# Module 3 Digital Gates and Combinational Logic

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 1 Module 3 Digital Gates and Combinational Logic INTRODUCTION: The principles behind digital electronics were developed hundreds of years before technology allowed us to build the first logical gate. A system of controlling processes and making decisions based on simple "yes" or "no" answers was developed by the Irish mathematician, George Boole in the 1850 s. He formalized the way we express logical expressions and documented the AND, OR, NOT functions that are the foundation of all modern logical design today. CONCEPT 3-1: Basic Logic Gates All logical operations can be narrowed down to three basic gates: AND - A logical "1" is output only if all inputs are a logical "1". OR - A logical "1" is output if any of the inputs are a logical "1". NOT A single input, single output device that changes a logical "1" to a logical "0" or a logical "0" to a logical "1". CONCEPT 3-1A: AND Gates An AND gate has two or more input lines for parallel binary bits, and one output bit. The rule is that if all inputs are a high, or a logical "1", then the output is a high, or a logical "1". The output is a logical "0" for any other binary combination of ones and zeros on the input lines. The Boolean Algebra expression for an AND gate is: A B = Q. If the letters A and B that designate the two inputs of the gate in the figure are horizontally adjacent, or side by side with nothing in between, it indicates an AND operation. If the above gate had three inputs designated as A, B, and C with the output designated as Q; the Boolean Algebra expression would be:

2 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 2 CONCEPT 3-1B: OR Gates A B C = Q. An OR gate has two or more input lines for parallel binary bits, and one output bit. The rule is that if any of the inputs are a high, or a logical "1", then the output is a high, or a logical "1". The only time that the output is a low, or a logical "0", is when all inputs are low, or at logical "0". The Boolean Algebra expression for an OR gate is: A + B = Q. If the letters A and B that designate the two inputs of the gate in the figure are horizontally adjacent, or side by side with a + sign in between, it indicates an OR operation. If the above gate had three inputs designated as A, B, and C, with the output designated as Q; the Boolean Algebra expression would be: A + B + C = Q. CONCEPT 3.1C: INVERT OR NOT GATE An INVERTER is the simplest of all gates. It outputs the opposite binary level that it inputs. A logical "1" becomes a logical "0", and a logical "0" becomes a logical "1". It does nothing else to the data.

3 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 3 Another way to indicate that a function or a variable is inverted is to draw a line over the top. This is done in the mathematical expression. In a digital schematic diagram that shows the interconnections of an electronic circuit, a logical inversion is shown with a small circle. A line over the top of A is NOT A and means that if A is a logical 1, NOT A is a logical 0. A device in a schematic diagram that has a small circle takes the logical level of the signal going to the circle and inverts it to the opposite logical level. Notice in the figure above. The small circle on the point at the output of the INVERTER changes A to NOT A. CONCEPT 3-2: Advanced Gates By using combinations of AND, OR and NOT gates, three new types of gates are produced, Exclusive OR (XOR), Negative AND (NAND), and a Negative OR (NOR). The new gates have the following rules: NAND A logical "0" is output anytime all inputs are a logical "1". NOR A logical "0" is output if any of the inputs are a logical "1". XOR A logical "1" is output anytime the inputs have an odd number of logical "1"s. CONCEPT 3-2A: NAND Gates NAND gates are AND gates with the output inverted, or OR gates with all inputs inverted. If all of the inputs are at a logical "1" state, the output is zero. The output will be at a logical "1" state for all other input combinations. A NAND gate is produced by inverting the output of an AND gate, or by inverting all of the inputs to an OR gate. The rule simply becomes the inverse of the AND gate, or if all inputs to the NAND gate are high, or at a logical "1", then the output is low, or at a logical "0". The output is high, or at logical "1" for all other input combinations.

4 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 4 The Boolean Algebra expression for the NAND gate has two forms. One form is for the AND gate with the output inverted: Y = A B The other form is for the OR gate with the inputs inverted: Y = A + B This gives rise to two Boolean Algebra expressions that mean exactly the same thing, and two schematic symbols that express the same identical gate. Y = A B = A + B CONCEPT 3-2B: NOR Gates NOR gates are OR gates with the output inverted, or AND gates with all inputs inverted. If any of the inputs are at a logical "1" state, the output is zero. The output will be at a logical "1" state only when all inputs are at a logical "0" state. A NOR gate is produced by inverting the output of an OR gate, or by inverting all of the inputs to an AND gate. The rule simply becomes the inverse of the OR gate, or if any of the inputs to the NOR gate are high, or at a logical "1", then the output is low, or at a logical "0". The output is high or at logical "1" only when all inputs are zero. The Boolean Algebra expression for the NOR gate has two forms. One form is for the OR gate with the output inverted: Y = A + B Definition 3.1: Gate Equivalence When different configurations of logic gates produce the same outcome, they are said to be equivalent.

