# 4.203 Write the truth table for each of the following logic functions:

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1 3e According to DeMorgan s theorem, the complement of X + Y Z is X Y +Z. Yet both functions are 1 for XYZ = 110. How can both a function and its complement be 1 for the same input combination? What s wrong here?

2 3e Use the theorems of switching algebra to simplify each of the following logic functions: (a) F = W X Y Z (W X Y Z + W X Y Z + W X Y Z + W X Y Z) (b) F = A B + A B C D + A B D E + A B C E + C D E (c) F = M N O + Q P N + P R M + Q O M P + M R

3 3e Write the truth table for each of the following logic functions: (a) F = X Y + X Y Z (b) F = W X + Y Z + X Z (c) F = W + X (Y + Z) (d) F = A B + B C + C D + D A (e) F = V W + X Y Z (f) F = (A + B + C D) (B + C + D E ) (g) F = (W X) (Y + Z ) (h) F = (((A + B) + C ) + D) (i) F = (A + B + C) (A + B + D ) (B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D)

4 3e Write the canonical sum and product for each of the following logic functions: (a) F = Σ X,Y (1,2) (b) F = A,B (0,1,2) (c) F = Σ A,B,C (2,4,6,7) (d) F = W,X,Y (0,1,3,4,5) (e) F = X + Y Z (f) F = V + (W X)

5 3e Using Karnaugh maps, find a minimal sum-of-products expression for each of the following logic functions. Indicate the distinguished 1-cells in each map. (a) F = Σ X,Y,Z (1,3,5,6,7) (b) F = Σ W,X,Y,Z (1,4,5,6,7,9,14,15) (c) F = W,X,Y (0,1,3,4,5) (d) F = Σ W,X,Y,Z (0,2,5,7,8,10,13,15) (e) F = A,B,C,D (1,7,9,13,15) (f) F = Σ A,B,C,D (1,4,5,7,12,14,15)

6 3e Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is For each of the following logic expressions, find all of the static hazards in the corresponding two-level AND-OR or OR-AND circuit, and design a hazard-free circuit that realizes the same logic function. (a) F = W X + W Y (b) F = W X Y + X Y Z + X Y (c) F = W Y + X Y + W X Z (d) F = W X + Y Z + W X Y Z + W X Y Z (e) F = (W + X + Y) (X + Z ) (f) F = (W + Y +Z ) (W +X +Z ) (X +Y+Z) (g) F = (W + Y + Z ) (W + X + Y + Z) (X + Y ) (X + Z)

7 3e Show that an n-input AND gate can be replaced by (n 1) 2-input AND gates. Can the same statement be made for NAND gates? Justify your answer.

8 3e From the point of view of switching algebra, what is the function of a 2-input XOR gate whose inputs are tied together? How might the output behavior of a real XOR gate differ?

9 3e After completing the design and fabrication of an SSI-based digital system, a designer finds that one more inverter is required. However, the only spare gates in the system are a 3-input OR, a 2-input AND, and a 2-input XOR. How should the designer realize the inverter function without adding another IC?

10 3e Do 2-input NOR gates form a complete set of logic gates? Prove your answer.

11 3e Do 2-input XOR gates form a complete set of logic gates? Prove your answer.

12 3e Define a two-input gate, other than NAND, NOR, or XOR, that forms a complete set of logic gates if the constant inputs 0 and 1 are allowed. Prove your answer.

13 3e How many different logic functions are there of n variables?

14 3e How many different 2-variable logic functions F(X,Y) are there? Write a simplified algebraic expression for each of them.

15 logic function 3e A self-dual logic function is a function F such that F = F D. Which of the following functions are self-dual? (The symbol denotes the Exclusive OR (XOR) operation.) (a) F = X (b) F = Σ X,Y,Z (0,3,5,6) (c) F = X Y + X Y (d) F = W (X Y Z) + W (X Y Z) (e) A function F of 7 variables such that F = 1 if and only if 4 or more of the variables are 1 (f) A function F of 10 variables such that F = 1 if and only if 5 or more of the variables are 1

16 3e Draw a Karnaugh map and assign variables to the inputs of the AND-XOR circuit in Figure X4.216 so that its output is F = Σ W,X,Y,Z (6,7,12,13). Note that the output gate is a 2-input XOR rather than an OR. Figure X4.216 F

17 3e A 3-bit comparator circuit receives two 3-bit numbers, P = P 2 P 1 P 0 and Q = Q 2 Q 1 Q 0. Design a minimal sum-of-products circuit that produces a 1 output if and only if P > Q.

18 3e Prove whether or not the following expression is a minimal sum. Do it the easiest way possible (algebraically, not using maps). F = T U V W X + T U V X Z + T U W X Y Z

19 3e The text states that a truth table or equivalent is the starting point for traditional combinational minimization methods. A Karnaugh map itself contains the same information as a truth table. Given a sum-of-products expression, it is possible to write the 1s corresponding to each product term directly on the map without developing an explicit truth table or minterm list, and then proceed with the mapminimization procedure. In this way, find a minimal sum-of-products expression for each of the following logic functions: (a) F = X Z + X Y + X Y Z (b) F = A C D + B C D + A C D + B C D (c) F = W X Z + W X Y Z + X Z (d) F = (X + Y ) (W + X + Y) (W + X + Z) (e) F = A B C D + A B C + A B D + A C D + B C D

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Unit-1 1. Show Karnaugh map for equation Y = F(A,B,C) = S m(1, 2, 3, 6, 7) 2. Show Karnaugh map for equation Y = F(A,B,C,D) = S m(1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14) 3. Give SOP form of Y = F(A,B,C,D) =

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1 Chapter 4 Combinational Logic Logic circuits for digital systems may be combinational or sequential. A combinational circuit consists of input variables, logic gates, and output variables. 2 4-2. Analysis

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