Extreme Events and Disasters are the Biggest Threat to Taiwan Typhoon Morakot

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Extreme Events and Disasters are the Biggest Threat to Taiwan Typhoon Morakot"

Transcription

1 Extreme Events and Disasters are the Biggest Threat to Taiwan Typhoon Morakot

2 Impacts due from Climate Change According to the statistical data of the past hundred years, the annual mean temperature of Taiwan has been increased 1.4 degree Celsius, about two folds of the global warming trend (figure 1). Similar to the global warming, the warming trend in Taiwan can be divided into two stages: from year 1921 to 1951 and from year 1961 to nowadays. However, there are differences between the warming trend in Taiwan and that of global mean. During the 50s to the beginning of the second stage, the global mean temperature was decreased but there is no significant temperature change in Taiwan. In the second stage, mean temperature in Taiwan increased 0.7 degree Celsius from year 1980 to 2001, which is greater than the trend of the past century and is consistent with the gradually increasing global warming trend in past 30 years. In Taiwan, all four seasons show warming trend. The warming is about 0.3 to 0.4 degree Celsius per year in winter time, which is higher than the warming of 0.2 degree Celsius per year in summer time. As for the precipitation, the occurrence of light rain has been decreasing and the overall precipitation intensity has been increasing in the past 50 years. According to a recent research results, with one degree Celsius increase in global mean temperature, the rainfall in extreme precipitation events in Taiwan will increase 140%. In the past 50 years, the global mean temperature has increased by 0.7 degree Celsius and the rainfall of extreme precipitation events in Taiwan has increased by 100%. For those typhoons resulting in severe disasters in Taiwan, the intensity of precipitation, not the intensity of wind speed, is the primary cause of disaster. According to the statistic of the top 30 typhoons with extreme precipitation (figure 2), which are identified based on the precipitation of the 198 typhoons striking Taiwan area from year 1970 to 2009, there is an increasing trend in the frequency of typhoon with extreme precipitation. The frequency of typhoon with extreme precipitation happened one time for every two years before year of 2000, but it increased to once a year after year of Typhoons with extreme precipitation mean increased by 1.4 within 100 years. Change in annual mean temperature annual mean temperature variation Mean temperature above average Mean temperature below average (Referring years: 1901~2000) Five-year annual moving average Figure 1. Time series of annual mean temperature for Taiwan during 1900~2006.

3 usually caused great damage and loss to life, property, and economics; and typhoon Morakot in August of 2009 brought the most extreme precipitation ever recorded. Meanwhile, with the increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation, no significant change in the annual precipitation amount is observed. The ratio of typhoon precipitation to annual precipitation increases from 15% in the 70s to 30% after year of 2000 and the difference of precipitations of rainy and dry seasons keeps increasing. This trend suggests that more precipitation, most of them are strong precipitation, is produced in rainy season and less precipitation is produced in dry season, exactly like the projection of East-Asian precipitation in IPCC AR4 report. Because the strikes of typhoon with extreme precipitation becomes more frequent, floods of low-lying land areas, malfunction urban drainage systems, slopeland disasters, soil sedimentation in reservoirs, and even the damages in public facility, also become possible causes to increase the casualty and the impact on socioeconomics. Taking into account the severe weather and rising sea level induced by climate change, Taiwan will be facing more rigorous challenges. The impact of climate change to Taiwan starts to emerge and has been aware in Taiwan. In addition to understanding the changes in regional climate and taking the responsibility of being a citizen of the world, Taiwan needs to be more aggressive to face the influence of global change on local impact. In order to reduce the impact of climate change on Taiwan area, the ongoing relative researches and projects, including using IPCC climate modeling data and downscaling technique to generate different climate scenarios of Taiwan area, creating maps of water resource and hazard risk based on the local climate scenarios, and conducting the research of risk management policy, to promote policy making authorities adjust the arrangement and the implementation. Frequency of extreme Typhoon rainfall (The Leading 30 extreme Typhoon events over Taiwan:1970~2009) 2000~ extreme Typhoon events Period 2000~ ~ extreme Typhoon events 6 extreme Typhoon events 2000~ extreme Typhoon events Freq.(1/year) Figure 2. Frequency of extreme typhoon rainfall over Taiwan in the period of 1970~2009.