5 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 5 The other form is for the AND gate with the inputs inverted: Y = A B This gives rise to two Boolean Algebra expressions that mean exactly the same thing, and two schematic symbols that express the same identical gate. Y = A + B = A B CONCEPT 3-2C: XOR GATES The last gate considered here is the EXCLUSIVE OR, or XOR gate. The XOR gate has the rule that if there is an odd number of lgocial "1" or high states, then the output is at a high, or a logical "1". An XOR gate is produced by building a circuit that has AND gates, an OR gate, and NOT or INVERT gates. The Boolean Algebra expression for the XOR gate comes from the truth table in the above figure. The output Q will be high for two of the input combinations: Q = A B + A B The above Boolean Algebra expression will yield the correct result in a larger expression, but the common shorthand way of writing the XOR expression is like an OR expression with a circle around the + sign. A double parenthesis can also be used when typing the expression : Q = A (+) B To describe the circuit, the inputs of a two-input OR gate are two AND gates. One of the AND gates has the input coming from signal A inverted, and the

6 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 6 signal coming from B is input to the same AND gate without being inverted. The other AND gate has the B signal input inverted, and the A signal input not inverted. The following figure illustrates how this works. Definition 3.2: Multiplexer A multiplexer is digitally controlled switch that switches data from multiple sources to a single output. Definition 3.3: Boolean Algebra Boolean Algebra uses two state, or binary logic, to control outcomes based on all possible combinations of numerous input, or driving factors. Boolean Algebra was formalized by the Irish Mathematician, George Boole in the mid 1800 s. Definition 3.4: Truth Table A truth table is a tabulation of all possible outcomes for combinations of binary, or two state, logic. Truth Tables are used in digital logic designs to describe which combination input states result in a positive output, and which combinations result in no action.

7 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 7 Definition 3.5: Combinational Logic This is a logic system made up of basic logic gates that will interpret all possible combinations of inputs, and will output a signal (logical "1" or "0"), when a desired combination is present. CONCEPT 3.3: Truth Tables Translate into Combinational Logic Circuits A Truth Table is organized into rows and columns with all possible combinations of the inputs to the left, and resulting outputs to the right. For each combination of inputs that result in a desired output, a combination of AND, OR and INVERT gates can be assembled that will output a logical "1" or "0" when the input combinations are present. Consider the following example. A farmer has a pump P that pumps water onto his crop. The pump will only come on if the crop is dry D, and there is water in the canal C. The pump also has an over ride switch that the farmer F can press and turn the pump on any time. The design starts by generating a truth table that will control the pump. You may assume that the sensors for wet or dry crop are there, and there is a sensor that tells if there is water in the canal. You may also assume that a logical 1 signal to a control circuit will turn on the pump. 1. Generate the truth table with all possible combinations on the inputs F, D, and C. Notice the inputs can be taken in any order. F = a logical 1 for pump on, and a 0 for off. D = a logical 1 for crop wet, and 0 for dry. C = a logical 1 for water in the canal, and a 0 for no water. P = a logical 1 for pump ON, and a logical 0 for off. F D C P The logic that controls the pump reduces down to an OR gate, an AND gate, and an INVERTER.

