INSTITUTE OF FLIGHT GUIDANCE

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1 INSTITUTE OF FLIGHT GUIDANCE INTELLIGENT PILOT ASSISTANT DLR

2 Intelligent Pilot Assistant The continuous growth of civil air traffic accompanied by new ATM procedures and philosophies on one hand and the growing complexity of military missions on the other hand all put new demands on the aircrews. Many systems have been designed in the past to solve individual tasks, but this approach is reaching its limits. One approach to overcome those limits is the pilot assistant system, an integrated system which combines all required assistant functions under a single HMI. A key feature of such systems are situation assessment functions which allow automatic reaction in critical situations. This feature greatly reduces pilot workload in Cover figure: Airbus 340 Cockpit, Source: Lufthansa. situations where support is most needed and where conventional systems require too much input, since they don't recognize the situation and therefore are unable to derive the required actions themselves. The Intelligent Pilot Assistant is developed at the Institute of Flight Guidance to provide a framework in which new assistance functions can easily be added and combined with the existing functions. The development of this system is based on the experience gained with the Crew Assistant for Military Aircraft (CAMA), a pilot assistant system jointly developed by the University of the German Armed Forces, Daimler Chrysler Aerospace, the Elektronik- und Logistik GmbH and DLR. The CAMA system combines all assistant functions for a military transport mission in one integrated system and has received high notes in simulations with military pilots. For the Intelligent Pilot Assistant a generic architecture based on object oriented methods and providing templates for function modules has been developed that significantly reduces development and integration costs for new assistant functions. Based on this architecture, assistant systems for a civil Free Flight scenario and for military helicopter missions respectively are being developed. In the near future, the functionality of the civil system will be expanded to include full gate to Figure: Concept of Pilot Assistant System.

3 Exchange of Position and Intention via Data Link Traffic Situation Display Separation Assurance DLR N EDIT Traffic Monitoring RANG DLH1905 Detection MAP DISP UAL94 Active Proposed 40 Resolution GENERATE NEGOTIATE ACTIVATE Pilot Assistant for Free Flight One approach to a more efficient use of the available airspace is the Free Flight concept. Here pilots will be allowed to freely select their route and speed profile without prior clearances from ATC. In such a scenario the task of separation assurance will be transferred into the cockpit, a task that is totally new to IFR flight. This can only be achieved with additional onboard assistant functions that monitor the surrounding traffic and suggest evasive maneuvers in case of a conflict with other aircraft. The Intelligent Pilot Assistant provides a framework in which such functions can easily be integrated. Two application modules specific to Free Flight are provided, a Traffic Monitor and a Figure: Free Flight assistant functions. Free Flight Planner. Information about surrounding aircraft is received via ADS-B (automatic dependent surveillance broadcast) messages and processed by the Traffic Monitor. Here it is assumed that these messages include intent information in form of a series of predicted 4D-waypoints. The traffic monitor can then compute the expected flightpath of the other aircraft and detect conflicts with the own intended flightpath. If such a conflict is detected, this information is sent to the other modules, in particular to the HMI and the Free Flight Planner. If a conflict with another aircraft is detected and the own aircraft is responsible for resolving this conflict, the Free Flight Planner will automatically start computing avoidance trajectories. A cost index accounting e.g. for fuel cost and passenger comfort is used to get the most economic result. In this computation the cost for the entire remaining flight is considered to keep the cost of the maneuver at a minimum. Finally the avoidance trajectories are proposed to the pilot. It is important to note that until this point no action is required from the crew, whereas in conventional systems the planning process would not be possible without inputs from the pilots. The pilot can now simply select the optimum trajectory proposed by the system or one of the alternatives based on his judgement of the situation, or he can reject the proposals and provide the planner with constraints for a new plan. When the trajectory is accepted, it is fed into the guidance system and flown automatically.

4 Helicopter Pilot Assistant Military missions are highly demanding tasks for the pilots. To execute a military task the pilot needs various assistance functions. Such functions must be structured in a way that accounts for human behavior. For the general structure we suppose the recognize-act cycle consisting of the major subtasks coordination, situation assessment, plan generation, selection and execution. The assistant system aims to overcome the human limitations and to avoid mission dependent excessive demands. Therefore the concept of the Helicopter Intelligent Pilot Assistant is to provide well-balanced support of the different major subtasks. Figure: Helicopter mission assistant functions. For external coordination the pilot assistant system is connected via data link to the Command and Control Center and to other aircraft. This function provides an automatic exchange and preprocessing of information. A map display is used for the coordination between the system and the pilot. This display shows the external situation and provides the input to some planning features to support the pilot. A route planning process calculates a list of constraint points based on information from the pilot, from the coordination process and its airborne knowledge base. This feature assists the pilot during approach and departure, on supervision missions and in avoiding restricted areas or known obstacles. The list of constraint points represents the input for a trajectory generator which produces a flyable 4D-flight path. With this feature, the pilot is able to set 4D-waypoints, for instance to define a meeting point with other helicopters. The redundant flight control system automatically executes the 4D-flight path. Since only known obstacles are available in the onboard data base the pilot needs further information about the actual environmental situation, especially in case of adverse weather conditions. For the assessment of the environmental situation an enhanced vision system will be used that allows to get a model of the external environment and to detect unknown obstacles. In addition an avoidance trajectory around such obstacles may be calculated and flown automatically. This increases flight safety under bad weather conditions

5 Pilot Assistant Generic Architecture Free Flight Assistant System Helicopter Pilot Assistant Intelligent Pilot Assistant Gate to Gate Pilot Assistant Generic Architecture The Intelligent Pilot Assistant is designed using a generic modular architecture, which allows to easily build assistant systems for various purposes. This architecture roots in the experience gained in the CAMA (Crew Assistant Military Aircraft) research project. The main feature of the CAMA architecture is the central situation representation, a data pool where all information available within the system is stored. For the Intelligent Pilot Assistant, the central data pool has been completely redesigned using an object oriented approach. Data pool objects are active objects that will notify their reader modules of any relevant change in the data, e.g. when the Traffic Monitor modifies a trajectory stored in the data pool, the Free Flight Planner will automatically be notified of the change. This technique allows to model arbitrary chains of actions that can easily be modified to suit the specific application. An important characteristic of this architecture is the complete independence of the core modules from the application, these modules can be used for any assistant system without modification. This greatly simplifies the development and maintenance of assistant systems for various vehicles on missions. The development of pilot assistant systems based on this architecture is further simplified by providing templates for application modules. This hides the internal communication from the developer, so that he/she can concentrate on the functionality of the module. Figure: Various pilot assistant systems based on a generic architecture.

6 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt The Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt, DLR, is the national aerospace center of the Federal Republic of Germany. DLR is in charge of a wide scope of research and development projects in national and international partnerships. Beyond its own research, DLR is the federal government's space agency and carries out the German aerospace research program. With over employees, DLR comprises eight sites in Köln-Porz (headquarters), Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Göttingen, Lampoldshausen, Oberpfaffenhofen and Stuttgart - as well as offices in Paris and Washington. DLR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.v. Institut für Flugführung Lilienthalplatz 7 D Braunschweig Tel. (0531) Fax (0531)

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