4 Frequent Natural Disasters - Typhoon Taiwan is an island of the East-Asian Island Arc, sitting in between Japan and Philippines and between the largest continent (the Euro-Asia Continent) and ocean (the Pacific Ocean) in the world. The climate of Taiwan is dominated by the monsoon most of the time. Also, the location is in the earthquake belt and on the major tracks of typhoons in northwest Pacific area (figure 3), which makes Taiwan one of the vulnerable area frequently suffering from the nature disasters. 40N 30N 20N Taiwan The Central Mountain Range of Taiwan, the highest mountain range in East Asia, stretches from the north to the south part of Taiwan and has been one of the major reasons for the seasonal precipitation distribution. During wintertime, the prevailing northeast wind results in precipitation in the windward side, i.e., the north and the northeast of Taiwan. In summer, southwest Taiwan becomes the major precipitation area when the prevailing wind turns southwesterly and brings in abundant vapor from the South China Sea. The terrain also greatly influences the distribution and intensity of typhoon precipitation in Taiwan in the similar reason. There are about 3 to 4 typhoons strike Taiwan every year, which not only brings in heavy rainfall but also causes disasters with economical loss at the measure of 200 billion NT dollars per year. The water resource of Taiwan area primarily comes from the precipitation associated with Mei-Yu fronts and Typhoons. The annual mean precipitation in Taiwan is about 2550 millimeters and reaches to 4000 millimeters in the mountain area. However, because of the high density of population and the inhomogeneous distribution of precipitation, the amount of available effective water per person is less than 1/6 of the global mean. Therefore, The United Nations puts Taiwan as an area with scarce water resource. Therefore, Taiwan is still facing serious issues of water resource and water usage. Typhoon, flood, land slide, draught, and earthquake are the most happening natural disasters in Taiwan. According to Natural Disaster Hotspots A Global Risk Analysis published by the World Bank in year of 2005, Taiwan is an area at high risk for natural disaster in the world. About 73% of land and 10N EQ 120E 140E 160E Figure 3. Taiwan is located on the tracks of typhoons in northwest Pacific area. population is exposed to more than three natural hazards while 99% of land and population is exposed to two or more natural hazards. There are three major reasons for these critical threats to Taiwan: 1. The nature of vulnerability: including frequent typhoons, intensive rainfall, steep mountains and rushing rivers, high precipitation variation between rain and dry seasons, low-lying terrain of southwest coastal area, fragile geology, and loose surface soil. 2. The effect of social economical development: including flooding issue caused by urban development, high temperature and local convection enhanced by heat island effect, increases in water consumption due to rapid industrial development, the land subsidence in southwest Taiwan caused by the over pumping of the groundwater. 3. The impact by global climate change: including persistent rising of the temperature, increase in intensity of extreme precipitation events, changes in temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation, and the rise of sea level surface.

5 On Typhoon Morakot Taiwan has been making lots of effort on disaster prevention and rescue system and related technology development. In the past years, the casualty caused by typhoon has been dropping to a single digit. However, typhoons Kalmaegi and Sinlaku in 2008 and typhoon Morakot in 2009, which causes server injury and casualty, suggest that the influence of climate change may also change the nature of severe weather and extreme precipitation, resulting in more record-setting precipitation. When Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan, from Aug 6 to Aug 10, the heavy rainfall in mountain area was over 1500 millimeters in 24 hours and the accumulated precipitation over this period was more than 3000 millimeters (figure 4), causing disasters of serious flood in southern Taiwan, overflowed levees, landslide, debris flows from slopeland; buildings buried, destroyed roads and bridges, and schools and public facilities seriously damaged. The estimated sum of loss on agriculture is more than 164 billion NT dollars. There are also 699 of death and missing people. In term of casualty and injury, it is the most severe typhoon being recorded in the history of Taiwan. Typhoon Morakot brought heavy rainfall in two to three days, which was beyond the loading of rivers and local drainage systems, resulting in flood and broken levees off the shores and the river banks. In addition, during the period of high tide, the raised sea level also impedes the draining ability of rivers. The flood area was estimated to 400 square Figure 4. The storm track, accumulated precipitation, and major regions of disaster caused by Typhoon Morakot, which struck Taiwan from Aug 6 to Aug 10.

6 On Typhoon Morakot Figure 5. Areas of floods and landslides caused by Typhoon Morakot Buried Area Figure 6. The Xiaolin Village of Kaohsiung County, the most severe damaged area, where the landside and collapse caused by the erosion of torrential rain buried the whole villiage and resulted in more than 400 death and missing people. (left: the satellite picture for Ziaolin Village before Typhoon Morakot comes, the buried areas are marked as shadow area. right: the picture of Ziaolin Village after Typhoon Morakot comes)

7 Table 1. Ratio of Typhoon Morakot precipitation to annual precipitation for major stations. County Township Annual Rainfall 08/07 08/08 08/09 08/10 08/07-08/10 08/07-08/10 vs Annual Chiayi Alishan 3, ,161 1, ,965 76% Pingtung Sandimen 3, , ,872 74% Chiayi Jhuci 3, , ,775 73% Kaohsiung Taoyuan 4, , ,790 68% Kaohsiung Liouguei 3, , ,461 78% Chiayi Fanlu 3, ,202 64% Chiayi Dapu 2, , ,156 78% Kaohsiung Jiasian 2, , ,020 71% Nantou Sinyi 3, ,929 59% Kaohsiung Maolin 3, ,404 45% Pingtung Wutai 2, ,160 40% Kaohsiung Cishan 2, % kilometers. (Figure 5) The reasons for flooding disaster include the torrential precipitation in short period of time, the crashed levees, the low-lying terrain due to land subsidence, the sedimentation of rivers, the inefficient urban draining systems, and the water release of reservoirs. Heavy precipitation of Morakot also triggered slopeland disaster, such as large scale landslide, fallen rocks, and debris flow. The slopeland disaster is the major cause of casualty and building damage. The most severely damaged area happened in the Shiaolin Village of Kaohsiung County, where the landside and collapse caused by the erosion of torrential rain buried the whole village and resulted in more than 400 death and missing people. (figure 6) Extreme precipitation is one of the main reasons for the disasters caused by Morakot. Under the influence of enhanced large-scale southwesterly flow, during the period when Morakot stuck Taiwan, a record-high 3095 mm precipitation was measured by a rain gauge while precipitation intensity over a flood frequency of 2000 years was measured in many stations. The regions with heavy precipitation Figure 7. Comparison of the maximum accumulated rainfalls in one to three days between the value caused by Typhoon Morakot and that of world record. and serious disasters mostly concentrated in towns and villages of south and southwest Taiwan. The maximum accumulated rainfalls in one to three days are comparable to that of world record, especially the amount measured on the first two days (Figure 7). Table 1. shows that, for some stations, Morakot dumped the amount of 70% annual precipitation in three days.