8 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 8 The Boolean Algebra expression for the pump control logic is: _ P = F + D C CONCEPT 3.4: Families and Types of Logic Families refer to the gate design and intended application. Different families of logic are faster or slower, can drive larger or smaller electrical loads, and require more or less of a driving source. Type refers to how the logic is packaged, and what configurations of gates are in the package. There can be just a few gates in a package, or there can be millions of transistors and complex logic matrices in a single IC chip, such as the circuits in programmable logic devices. The table below outlines some of the more common families and types of logic gates, gives their common part reference numbers, and lists speed, input loads, output drive capability, and package considerations. Family characteristics in the table are compared to the original Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) logic specifications of 1 TTL load = 1.4 ma of current, called Fan In, and an output drive capability of 10 TTL loads called, Fan Out. FAMILY DESCRIPTION PART # DELAY FAN IN FAN OUT APPLICATION TTL Early Logic ns 1.4 ma 14 ma General S Schottky 74S 2 ns 5 ma 20 ma High Speed LS Low Pwr Schottky 74LS 8 ns 1.4 ma 14 ma Med. Speed AS Adv. Schottky 74AS 1.5 ns 3 ma 20 ma High Speed F Fast 74F 4 ns 5 ma 20 ma High Speed HC High Speed CMOS 74HC 5 ns 1 ua 2 ma Low Power HCT TTL Compat. HC 74HCT 5 ns 0.1 ma 14 ma CMOS to TTL AC Advanced CMOS 74AC 4 ns 1 ua 2 ma Low Power ACT TTL Compat. AC 74ACT 4 ns 0.1 ma 20 ma CMOS to TTL LVC Low Voltage CMOS 74LVC 8 ns 1 ua 2 ma 3.3 V Power BiCMOS TTL & CMOS 74BCT 3 ns 1 ua 20 ma Fast&Lo Pwr

9 Introduction to Digital Electronics, Module 3: Digital Gates and Combinational Logic 9 PINOUTS OF SEVERAL COMMON GATES: CONCEPT 3.5: Programmable Logic Special devices now exist that have arrays of AND, OR and INVERT gates with their inputs and outputs connected together in a grid pattern, much like the wires in a window screen. The intersections of each horizontal and vertical line in the grid can be electrically connected or disconnected by a computer controlled programmer. The ability to connect any gate inputs and outputs to those of any other gate give the designer the ability to program any combinational logic circuit imaginable involving the gates in the programmable logic array. The capability of programmable logic is so vast that entire computers are now being built using one of these devices.

### Computer Systems Lab 1. Basic Logic Gates

Computer Systems Lab Basic Logic Gates Object To investigate the properties of the various types of logic gates, and construct some useful combinations of these gates. Parts () 700 Quad -input NAND gate

### Basics of Digital Logic Design

CSE 675.2: Introduction to Computer Architecture Basics of Digital Logic Design Presentation D Study: B., B2, B.3 Slides by Gojko Babi From transistors to chips Chips from the bottom up: Basic building

### EKT 121/4 ELEKTRONIK DIGIT 1

EKT 121/4 ELEKTRONIK DIGIT 1 Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia Logic Gates & Boolean Algebra Logic Gates & Boolean Algebra Basic Logic Gate Combination Logic Gate Universality of NAND and NOR

### Gates, Circuits, and Boolean Algebra

Gates, Circuits, and Boolean Algebra Computers and Electricity A gate is a device that performs a basic operation on electrical signals Gates are combined into circuits to perform more complicated tasks

### Introduction. Logic. Most Difficult Reading Topics. Basic Logic Gates Truth Tables Logical Functions. COMP370 Introduction to Computer Architecture

Introduction LOGIC GATES COMP370 Introduction to Computer Architecture Basic Logic Gates Truth Tables Logical Functions Truth Tables Logical Expression Graphical l Form Most Difficult Reading Topics Logic

### Secondary Logic Functions: NAND/NOR/XOR/XNOR/Buffer

OpenStax-CNX module: m46620 1 Secondary Logic Functions: NAND/NOR/XOR/XNOR/Buffer George Self This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Abstract

### Digital Logic Circuits

Digital Logic Circuits Digital describes any system based on discontinuous data or events. Typically digital is computer data or electronic sampling of an analog signal. Computers are digital machines

### 1. True or False? A voltage level in the range 0 to 2 volts is interpreted as a binary 1.

File: chap04, Chapter 04 1. True or False? A voltage level in the range 0 to 2 volts is interpreted as a binary 1. 2. True or False? A gate is a device that accepts a single input signal and produces one

### Chapter 4. Gates and Circuits. Chapter Goals. Chapter Goals. Computers and Electricity. Computers and Electricity. Gates

Chapter Goals Chapter 4 Gates and Circuits Identify the basic gates and describe the behavior of each Describe how gates are implemented using transistors Combine basic gates into circuits Describe the

