by experts in that field. Republic of South Africa. National Building Regulations, Government Notice R. 2378, Government Gazette No 12780, Pretoria, South Africa, 12 October 1990 Compliance with National Building Regulations The innovative aspects of CMA Building Foundation Beams relate to the National Building Regulations as set out in Table 1. Any regulation not specifically referred to is considered to be outside the scope of this certificate and must be applied by the local authority in the normal manner. Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 7 of 13

8 Table 1: Performance Aspects of performance Fitness-forpurpose of materials used Structural performance Opinion of Agrément South Africa The materials described in Part 3 meet the requirements of the regulations. Satisfactory, provided the requirements of this certificate are complied with. National Building Regulations satisfied A13(1)(a) Materials Regulations H1(1) and (2), Foundations, are deemed to be satisfied as follows: H1(1) on sites classified as C or H (in accordance with the Code of Practice Foundations and superstructures for single story residential buildings of masonry construction, Joint Structural Division of SAICE and IStructE, as adopted by the NHBRC). Durability The durability of CMA Building Foundation Beams will be satisfactory. Agrément South Africa s opinion is based on knowledge of the materials used and on inspection of buildings constructed using the CMA Foundation Building Beams in their foundation systems. Table 2: Quality management system Quality Management System The certificate holder s quality management system complies with Agre ment South Africa s requirements. Properly applied, it will ensure that quality in design and manufacture of CMA Foundation Building Beams will be consistently maintained. Agre ment South Africa s requirements are based on SANS SANS 9001: Quality management systems Requirements Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 8 of 13

9 PART 3: TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Description and manufacture SANS 1083: Aggregates from natural sources Aggregates for concrete SANS ENV Cement BS 5896: Specification for high-tensile steel wire and strand for the pre-stressing of concrete SANS 5863: Concrete test compressive strength of hardened concrete CMA Building Foundation Beams are pre-cast, pre-stressed rectangular concrete beam (400 x 200 mm). They are intended for use as a component in foundation systems similar to those described below for single storey houses of maximum plan size 6,6 x 6,2 m with the foundation beam length in the 6,2 direction (figure 2). The beams are manufactured (cast) in a continuous process on pre-stressing beds. The pre-stressing reinforcement (2 x 4 No. 7 mm diameter strands) is symmetrical at both the top and bottom. The raw materials (fine and coarse aggregates) comply with the requirements of SANS 1083 and cement to SANS ENV 197, typically CEM IIA 52.5, or to the mix designer s requirements. The pre-stressing strands comply with the requirements of BS 5896 and each batch (prestressing strands) is delivered with a test certificate from the supplier indicating a minimum yield stress of between and MPa. Prior to casting, the bed is cleaned and lubricated. The prestressing strands are placed as per the standard pattern and design. Care is taken to ensure that lubricating oil does not come into contact with the strands. Should this occur the oil is removed by thoroughly wiping the bars with mutton -type cloth. Concrete is batched by weight on a calibrated scale. The mix proportions are designed to achieve a minimum crushing strength of 50 MPa at 28 days and 35 MPa at 18 hours, namely at de-stress. Curing of concrete is accelerated by use of steam-heated moulds. The temperature is controlled to between 60 0 C and 70 0 C. The poured concrete is also covered with polythene sheets to assist in curing. For every batch concrete cubes are made and tested in accordance with SANS 5863 as a quality control measure. The beams are identified by means of a metal tag indicating panel mark, project name, project number, number in production sequence and date of manufacture. Beams acceptable to the quality controller are marked with green spray paint, otherwise these are marked with red spray and rejected. Transportation and site handling Occupational health and safety Act (No. 85 of 1993) CMA Building Foundation Beams are transported to site on trucks that are loaded and offloaded using cranes. Care is taken to ensure that beams are safely strapped onto trucks. The building site is checked and prepared to allow access for the crane and truck. All aspects of the Occupational Health and Safety Act are adhered to during transportation and site handling. Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 9 of 13

10 The beams are placed in position in foundation trenches. The trenches are excavated as per the engineer s specification. Once in place, the line and level of the beams are further checked to ensure that these are parallel and that the floor slabs are horizontal, once in position. The foundation trenches are back filled and hand compacted in layers not exceeding 100 mm thick. The open ends of the beams are closed off with a stiff 1:3 cement/sand mortar trowelled flush and, once dry, the ends of all the units are treated with a Cemcrete / Coprox - type product (waterproof cementitious application) to a minimum thickness of 23 mm to prevent the ends of the prestressing tendons against corrosion in the long term. Technical requirements General An acceptable degree of expected damage has been quantified in the Code of Practice Foundations and Superstructures for Single Storey Residential Buildings of Masonry Construction by the SAICE and IStructE, The same criteria would apply to buildings founded on the CMA beams. Section 3 of the above Code of Practice refers, Superstructures including suspended floor and walls must be appropriate so that expected damage is limited to minor damage category 2. In keeping with the above criteria, on building sites classed as C or H, CMA Building Foundation Beams can be used as a component in foundation systems similar to those shown in this certificate, for small single storey domestic buildings (6,6 x 6,2 m in plan), without the need for estimation of the soil stiffness. Control of the accuracy of excavations for the beams is very important and must be given special attention during training of workers and erection. The tops of the pair of beams that form the foundation for a building must be in one plane, with a small tolerance (15 mm). This implies that the beam may not have an excessive tilt along its length but also that its Y-axis may not be rotated out of vertical especially if the tilts of individual beams are in opposite directions. In evaluations of building systems it is a requirement that the foundations (that do not form part of the certificated system) be designed to provide proper support for the building. In this case, where the building does not form part of the certificate, it is required that the superstructure be properly designed to ensure the desired performance from the foundation. Essential design requirements All aspects pertaining to the use of CMA Building Foundation Beams in foundation systems similar to those shown in this certificate must be under the control of a professional engineer Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 10 of 13

11 or approved competent person. The competent person must ensure the following: SANS 10161: The design of foundations for buildings that founding conditions at the location of each site are either Class C or H and have been classified by a qualified geotechnical person who should also assess the uniformity of conditions over the site that predicted differential foundation movements are not expected to exceed 4 mm that soil bearing pressures do not exceed the recommended limits as set out in SANS 10161, Code of Practice for The design of foundations for buildings that the possible effects of inundation by a high water table and possible loss of support at the ends of beams due to under scour of sandy soils or differential settlements of collapsible soils must be taken into account that matters pertaining to site drainage are adequately addressed in order to ensure that ponding of water adjacent to beams does not occur. Construction The base of the excavations for each pair of foundation beams shall be in one horizontal plane with out of plane tolerance of ±15 mm so that the maximum difference between the highest and lowest points of the top surfaces of the beams will not exceed 30 mm. Compaction of the trench bottom may also be required where material has been disturbed by excavation. Where necessary, in order to comply with the tolerances given, concrete blinding or a weak sand/cement bedding mix may be required to bed the beam on. A means must be specified that will allow the pre-cast floor slabs to be supported in a stable manner and achieve an acceptable horizontal plane for construction of the walls. Also, pre-cast floor units must be adequately stiff in the long term to avoid deflections that could cause cracks in the walls. Where necessary superstructure walls must be of a type sufficiently flexible to accommodate expected differential movements or should be designed to accommodate such movements. The drainage of water away from the buildings and details for articulated pipe connections to buildings must be in accordance with section 6.3 of the Code of Practice Foundations and Superstructures for Single Storey Residential Buildings of Masonry Construction by the SAICE and IStructE, Agrément Certificate 2008/350: CMA Building Foundation Beams Page 11 of 13

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