The World War I Era ( )

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1 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 19 The World War I Era ( ) Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

2 Causes of World War I Chapter 19, Section 1 Main Causes of World War I Imperialism Militarism Nationalism Alliances Competition for colonial lands in Africa and elsewhere led to conflict among the major European powers. By the early 1900s, powerful nations in Europe had adopted policies of militarism, or aggressively building up armed forces and giving the military more authority over government and foreign policy. One type of nationalism inspired the great powers of Europe to act in their own interests. Another emerged as ethnic minorities within larger nations sought selfgovernment. In a complicated system of alliances, different groups of European nations had pledged to come to one another s aid in the event of attack.

3 The War in Europe, Chapter 19, Section 1 When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, the complex alliance system in Europe drew much of the continent into the conflict.

4 The United States Declares War Chapter 19, Section 2 How did Germany s use of submarines affect the war? What moves did the United States take toward war in early 1917?

5 German Submarine Warfare Chapter 19, Section 2 To break a stalemate at sea, Germany began to employ U-boats, short for Unterseeboot, the German word for submarine. U-boats, traveling under water, could sink British supply ships with no warning. When the British cut the transatlantic cable, which connected Germany and the United States, only news with a pro-allied bias was able to reach America. American public opinion was therefore swayed against Germany s U-boat tactics.

6 The Lusitania and the Sussex Pledge Chapter 19, Section 2 The Sinking of the Lusitania On May 7,1915, a German U-boat sank the British passenger liner Lusitania, which had been carrying both passengers and weapons for the Allies. Since 128 American passengers had been on board, the sinking of the Lusitania brought the United States closer to involvement in the war. The Sussex Pledge More Americans were killed when Germany sank the Sussex, a French passenger steamship, on March 24,1916. In what came to be known as the Sussex pledge, the German government promised that U-boats would warn ships before attacking, a promise it had made and broken before.

7 Moving Toward War Chapter 19, Section 2 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare On January 31, 1917, Germany announced its intent to end the Sussex pledge and return to unrestricted submarine warfare. This action caused the United States to break off diplomatic relations with Germany. Despite this announcement, the German navy did not attack any American ships in February, causing the United States to continue to hope for peace. The Zimmermann Note During this time, Britain revealed an intercepted telegram to the government of Mexico from Germany s foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann. In this telegram, known as the Zimmermann note, Germany offered to return American lands to Mexico if Mexico declared war on the United States. Neither Mexico nor President Wilson took the Zimmermann note seriously, but it brought America closer to entering the war.

8 The War Resolution Chapter 19, Section 2 When the Russian Revolution replaced Russia s autocratic czar with a republican government in March 1917, the United States no longer needed to be concerned about allying itself with an autocratic nation. This removed one more stumbling block to an American declaration of war. As Germany continued to sink American ships in March, President Wilson s patience for neutrality wore out. On April 6, 1917, the President signed Congress s war resolution, officially bringing the United States into the war.

9 The United States Declares War Assessment Chapter 19, Section 2 What was the significance of the Lusitania? (A) Its sinking brought America closer to entering the war. (B) The weapons it carried helped Britain gain an advantage. (C) Its crew delivered the Zimmermann note. (D) It inspired the Sussex pledge. Why did the Russian Revolution help bring America into the war? (A) It helped the German navy sink British ships. (B) It caused the deaths of many Americans. (C) It set up a republican government in Russia, an Allied nation. (D) It promised American lands to Mexico in exchange for an invasion. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

10 The United States Declares War Assessment Chapter 19, Section 2 What was the significance of the Lusitania? (A) Its sinking brought America closer to entering the war. (B) The weapons it carried helped Britain gain an advantage. (C) Its crew delivered the Zimmermann note. (D) It inspired the Sussex pledge. Why did the Russian Revolution help bring America into the war? (A) It helped the German navy sink British ships. (B) It caused the deaths of many Americans. (C) It set up a republican government in Russia, an Allied nation. (D) It promised American lands to Mexico in exchange for an invasion. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

11 Americans on the Home Front Chapter 19, Section 4 What steps did the government take to finance the war and manage the economy? How did the government enforce loyalty to the war effort? How did the war change the lives of Americans on the home front?