8 On Typhoon Morakot

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 How do changes

More information

8. Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Sub-sector. Guideline:

8. Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Sub-sector. Guideline: Sub-sector Guideline: (1) Sediment-related Disaster Prevention (Adaptation Project) (2) Sediment-related Disaster Prevention (BAU Development with Adaptation Options) Basic Concept A. General Concept B.

More information

Assessment of Heavy Rainfall Retrieved from Microwave Instrument in Taiwan Area Chien-Ben Chou, Peter K.H. Wang. Abstract

Assessment of Heavy Rainfall Retrieved from Microwave Instrument in Taiwan Area Chien-Ben Chou, Peter K.H. Wang. Abstract Assessment of Heavy Rainfall Retrieved from Microwave Instrument in Taiwan Area Chien-Ben Chou, Peter K.H. Wang Meteorological satellite center, Central weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C Abstract Satellite-data

More information

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Malaysia s climate is hot and humid throughout the year since it is situated near the equator. According to the Malaysian Meteorological Department, Malaysia will

More information

Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region

Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region Global CC threat CC in the A/P region The Stern Review and IPCC 4 th Assessment Report both state that climate change will have adverse impact on people

More information

SEA LEVEL RISE. What is the Sea Level Rise and what can we expect?

SEA LEVEL RISE. What is the Sea Level Rise and what can we expect? SEA LEVEL RISE What is the Sea Level Rise and what can we expect? The main causes of Sea Level Rise (relative to the land surface) are: melting of ice (polar ice caps, land ice, permafrost, glaciers, etc);

More information

sample The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

sample The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation sample The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 Impacts

More information

Korea s s Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Adaptation Policies. Department of Environmental Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Korea s s Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Adaptation Policies. Department of Environmental Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Korea s s Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Adaptation Policies Department of Environmental Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1. Climate Change Adaptation Measures and Research Activities

More information

The Weather of Pemba 30 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation

The Weather of Pemba 30 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation The Weather of Pemba 3 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation A unique weather system Pemba Island has a tropical monsoon climate with high precipitation figures all year round. Pemba Island has two

More information

Hazard Manager User guide. Making use of the weather layers

Hazard Manager User guide. Making use of the weather layers Hazard Manager User guide Making use of the weather layers How will this guide help me? This guide will help you understand the information that is available within Hazard Manager and how to make use of

More information

From the Field Living with Typhoons: Disaster Management in rural Taiwan

From the Field Living with Typhoons: Disaster Management in rural Taiwan Evacuation is currently only ordered after 250 mm of precipitation. Considerable difficulties may arise if local residents don't evacuate the area until after 250mm of rainfall has fallen. Roads which

More information

Impacts of Climate Change on Guyana and the World at large

Impacts of Climate Change on Guyana and the World at large Impacts of Climate Change on Guyana and the World at large In last week s article, we introduced the concept and scientific basis of climate change, along with some basic terminology. This week we will

More information

Tool 2.3.1: General information on the causes of rainfall-induced landslides

Tool 2.3.1: General information on the causes of rainfall-induced landslides Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Infrastructure & the Built Environment A Toolbox Tool 2.3.1: General information on the causes of rainfall-induced landslides Author G. Dellow Affiliation GNS Science,

More information

Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan

Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan Flooding General Flooding is the leading cause of death among all types of natural disasters throughout the United States, with its ability to roll boulders the size of cars, tear out trees, and destroy

More information

Natural Disaster Impact on Business and Communities in Taiwan. Dr. Chung-Sheng Lee. NCDR Chinese Taipei

Natural Disaster Impact on Business and Communities in Taiwan. Dr. Chung-Sheng Lee. NCDR Chinese Taipei Natural Disaster Impact on Business and Communities in Taiwan Dr. Chung-Sheng Lee NCDR Chinese Taipei 1 Brief Introduction of NCDR 2 Organizational Chart of NCDR NDPPC: National Disaster Preparation and

More information

FLOOD HAZARD MAPPING PROJECT IN RATNAPURA CITY

FLOOD HAZARD MAPPING PROJECT IN RATNAPURA CITY FLOOD HAZARD MAPPING PROJECT IN RATNAPURA CITY Prepared By R.M.S.A.B Rajapakse Department of Irrigation (WR & PP Branch) Sri Lanka 1 1.0 Back ground and Objectives of the Planned Project In Sri Lanka there