### Logic Design. Implementation Technology

Logic Design Implementation Technology Outline Implementation of logic gates using transistors Programmable logic devices Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD) Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)

### Basic Logic Circuits

Basic Logic Circuits Required knowledge Measurement of static characteristics of nonlinear circuits. Measurement of current consumption. Measurement of dynamic properties of electrical circuits. Definitions

### Gates & Boolean Algebra. Boolean Operators. Combinational Logic. Introduction

Introduction Gates & Boolean lgebra Boolean algebra: named after mathematician George Boole (85 864). 2-valued algebra. digital circuit can have one of 2 values. Signal between and volt =, between 4 and

### ECE Digital Logic Design. Laboratory Manual

ECE 1315 Digital Logic Design Laboratory Manual Guide to Assembling your Circuits Dr. Fernando Ríos-Gutiérrez Dr. Rocio Alba-Flores Dr. Chris Carroll Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University

### Digital circuits make up all computers and computer systems. The operation of digital circuits is based on

Digital Logic Circuits Digital circuits make up all computers and computer systems. The operation of digital circuits is based on Boolean algebra, the mathematics of binary numbers. Boolean algebra is

### 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 4

Chapter 4 4.1 The Binary Concept Binary refers to the idea that many things can be thought of as existing in only one of two states. The binary states are 1 and 0 The 1 and 0 can represent: ON or OFF Open

### ENGI 241 Experiment 5 Basic Logic Gates

ENGI 24 Experiment 5 Basic Logic Gates OBJECTIVE This experiment will examine the operation of the AND, NAND, OR, and NOR logic gates and compare the expected outputs to the truth tables for these devices.

### Logic Gates & Operational Characteristics

Logic Gates & Operational Characteristics NOR Gate as a Universal Gate The NOR gate is also used as a Universal Gate as the NOR Gate can be used in a combination to perform the function of a AND, OR and

### Review of Gates in Digital Electronics

pp. 22-26 Krishi Sanskriti Publications http://www.krishisanskriti.org/areee.html Review of Gates in Digital Electronics Divya Aggarwal Student, Department of Physics, University of Delhi Abstract: Digital

### ELG3331: Lab 3 Digital Logic Circuits

ELG3331: Lab 3 Digital Logic Circuits What does Digital Means? Digital describes any system based on discontinuous data or events. Typically digital is computer data or electronic sampling of an analog

### Part 2: Operational Amplifiers

Part 2: Operational Amplifiers An operational amplifier is a very high gain amplifier. Op amps can be used in many different ways. Two of the most common uses are a) as comparators b) as amplifiers (either

### Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs)

Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) Lesson Objectives: In this lesson you will be introduced to some types of Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs): PROM, PAL, PLA, CPLDs, FPGAs, etc. How to implement digital

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHAPTER3 QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. ) If one input of an AND gate is LOW while the other is a clock signal, the output

### Digital Circuits. Frequently Asked Questions

Digital Circuits Frequently Asked Questions Module 1: Digital & Analog Signals 1. What is a signal? Signals carry information and are defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space, or any

### Electronic Troubleshooting. Chapter 10 Digital Circuits

Electronic Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Digital Circuits Digital Circuits Key Aspects Logic Gates Inverters NAND Gates Specialized Test Equipment MOS Circuits Flip-Flops and Counters Logic Gates Characteristics

### Gates, Circuits and Boolean Functions

Lecture 2 Gates, Circuits and Boolean Functions DOC 112: Hardware Lecture 2 Slide 1 In this lecture we will: Introduce an electronic representation of Boolean operators called digital gates. Define a schematic

### UNIT - II LOGIC GATES AND GATES CLASSIFICATION

UNIT - II Logic Gates: Gates Classifications: Basic Gates (AND, OR, NOT), Universal Gates (NAND, NOR), Exclusive Gates (XOR, XNOR)(except circuit diagram) Logic Symbols, Logic Operators, Logical expression

### Comp 150 Booleans and Digital Logic

Comp 150 Booleans and Digital Logic Recall the bool date type in Python has the two literals True and False and the three operations: not, and, or. The operations are defined by truth tables (see page

### DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Lab Manual Digital Electronics Laboratory (EC-39) BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY Subject Code: EC 39 Subject Name: Digital Electronics Laboratory Teaching

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET For a complete data sheet, please also download: The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Information The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS

### PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 3

UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 3 This work covers part of outcome 2 of the Edexcel standard module. The material is

### Chapter 2 Combinational Logic Circuits

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals Chapter 2 Combinational Logic Circuits Part 3 Additional Gates and Circuits Charles Kime & Thomas Kaminski 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview Part 1 Gate Circuits

### CHAPTER FOUR. 4.1 Logic Gate Basics. Logic Functions and Gates

HPTER FOUR Logic Functions and Gates Representing numbers using transistors is one thing, but getting the computer to do something with those numbers is an entirely different matter. Digital circuitry

### The NOT Gate The NOT gate outputs a logical 0 if its input is a logical 1 and outputs a 1 if its input is a 0. The symbol is given.

Gates and Flip-Flops Pádraig Ó Conbhuí 08531749 SF WED Abstract This experiment was carried out to construct (with the exception of the AND and NOT gates) and investigate the outputs of AND, NAND, OR,

### Number System. Lesson: Number System. Lesson Developer: Dr. Nirmmi Singh. College/ Department: S.G.T.B Khalsa College, University of.

Lesson: Number System Lesson Developer: Dr. Nirmmi Singh College/ Department: S.G.T.B Khalsa College, University of Delhi 1 NUMBER SYSTEM Table of contents Chapter 1: Number System 1.1 Learning outcomes

### United States Naval Academy Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. EC262 Exam 1

United States Naval Academy Electrical and Computer Engineering Department EC262 Exam 29 September 2. Do a page check now. You should have pages (cover & questions). 2. Read all problems in their entirety.

### Laboratory Exercise #1 Digital Logic Gates

aboratory Exercise #1 Digital ogic Gates ECEN 248: Introduction to Digital Design Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Texas A&M University 2 aboratory Exercise #1 1 Introduction Digital circuits

### Unit 2: Number Systems, Codes and Logic Functions

Unit 2: Number Systems, Codes and Logic Functions Introduction A digital computer manipulates discrete elements of data and that these elements are represented in the binary forms. Operands used for calculations

### Switches and Transistors

Switches and Transistors CS 350: Computer Organization & Assembler Language Programming A. Why? It s natural to use on/off switches with voltages representing binary data. Transistor circuits act as switches.

### EXPERIMENT NO.1:INTRODUCTION TO BASIC GATES AND LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION TECHNIQUES

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROINC ENGINEERING BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY EEE 304 : Digital Electronics Laboratory EXPERIMENT NO.1:INTRODUCTION TO BASIC GATES AND LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION

### 1.10 (a) Effects of logic gates AND, OR, NOT on binary signals in a processor

Chapter 1.10 Logic Gates 1.10 (a) Effects of logic gates AND, OR, NOT on binary signals in a processor Microprocessors are the central hardware that runs computers. There are several components that make

### A Little Perspective Combinational Logic Circuits

A Little Perspective Combinational Logic Circuits COMP 251 Computer Organization and Architecture Fall 2009 Motivating Example Recall our machine s architecture: A Simple ALU Consider an ALU that can perform

### Computer Science. 19. Combinational Circuits. Computer Science. Building blocks Boolean algebra Digital circuits Adder circuit. Arithmetic/logic unit

PA R T I I : A L G O R I T H M S, M A C H I N E S, a n d T H E O R Y PA R T I I : A L G O R I T H M S, M A C H I N E S, a n d T H E O R Y Computer Science 9. Combinational Circuits Computer Science 9.

### l What have discussed up until now & why: l C Programming language l More low-level then Java. l Better idea about what s really going on.

CS211 Computer Architecture l Topics Digital Logic l Transistors (Design & Types) l Logic Gates l Combinational Circuits l K-Maps Class Checkpoint l What have discussed up until now & why: l C Programming

### NOT AND OR XOR NAND NOR

NOT AND OR XOR NAND NOR Expression 1: It is raining today Expression 2: Today is my birthday X Meaning True False It is raining today It is not raining Binary representation of the above: X Meaning 1 It

### ELEC 2210 - EXPERIMENT 1 Basic Digital Logic Circuits

Objectives ELEC - EXPERIMENT Basic Digital Logic Circuits The experiments in this laboratory exercise will provide an introduction to digital electronic circuits. You will learn how to use the IDL-00 Bit