12 Financing the War Chapter 19, Section 4 Modern warfare required huge amounts of money and personnel. Many sacrifices within the United States were needed to meet these demands. The government raised money for the war in part by selling Liberty Bonds, special war bonds to support the Allied cause. Like all bonds, these could be redeemed later for their original value plus interest. Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds, raising more than $20 billion for the war effort.

13 Managing the Economy Chapter 19, Section 4 United States entry into the war caused many industries to switch from commercial to military production. A newly created War Industries Board oversaw this production. New labor-related agencies helped ensure that labor disputes did not disrupt the war effort. Using the slogan, Food will win the war, Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration and future President, began to manage how much food people bought. Although he had the power to impose price controls, a system of pricing determined by the government, and rationing, or distributing goods to customers in a fixed amount, Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary restraint and increased efficiency. Daylight savings time was created to save on fuel use and increase the number of daylight hours available for work. This involved turning clocks back one hour for the summer, creating one more hour of daylight.

14 Enforcing Loyalty Chapter 19, Section 4 Enforcing American Loyalty During World War I Fear of Foreigners Hate the Hun Repression of Civil Liberties Political Radicals Fear of espionage, or spying, was widespread; restrictions on immigration were called for and achieved. The war spurred a general hostility toward Germans, often referred to as Huns in reference to European invaders of the fourth and fifth centuries. German music, literature, language, and cuisine became banned or unpopular. Despite Wilson s claim that the United States fought for liberty and democracy, freedom of speech was reduced during the war. Sedition, or any speech or action that encourages rebellion, became a crime. Socialists, who argued that workers had no stake in the war, won popular support in some states. The radical labor organization Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) tried to interfere with war production; vigilantes took the law into their own hands.

15 Changing People s Lives Chapter 19, Section 4 African Americans and Other Minorities With much of the work force in the military, factory owners and managers who had once discriminated against minorities began actively recruiting them. The flood of African Americans leaving the South to work in northern factories became known as the Great Migration. New Roles for Women The diminished male work force also created new opportunities for women. Many women joined the work force for the first time during the war. Some found work on farms with the Woman s Land Army; others took jobs traditionally reserved for men.

16 Americans on the Home Front Assessment Chapter 19, Section 4 Which of the following best describes Hoover s strategy for food conservation? (A) Creation of new government agencies (B) Price controls and rationing (C) Sale of Liberty Bonds (D) Voluntary restraint and increased efficiency Why did the war provide new opportunities for women and minorities? (A) Many white men were away fighting the war. (B) Women proved to be better farm workers than men. (C) African Americans were less likely to be guilty of sedition. (D) Radical labor organizers gained popularity. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

17 Americans on the Home Front Assessment Chapter 19, Section 4 Which of the following best describes Hoover s strategy for food conservation? (A) Creation of new government agencies (B) Price controls and rationing (C) Sale of Liberty Bonds (D) Voluntary restraint and increased efficiency Why did the war provide new opportunities for women and minorities? (A) Many white men were away fighting the war. (B) Women proved to be better farm workers than men. (C) African Americans were less likely to be guilty of sedition. (D) Radical labor organizers gained popularity. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

18 The Paris Peace Conference Chapter 19, Section 5 The League of Nations One of Wilson s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations, was agreed upon at the Paris Peace Conference. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. Republicans in Congress, however, were concerned about Article 10 of the League s charter, which contained a provision that they claimed might draw the United States into unpopular foreign wars.

19 Redrawing the Map of Europe Chapter 19, Section 5 At the Paris Peace Conference, Britain, France, and the United States redrew the map of Europe.

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