More information

Types of Natural Hazards (e.g. Volcanic eruptions, Earthquakes, Floods,Hurricanes,Landslides

Types of Natural Hazards (e.g. Volcanic eruptions, Earthquakes, Floods,Hurricanes,Landslides Environmental Geology Chapter 5 INTRODUCTION to NATURAL HAZARDS Types of Natural Hazards (e.g. Volcanic eruptions, Earthquakes, Floods,Hurricanes,Landslides Natural Disaster - A particular event in which

More information

1. Incredible India. Shade the map on the next page, to show India s relief. The correct shading is shown on the final page! Incredible India India

1. Incredible India. Shade the map on the next page, to show India s relief. The correct shading is shown on the final page! Incredible India India 1. Incredible India Shade the map on the next page, to show India s relief. The correct shading is shown on the final page! Incredible India India The DCSF supported Action plan for Geography is delivered

More information

Application of Space Technology for Disaster monitoring and assessment current state in Vietnam

Application of Space Technology for Disaster monitoring and assessment current state in Vietnam Application of Space Technology for Disaster monitoring and assessment current state in Vietnam Lai Anh Khoi SPACE TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 8th GEOSS Asian Pacific Symposium Beijing, Sep. 09-11, 2015 Types

More information

World Geography 3202 Practice Multiple Choice Unit 2 World Climate Patterns. Outcomes:

World Geography 3202 Practice Multiple Choice Unit 2 World Climate Patterns. Outcomes: Outcomes: SCO 2.1: The student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of how the earth s movement in space causes the occurrence of and the conditions related to day and night and the seasons,

More information

The AIR Inland Flood Model for the United States In Spring 2011, heavy rainfall and snowmelt produced massive flooding along the Mississippi River,

The AIR Inland Flood Model for the United States In Spring 2011, heavy rainfall and snowmelt produced massive flooding along the Mississippi River, The AIR Inland Flood Model for the United States In Spring 2011, heavy rainfall and snowmelt produced massive flooding along the Mississippi River, inundating huge swaths of land across seven states. As

More information

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS The World is always changing. Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living

More information

Quinte Conservation Climate Change Strategy November 2015

Quinte Conservation Climate Change Strategy November 2015 Temperature - C Quinte Conservation Climate Change Strategy November 2015 As stewards of the local watersheds Quinte Conservation has been active in assessing and monitoring climate change and is proposing

More information

Climate Change Long Term Trends and their Implications for Emergency Management August 2011

Climate Change Long Term Trends and their Implications for Emergency Management August 2011 Climate Change Long Term Trends and their Implications for Emergency Management August 2011 Overview A significant amount of existing research indicates that the world s climate is changing. Emergency

More information

Climate Projections for Transportation Infrastructure Planning, Operations & Maintenance, and Design

Climate Projections for Transportation Infrastructure Planning, Operations & Maintenance, and Design Climate Projections for Transportation Infrastructure Planning, Operations & Maintenance, and Design KATHARINE HAYHOE, ANNE STONER, JO DANIEL, JENNIFER JACOBS and PAUL KIRSHEN THE INFRASTRUCTURE CLIMATE

More information

A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events the focus of Chapter 3. Presented by: David R.

A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events the focus of Chapter 3. Presented by: David R. A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events the focus of Chapter 3 Presented by: David R. Easterling Chapter 3:Changes in Climate Extremes & their Impacts on the Natural Physical

More information

alluvial fan alternative energy Arch Axis fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land energy resources used instead of fossil fuels

alluvial fan alternative energy Arch Axis fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land energy resources used instead of fossil fuels alluvial fan fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land alternative energy energy resources used instead of fossil fuels Arch a rock formation shaped like an upside down U Axis an imaginary line

More information

Robert R. Gillies R. Douglas Ramsey

Robert R. Gillies R. Douglas Ramsey Climate of Utah Robert R. Gillies R. Douglas Ramsey Climate in Utah is greatly influenced by its location within the North American Continent with significant local modifications due to topography. Northern,

More information

Graduate School of Disaster Prevention Kangwon National University. http://college.kangwon.ac.kr/prevention/main.jsp

Graduate School of Disaster Prevention Kangwon National University. http://college.kangwon.ac.kr/prevention/main.jsp Graduate School of Disaster Prevention Kangwon National University 1joongang-Ro Samcheok-city, Gangwon-Do, Republic of Korea http://college.kangwon.ac.kr/prevention/main.jsp Outline Natural disasters such

More information

Preliminary advances in Climate Risk Management in China Meteorological Administration

Preliminary advances in Climate Risk Management in China Meteorological Administration Preliminary advances in Climate Risk Management in China Meteorological Administration Gao Ge Guayaquil,Ecuador, Oct.2011 Contents China Framework of Climate Service Experience in Climate/disaster risk

More information

General Insurance - Domestic Insurance - Home Contents Storm water damage policy exclusion flood damage

General Insurance - Domestic Insurance - Home Contents Storm water damage policy exclusion flood damage Determination Case number: 227307 General Insurance - Domestic Insurance - Home Contents Storm water damage policy exclusion flood damage 4 April 2011 Background 1. The Applicants insured their home contents