### CS61c: Representations of Combinational Logic Circuits

CS61c: Representations of Combinational Logic Circuits J. Wawrzynek October 12, 2007 1 Introduction In the previous lecture we looked at the internal details of registers. We found that every register,

### Decimal Number (base 10) Binary Number (base 2)

LECTURE 5. BINARY COUNTER Before starting with counters there is some vital information that needs to be understood. The most important is the fact that since the outputs of a digital chip can only be

### Transistors. The Digital Logic Level. Boolean Algebra truth tables are very cumbersome introduce notation to capture only 1 s: Gates 2/7/2013

The Digital Logic Level Transistors lowest level just above transistors digital circuits collections of gates and wires only deal with 0 s and s described by Boolean algebra a transistor is a switch with

### Electronic Design Automation Prof. Indranil Sengupta Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Electronic Design Automation Prof. Indranil Sengupta Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 10 Synthesis: Part 3 I have talked about two-level

### Basics of Digital Logic Design

Basics of Digital Logic Design Dr. Arjan Durresi Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70810 Durresi@Csc.LSU.Edu LSUEd These slides are available at: http://www.csc.lsu.edu/~durresi/csc3501_07/ Louisiana

### Experiment 5. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Experiment 5 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Objectives: To implement and test the circuits which constitute the arithmetic logic circuit (ALU). Background Information: The basic blocks of a computer are central

### ECE 109 Spring Launch Logisim by opening a terminal window and entering the command:

Problem Session 3 Overview Welcome to Logisim! Logisim is a logic simulator that allows you design and simulate digital circuit using a graphical user interface. It was written by Carl Burch. Logisim comes

### DECODERS. A binary code of n bits is capable of representing up to 2^n distinct elements of coded information.

DECODERS A binary code of n bits is capable of representing up to 2^n distinct elements of coded information. A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to

### Unit 4 Session - 15 Flip-Flops

Objectives Unit 4 Session - 15 Flip-Flops Usage of D flip-flop IC Show the truth table for the edge-triggered D flip-flop and edge-triggered JK flip-flop Discuss some of the timing problems related to

### LABORATORY MANUAL FOR DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ( ) B.E III SEMESTER

L D COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT LABORATORY MANUAL FOR DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (2131004) B.E III SEMESTER SUBJECT CO ORDINATOR: KINJAL RAVI SHETH DO S DON TS 1. Be regular

### Points Addressed in this Lecture

Points Addressed in this Lecture Lecture 3: Basic Logic Gates & Boolean Expressions Professor Peter Cheung Department of EEE, Imperial College London (Floyd 3.1-3.5, 4.1) (Tocci 3.1-3.9) What are the basic

### 6. Combinational Circuits. Building Blocks. Digital Circuits. Wires. Q. What is a digital system? A. Digital: signals are 0 or 1.

Digital Circuits 6 Combinational Circuits Q What is a digital system? A Digital: signals are or analog: signals vary continuously Q Why digital systems? A Accurate, reliable, fast, cheap Basic abstractions

### Logic Families and Their

Logic Families and Their Characteristics Objectives Should be able to: Analyze the internal circuitry it of a TTL NAND gate for both the HIGH and LOW output states. Determine IC input and output voltage

### BOOLEAN ALGEBRA & LOGIC GATES

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA & LOGIC GATES Logic gates are electronic circuits that can be used to implement the most elementary logic expressions, also known as Boolean expressions. The logic gate is the most basic

### Combinational Circuits (Part II) Notes

Combinational Circuits (Part II) Notes This part of combinational circuits consists of the class of circuits based on data transmission and code converters. These circuits are multiplexers, de multiplexers,

### Intro to Digital Logic Circuits

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY CISC 3593 Fordham College Lincoln Center Computer Organization Dept. of Computer and Info. Science Spring, 2011 Lab 1 Intro to Digital Logic Circuits 1 Introduction In this lab, the

### Unit 2. Electronic circuits and logic families

Unit 2. Electronic circuits and logic families Digital Electronic Circuits (Circuitos Electrónicos Digitales) E.T.S.. nformática Universidad de Sevilla Sept. 23 Jorge Juan 223 You are

### Transparent D Flip-Flop

Transparent Flip-Flop The RS flip-flop forms the basis of a number of 1-bit storage devices in digital electronics. ne such device is shown in the figure, where extra combinational logic converts the input