More information

Flood Control Strategy and Smart Disaster Prevention

Flood Control Strategy and Smart Disaster Prevention ICHE 2016 Flood Control Strategy and Smart Disaster Prevention Water Resources Agency, MOEA Wang, Ruey-Der Director-General Nov 8, 2016 Outline Introduction Flood Control Strategy Smart Disaster Prevention

More information

Typhoon Talas, Central Japan

Typhoon Talas, Central Japan Typhoon Talas, Central Japan Tetsuya Okada It has been six months since the devastating 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami hit Japan. While the country was working on the recovery from the massive-scale

More information

Prevention of Environmental Disasters by Spatial Planning and Land Management

Prevention of Environmental Disasters by Spatial Planning and Land Management Prevention of Environmental Disasters by Spatial Planning and Land Management Theo KÖTTER, Germany Key words: SUMMARY Today's society becomes ever more rapidly vulnerable to natural disasters due to the

More information

Risk and vulnerability assessment of the build environment in a dynamic changing society

Risk and vulnerability assessment of the build environment in a dynamic changing society Risk and vulnerability assessment of the build environment in a dynamic changing society Limnei Nie SINTEF Building and infrastructure, P.O.Box 124 Blindern, NO-0314 Oslo, Norway. linmei.nie@sintef.no

More information

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN Ken Potter and Zach Schuster Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison, WI OUTLINE Typical flood scenarios

More information

NATURAL DISASTER FROM FIRES, FLOODS TO CYCLONES WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT"

NATURAL DISASTER FROM FIRES, FLOODS TO CYCLONES WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT NATURAL DISASTER FROM FIRES, FLOODS TO CYCLONES WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT" Tania Duratovic International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) tduratovic@ifaw.org or philandtania@moose-mail.com INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL

More information

Disaster reduction by optical satellites. Earthquake in Republic of Korea. Time series SAR analysis

Disaster reduction by optical satellites. Earthquake in Republic of Korea. Time series SAR analysis Ministry of Security and Public Administration National Disaster Management Institute Ⅰ Disaster reduction by optical satellites Ⅱ Earthquake in Republic of Korea Ⅲ Time series SAR analysis Ⅰ Disaster

More information

Flood After Fire Fact Sheet

Flood After Fire Fact Sheet FACT SHEET Flood After Fire Fact Sheet Risks and Protection Floods are the most common and costly natural hazard in the nation. Whether caused by heavy rain, thunderstorms, or the tropical storms, the

More information

South America is comprised of thirteen countries. These countries include:

South America is comprised of thirteen countries. These countries include: Countries South America is comprised of thirteen countries. These countries include: Colombia. Colombia is located in the northern portion of South America. Its borders are the Pacific Ocean to the west

More information

Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events

Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events M Rajeevan National Climate Centre India Meteorological Department Pune 411 005 rajeevan@imdpune.gov.in Outline of the presentation Monsoon rainfall Variability

More information

A disaster occurs at the point of contact between social activities and a natural phenomenon of unusual scale.

A disaster occurs at the point of contact between social activities and a natural phenomenon of unusual scale. Hazard Mapping and Vulnerability Assessment Mr. Toshiaki Udono Senior Project Manager, Kansai Division, PASCO Corporation, Japan Mr. Awadh Kishor Sah Project Manager, Project Implementation Department,

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

EPA s Typhoon Morakot Disaster Emergency Response

EPA s Typhoon Morakot Disaster Emergency Response EPA s Typhoon Morakot Disaster Emergency Response Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan August 30, 2009 www.epa.gov.tw Presentation Content 1. Being Ready for the Situation 1. Organizational

More information

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B. 1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

More information

Glaciers and Mass Movements Study Guide

Glaciers and Mass Movements Study Guide Class: Date: Glaciers and Mass Movements Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence

More information

Climate change impacts on city of Gdansk and its vicinity (Vistula Delta, Poland)

Climate change impacts on city of Gdansk and its vicinity (Vistula Delta, Poland) Final International ASTRA Conference Espoo, 10-11 December, 2007 Climate change impacts on city of Gdansk and its vicinity (Vistula Delta, Poland) Dorota Kaulbarsz, Zbigniew Kordalski, Wojciech Jeglinski

More information

Mass Wasting and Landslides. Mass Wasting

Mass Wasting and Landslides. Mass Wasting Mass Wasting and Landslides Mass Wasting 1 Introduction Landslide and other ground failures posting substantial damage and loss of life In U.S., average 25 50 50 deaths; damage more than $3.5 billion For

More information

A Self Assessment to Address Climate Change Readiness in Your Community Midwest Region

A Self Assessment to Address Climate Change Readiness in Your Community Midwest Region A Self Assessment to Address Climate Change Readiness in Your Community Midwest Region 0 Climate Change Readiness Index A Self Assessment to Address Climate Change Readiness in Your Community Communities

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *2432848895* ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 0680/13 Paper 1 October/November 2013 1 hour 30 minutes