### Lab 4: Transistors and Digital Circuits

2 Lab 4: Transistors and Digital Circuits I. Before you come to lab... A. Please review the lecture from Thursday, March 6, on Binary Numbers and Manipulations. There were two different handouts containing

### The components. E3: Digital electronics. Goals:

E3: Digital electronics Goals: Basic understanding of logic circuits. Become familiar with the most common digital components and their use. Equipment: 1 st. LED bridge 1 st. 7-segment display. 2 st. IC

### CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach

### Module-3 SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS

Module-3 SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS Till now we studied the logic circuits whose outputs at any instant of time depend only on the input signals present at that time are known as combinational circuits.

### 1. Digital Logic Circuits

1 Digital Logic ircuits 1. Digital Logic ircuits Many scientific, industrial and commercial advances have been made possible by the advent of computers. Digital Logic ircuits form the basis of any digital

### Philadelphia University Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science. Computer Logic Design. By Dareen Hamoudeh.

Philadelphia University Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science Computer Logic Design By Dareen Hamoudeh Dareen Hamoudeh 1 An integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip,

### Lecture 5: Gate Logic Logic Optimization

Lecture 5: Gate Logic Logic Optimization MAH, AEN EE271 Lecture 5 1 Overview Reading McCluskey, Logic Design Principles- or any text in boolean algebra Introduction We could design at the level of irsim

### Combinational Logic Building Blocks and Bus Structure

Combinational Logic Building Blocks and Bus Structure ECE 5A Winter 0 Reading Assignment Brown and Vranesic Implementation Technology.8 Practical Aspects.8.7 Passing s and 0s Through Transistor Switches.8.8

### Lecture #5 Basics of Digital Logic Design

Spring 2015 Benha University Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra ECE-291 Electronic Engineering Lecture #5 Basics of Digital Logic Design Instructor: Dr. Ahmad El-Banna 1 Agenda Basic Concepts Logic Gates

### FORDHAM UNIVERSITY CISC 3593. Dept. of Computer and Info. Science Spring, 2011. Lab 2. The Full-Adder

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY CISC 3593 Fordham College Lincoln Center Computer Organization Dept. of Computer and Info. Science Spring, 2011 Lab 2 The Full-Adder 1 Introduction In this lab, the student will construct

### Lecture 8: Synchronous Digital Systems

Lecture 8: Synchronous Digital Systems The distinguishing feature of a synchronous digital system is that the circuit only changes in response to a system clock. For example, consider the edge triggered

### Laboratory 4 Logic, Latching and Switch Debounce

Laboratory 4 Logic, Latching and Switch Debounce = Required to submit your Multisim circuit files before you start the lab. Pre-lab Questions 1. Attach the detailed wiring diagram you used to construct

### Chapter 2 Logic Gates and Introduction to Computer Architecture

Chapter 2 Logic Gates and Introduction to Computer Architecture 2.1 Introduction The basic components of an Integrated Circuit (IC) is logic gates which made of transistors, in digital system there are

### Latches and Flip-Flops characterestics & Clock generator circuits

Experiment # 7 Latches and Flip-Flops characterestics & Clock generator circuits OBJECTIVES 1. To be familiarized with D and JK flip-flop ICs and their characteristic tables. 2. Understanding the principles

### Introduction. Digital Logic Design 1. Simplifying Logic Circuits. Sum-of-Products Form. Algebraic Simplification

2007 Introduction BK TP.HCM Tran Ngoc Thinh HCMC University of Technology http://www.cse.hcmut.edu.vn/~tnthinh Basic logic gate functions will be combined in combinational logic circuits. Simplification

### Module 1: Propositional Logic. CPSC 121: Models of Computation. Module 1: Coming up... Module 1: Coming up...

CPSC 121: Models of Computation By the start of the class, you should be able to: Translate back and forth between simple natural language statements and propositional logic. Evaluate the truth of propositional

### DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN LAB

EXPERIMENT NO: 7 STUDY OF FLIP FLOPS USING GATES AND IC S AIM: To verify various flip-flops like D, T, and JK. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Power supply, Digital Trainer kit, Connecting wires, Patch Chords, IC

### Unit: 1 Binary Systems and Logic Circuits

Unit: 1 Binary Systems and Logic Circuits 1.1 INTRODUCTION: Electronic systems usually deal with information. Representation of information is called a signal. Signal in electronics is generally in form