More information

News & Notes: El Niño & the San Diego Economy

News & Notes: El Niño & the San Diego Economy News & Notes: El Niño & the San Diego Economy With the formation of a very strong El Niño event, climate scientists and meteorologists have projected an especially wet winter in Southern California. Using

More information

National Disaster Management Institute

National Disaster Management Institute National Disaster Management Institute CONTENTS one Cause of Urban Flood Disaster two Urban Flood Damage Case three Disaster Prevention Measures for Future Urban Flood four NDMI s Measures & Strategy for

More information

Best Practice of Flood Hazard Map in Japan

Best Practice of Flood Hazard Map in Japan Best Practice of Flood Hazard Map in Japan 1. Hazard map in Japan There are about 1,500 municipalities in Japan, which need to prepare flood hazard map. 510 municipalities have already made and disclosed

More information

WG2 Risks Associated with Natural Disasters, Climate Change and Man-Made Disasters

WG2 Risks Associated with Natural Disasters, Climate Change and Man-Made Disasters WG2 Risks Associated with Natural Disasters, Climate Change and Man-Made Disasters PIARC TC C3 Workshop Rome, Italy 6 May, 2010 Connie Yew USDOT, Federal Highway Administration PIARC TC C3 Work Group #2

More information

Lu Yongjin Shanghai Water Engineering Design & Research Institute

Lu Yongjin Shanghai Water Engineering Design & Research Institute Impacts of Climate Change on Shanghai Flood Prevention Lu Yongjin Shanghai Water Engineering Design & Research Institute flood in Shanghai Shanghai Located downstream of Taihu Lake, whose north is the

More information

Climate Change Adaptation in London. Alex Nickson, Policy & Programmes Manager Climate Change Adaptation & Water, Greater London Authority

Climate Change Adaptation in London. Alex Nickson, Policy & Programmes Manager Climate Change Adaptation & Water, Greater London Authority Climate Change Adaptation in London Alex Nickson, Policy & Programmes Manager Climate Change Adaptation & Water, Greater London Authority Why adapt? We are not very well adapted to our existing climate

More information

DISASTER MANAGEMENT FLOODS

DISASTER MANAGEMENT FLOODS DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster is a sudden calamity which brings misfortune and miseries to humanity. Types: 1. Natural disaster 2. Man made disaster. 1. Natural disaster: Floods, Cyclones, earth quakes,

More information

Egyptian Development & Climate Change. Prepared by. Hesham Eissa Egyptian Focal Point to UNFCCC

Egyptian Development & Climate Change. Prepared by. Hesham Eissa Egyptian Focal Point to UNFCCC Egyptian Development & Climate Change Prepared by Hesham Eissa Egyptian Focal Point to UNFCCC Email:hesham27963@windowslive.com Contents Key Data Development ambitions in Egypt Impacts of climate change

More information

FLOOD FORECASTING PRACTICE IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

FLOOD FORECASTING PRACTICE IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA FLOOD FORECASTING PRACTICE IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA California Department of Water Resources Post Office Box 219000, Sacramento, California 95821 9000 USA By Maurice Roos, Chief Hydrologist ABSTRACT Although

More information

Avalanche Problem Essentials Loose Dry and Loose Wet Snow Avalanches

Avalanche Problem Essentials Loose Dry and Loose Wet Snow Avalanches 1 Avalanche Problem Essentials Loose Dry and Loose Wet Snow Avalanches This document is part of Decision Making in Avalanche Terrain: a fieldbook for winter backcountry users by Pascal Haegeli, Roger Atkins

More information

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DOMINICA ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND INITIATIVES Annie Edwards Chief Physical Planner Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources and Physical Planning OUTLINE Objectives Geography

More information

Climate Change. Lauma M. Jurkevics - DWR, Southern Region Senior Environmental Scientist

Climate Change. Lauma M. Jurkevics - DWR, Southern Region Senior Environmental Scientist Climate Change A n o t h e r F a c t o r i n M a n a g i n g S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a s W a t e r R e s o u r c e s Lauma M. Jurkevics - DWR, Southern Region Senior Environmental Scientist USEPA-Region

More information

Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Using Climate Data to Inform Critical Infrastructure Resilience and Urban Sustainability Decisionmaking National Academy of Sciences Roundtable on Science and Technology for

More information

Weather and climate. in rainforests every day in Scotland in winter in rainforests once a month in Scotland in summer (c) Frontal rainfall occurs.

Weather and climate. in rainforests every day in Scotland in winter in rainforests once a month in Scotland in summer (c) Frontal rainfall occurs. Weather and climate Which option best completes each of the following sentences? (a) Relief rainfall occurs. () in mountainous areas in desert areas in the east of England in rainforests (b) Convectional

More information

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Synthesis Report

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Synthesis Report 1 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Synthesis Report Dr. R K Pachauri Chairman Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Press Presentation Saturday, 17 November 2007 Valencia, Spain Vision of UN Secretary-General

More information

Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist. Introduction. Climatic controls

Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist. Introduction. Climatic controls Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist Introduction Illinois lies midway between the Continental Divide and the Atlantic Ocean, and the state's southern tip is 500 miles north of

More information

Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk. Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk. Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters Page 1 of 9 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk This page last updated on 19-Aug-2014 Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters

More information

The Study of the Land-use Change Factors in Coastal Land Subsidence Area in Taiwan

The Study of the Land-use Change Factors in Coastal Land Subsidence Area in Taiwan 2012 International Conference on Environment, Energy and Biotechnology IPCBEE vol.33 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore The Study of the Land-use Change Factors in Coastal Land Subsidence Area in Taiwan

More information

Hands on exercise Hazard Map and its application

Hands on exercise Hazard Map and its application 2012 International Training Workshop for Natural Hazard Reduction May 14 18,2012 Hands on exercise Hazard Map and its application (I) Google Earth Basics by Chy Chang Chang (II) Potential Map by Tingyeh

More information

Location Knowledge. Location Knowledge. Russia. Russia. Location Knowledge. Location Knowledge. Russia. Russia. Location Knowledge. Location Knowledge

Location Knowledge. Location Knowledge. Russia. Russia. Location Knowledge. Location Knowledge. Russia. Russia. Location Knowledge. Location Knowledge Russia What is the coldest temperature experienced in the Tundra region of Russia? 1 Russia Temperatures in the Tundra region of Russia can be as low as -50 C. 1 Russia How has Russia s population changed

More information

EPA s Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT): A Case Study

EPA s Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT): A Case Study EPA s Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT): A Case Study South Monmouth Regional Sewerage Authority (SMRSA) Serves 9 Townships 9.1 MGD Wastewater Treatment Plant 11 pump stations 11.

More information

Tsunamis. Seismic Sea Waves. Triggers / Cause (4) Speed, height, period, wavelength Trough often arrives first

Tsunamis. Seismic Sea Waves. Triggers / Cause (4) Speed, height, period, wavelength Trough often arrives first Seismic Sea Waves Triggers / Cause (4) Speed, height, period, wavelength Trough often arrives first Tsunamis Tsunamis 15 min Volcanoes 5 min Mass Wasting 10 min Fig. 10-20, p. 321 Historical Tsunami Events

More information

Characteristics and Position of Africa s Major Climate Regions

Characteristics and Position of Africa s Major Climate Regions LESSON 3: AFRICA S CLIMATE REGIONS Key Concepts You must know, or be able to do the following: Name, understand the characteristics and position of Africa s major climate regions Be able to link the African

More information

Species distributions and environment. Geographic Template

Species distributions and environment. Geographic Template Species distributions and environment Terrestrial species Climate (temperature and precipitation) Soil type Aquatic species Water temperature Salinity Light Pressure Geographic Template Non-random patterns

More information

Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting by the Japan Meteorological Agency

Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting by the Japan Meteorological Agency Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting by the Japan Meteorological Agency Kazuhiko NAGATA Forecast Division, Forecast Department Japan Meteorological Agency 1.

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

Landslides & Mudflows

Landslides & Mudflows 1 2 - What is a Landslide? - Geologic hazard Common to almost all 50 states Annual global Billions in losses Thousands of deaths and injuries 3 1 - What is a Landslide? - Gravity is driving force Some

More information

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY IN PAKISTAN. Arif Mahmood Chief Meteorologist Pakistan Meteorological Department.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY IN PAKISTAN. Arif Mahmood Chief Meteorologist Pakistan Meteorological Department. CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY IN PAKISTAN Arif Mahmood Chief Meteorologist Pakistan Meteorological Department http://www.pakmet.com.pk 1 The country Profile The country has a long latitudinal extent

More information

Water & Climate Review

Water & Climate Review Water & Climate Review 1. The cross section below shows the direction of air flowing over a mountain. Points A and B are at the same elevation on opposite sides of the mountain. 4. The graph below shows

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig. 6.11 Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar energy creates winds Winds drive surface ocean currents and waves Examples of interactions: El Niño-Southern

More information

EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens

EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 19 Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure

More information

ARkStorm: California s Other Big One!

ARkStorm: California s Other Big One! ARkStorm: California s Other Big One! Understanding the Impacts of Massive Winter Storms Mark Jackson Meteorologist in Charge NOAA/National Weather Service Los Angeles/Oxnard What is ARkStorm? Emergency-preparedness

More information

Disaster Prevention Measures in Global-Local Context 4 th World Water Forum Dr. Yoshihiko Yamashita CTI Engineering Co., Ltd Association of Japanese Consulting Engineers Outline of Presentation Up-to to-date

More information

Chapter 11 Notes Latin America, Physical Geography

Chapter 11 Notes Latin America, Physical Geography Chapter 11 Notes Latin America, Physical Geography Name: Hang on to these notes they summarize all three sections of chapter 11. To prepare for your test, read each section of chapter 11 and complete all

More information

South Africa. General Climate. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1

South Africa. General Climate. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles South Africa A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 1. School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford. 2. Tyndall Centre for Climate

More information

Modeling Flood Perils and Flood Insurance Program in Taiwan

Modeling Flood Perils and Flood Insurance Program in Taiwan Modeling Flood Perils and Flood Insurance Program in Taiwan Ching-Cheng Chang 1 Research Fellow, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica and Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, National Taiwan