### Learning to Use IC s

Learning to Use IC s Designing with Standard Combinational ICs: Adders, Comparators, Drivers & Buffers Topics IC Specifications Switch Interfacing: SPST, DIP, BCD 7 Segment Displays & Drivers Adders Comparators

Ripple Carry and Carry Lookahead Adders 1 Objectives Design ripple carry and carry lookahead (CLA) adders. Use VHDL CAD tools. Use hierarchical design techniques. Model and simulate combinational logic

### Chapter 1. Basic Combinational Logic and the MachXO2

Chapter 1 Basic Combinational Logic and the MachXO2 1 CHAPTER 1. BASIC COMBINATIONAL LOGIC AND THE MACHXO2 1.1 Section Overview The use of the logic gate integrated circuit (IC) has had several evolutions.

### EEE64: Lab Lab Section 04 Friday 1:00 pm

EEE64: Lab 1 September 30, 2011 Nicholas Winterer 210001755 Lab Section 04 Friday 1:00 pm Contents Introduction 2 Part 1: Introduction to Lab Equipment 2 Part 2: Meet the Gates 2 NOT Gate....................................

### CHAPTER 3: MULTISIM 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO MULTISIM

MULTISIM CHAPTER 3: MULTISIM 3. INTRODUCTION TO MULTISIM Multisim is a virtual electronic circuit design, analysis, and simulation programme that design and analyse analogue, digital and mixed mode circuits

### Logic Gates. Is the front door open? Is the back door open? Are both doors open?

Logic Gates Logic gates are used in electronic circuits when decisions need to be made. For example, suppose we make an intruder alarm for which we want the alarm to sound when the front door or back door

### CHAPTER 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic

CHAPTER 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic 3.1 Introduction 121 3.2 Boolean Algebra 122 3.2.1 Boolean Expressions 123 3.2.2 Boolean Identities 124 3.2.3 Simplification of Boolean Expressions 126 3.2.4

### COS 116 The Computational Universe Laboratory 6: Digital Logic I

COS 6 The Computational Universe Laboratory 6: Digital Logic I In this lab you ll construct simple combinational circuits with a breadboard and silicon chips. You ll use these circuits to experiment with

### Some useful hints. Objective

Some useful hints Objective 1) Familiarization with the breadboard. 2) Identification of IC s and their pin numbers. 3) Inserting and removing IC s 4) Familiarization with different wire gauges and effective

### 14:332:231 DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN. Multiplexers (Data Selectors)

4:: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN Ivan Marsic, Rutgers University Electrical & Computer Engineering Fall Lecture #: Multiplexers, Exclusive OR Gates, and Parity Circuits Multiplexers (Data Selectors) A multiplexer

### Digital Electronics Lab

LAB MANUAL Digital Electronics Lab (EE-224-F) Vikas Sharma (Lab In-charge) Dayal C. Sati (Faculty In-charge) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page STUDENTS GUIDELINES There is Hr 4

### EC312 Lesson 2: Computational Logic

EC312 Lesson 2: Computational Logic Objectives: a) Identify the logic circuit gates and reproduce the truth tables for NOT, AND, NAND, OR, and NOR gates. b) Given a schematic of a logic circuit, determine

### Chapter 5 System Timing

LED Array Scope, Part 2 Chap 5: Page 1 L.E.D. Oscilloscope Learn Electronics by Doing - Theory is pretty thin stuff until it s mixed with experience.- Chapter 5 System Timing To be able to sweep the dot

### Digital Electronics. 4.0 Introduction to Combinational Logic Binary Arithmetic. Module 4

Module 4 www.learnabout-electronics.org Digital Electronics 4.0 Introduction to Combinational Logic Binary Arithmetic What you ll learn in Module 4 Section 4.0 Introduction. Section 4.1 Binary Arithmetic

### 4 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION

4 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION BOOLEAN OPERATIONS AND EXPRESSIONS Variable, complement, and literal are terms used in Boolean algebra. A variable is a symbol used to represent a logical quantity.

### Lab 2 Intro to Digital Logic and Transistors

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE 111 Intro to ESE Lab 2 Intro to Digital Logic and Transistors Introduction: Up until now, everything that you have done has