More information

Types of flood risk. What is flash flooding? 3/16/2010. GG22A: GEOSPHERE & HYDROSPHERE Hydrology. Main types of climatically influenced flooding:

Types of flood risk. What is flash flooding? 3/16/2010. GG22A: GEOSPHERE & HYDROSPHERE Hydrology. Main types of climatically influenced flooding: GG22A: GEOSPHERE & HYDROSPHERE Hydrology Types of flood risk Main types of climatically influenced flooding: 1. Flash (rapid-onset) 2. Lowland (slow-rise) 3. Coastal (not covered here) But! Causal factors

More information

Moving Forward to Ensure People s Safety and Security

Moving Forward to Ensure People s Safety and Security Moving Forward to Ensure People s Safety and Security アタリ The Great East Japan Earthquake was the worst natural disaster in the long history of Japan, a country that experiences more natural disasters

More information

NATIONAL REPORT AUSTRIA

NATIONAL REPORT AUSTRIA 26th Session of the EFC Working Party on the Impact of Climate Change on Natural Hazards in Austria NATIONAL REPORT AUSTRIA Seite 1 16.04.2009 Global increase of temperatures: between 1.8 C and 4.0 C (IPCC

More information

GEOTECHNICAL ISSUES OF LANDSLIDES CHARACTERISTICS MECHANISMS PREPARDNESS: BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER A LANDSLIDE QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSIONS

GEOTECHNICAL ISSUES OF LANDSLIDES CHARACTERISTICS MECHANISMS PREPARDNESS: BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER A LANDSLIDE QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSIONS GEOTECHNICAL ISSUES OF LANDSLIDES CHARACTERISTICS MECHANISMS PREPARDNESS: BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER A LANDSLIDE QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSIONS Huge landslide Leyte, Phillipines, 1998 2000 casulties Small debris

More information

Contents. Part I Earth s Energy, Climate, and Ocean Systems

Contents. Part I Earth s Energy, Climate, and Ocean Systems Contents Preface Acknowledgments Part I Earth s Energy, Climate, and Ocean Systems 1 Mapping our Course of Study 1 1.1 Our Place on the Planet 2 1.2 The Great Systems of Physical Geography 2 1.3 The Nature

More information

The Impact of Climate Change on Canadian Municipalities and Infrastructure

The Impact of Climate Change on Canadian Municipalities and Infrastructure The Impact of Climate Change on Canadian Municipalities and Infrastructure Toronto s record-breaking rainfall in July 2013 occurred less than a week after Calgary lifted a state of emergency following

More information

II. Related Activities

II. Related Activities (1) Global Cloud Resolving Model Simulations toward Numerical Weather Forecasting in the Tropics (FY2005-2010) (2) Scale Interaction and Large-Scale Variation of the Ocean Circulation (FY2006-2011) (3)

More information

WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION CCl/MG/2010/Doc. 6.2(4) COMMISSION FOR CLIMATOLOGY MANAGEMENT GROUP MEETING

WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION CCl/MG/2010/Doc. 6.2(4) COMMISSION FOR CLIMATOLOGY MANAGEMENT GROUP MEETING WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION CCl/MG/2010/Doc. 6.2(4) COMMISSION FOR CLIMATOLOGY MANAGEMENT GROUP MEETING GENEVA, Switzerland 18-21 May 2010 ITEM 6.2 CLIMATE MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT DEFINITION OF

More information

Chile extends from tropics down almost to Antarctica and is located on the west side of the Andes

Chile extends from tropics down almost to Antarctica and is located on the west side of the Andes UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles Chile A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 1. School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford. 2. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change

More information

The Global Water Cycle

The Global Water Cycle The Global Water Cycle OCN 401 November 18, 2014 1. The Global Water Cycle - Processes - Reservoirs and Fluxes - Composition Lecture Outline 2. Models of the Hydrologic Cycle 3. The History of the Water

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

Improved Warnings for Natural Hazards: A Prototype System for Southern California

Improved Warnings for Natural Hazards: A Prototype System for Southern California Improved Warnings for Natural Hazards: A Prototype System for Southern California Yehuda Bock Research Geodesist Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Calif.

More information

CLIMATE SCIENCE FOR SERVICE PARTNERSHIP CHINA

CLIMATE SCIENCE FOR SERVICE PARTNERSHIP CHINA CLIMATE SCIENCE FOR SERVICE PARTNERSHIP CHINA B Crown copyright 2015 Climate Science for Service Partnership China 1 COMBINING CHINESE AND UK EXPERTISE AND CAPABILITY TO DEVELOP THE SCIENCE NEEDED TO BUILD

More information

PACIFIC CATASTROPHE RISK ASSESSMENT AND FINANCING INITIATIVE

PACIFIC CATASTROPHE RISK ASSESSMENT AND FINANCING INITIATIVE PACIFIC CATASTROPHE RISK ASSESSMENT AND FINANCING INITIATIVE NIUE SEPTEMBER 11 COUNTRY RISK PROFILE: NIUE Niue is expected to incur, on average,.9 million USD per year in losses due to earthquakes and

More information