Air Law. Lesson 5: Flight planning, VFR weather, and altitudes. Copyright (c) 2007 Sancho McCann.

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1 Air Law Lesson 5: Flight planning, VFR weather, and altitudes Copyright (c) 2007 Sancho McCann. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License. To view a copy of this license, visit 2.5/ca/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

2 Outline Flight plans and itineraries Fuel requirements Cruising altitudes Standard pressure region Weather minimums Minimum altitudes

3 Flight plans and itineraries Important for flight tracking and alerting of search and rescue if an aircraft is over-due

4 Flight plans and itineraries Must be filed if: 1. Traveling at least 25 n.m. from the departure aerodrome (flight plans or flight itineraries) 2. Traveling to another country (flight plans only) 3. Entering the Air Defense Identification Zone (defense flight plan or defense flight itinerary)

5 ADIZ Image source: Transport Canada

6 Filing and closing Filing Flight plan File with a tower, flight service station, or community aerodrome radio station Flight itinerary File with a tower, flight service station, community aerodrome radio station, or a responsible person* Closing An arrival report must be filed as soon as practicable, but no later than one hour after the latest reported estimated arrival time (ETA) An arrival report must be filed as soon as practicable, but no later than 24 hours after the latest reported ETA * A responsible person is somebody who has agreed to notify an ATC unit, flight service station, or community aerodrome radio station if the aircraft is overdue.

7 Updating You must notify the ATC unit, flight service station, community aerodrome radio station, or responsible person of any of the following changes: 1. route of flight 2. duration of flight 3. destination aerodrome

8 Contents of a flight plan or itinerary aircraft identification flight rules type of flight number (if more than one) type of aircraft wake turbulence category equipment departure aerodrome time of departure (UTC) proposed/actual cruising speed altitude/level route destination aerodrome estimated elapsed time enroute (EET) SAR time (not required in an ICAO flight plan) alternate aerodrome(s) other information (ADCUS if applicable) endurance (flight time in hours and minutes) total number of persons on board category of emergency locator transmitter (not required in an ICAO flight plan) survival equipment (type, jackets, dinghies) aircraft colour and markings remarks (regarding other survival equipment) arrival report where it will be filed (not required in an ICAO flight plan) name and number or address of person or company to be notified if SAR action initiated (not required in an ICAO flight plan) pilot s name pilot s licence number (Canadian pilot licence only not required in an ICAO flight plan) No need to memorize these. This is just to show how detailed a flight plan is.

9 VFR Fuel requirements Day: Enough fuel to fly to the destination plus 30 minutes at normal cruising speed Night: Enough fuel to fly to the destination plus 45 minutes at normal cruising speed Also, must carry enough fuel to account for taxiing, meteorological conditions, and any other foreseeable delay

10 Cruising altitudes When flying at least 3000 above ground level (AGL), you must choose an altitude that is appropriate for your chosen track direction: Eastbound ( ) Westbound ( ) Odd thousands Even thousands Rules change at FL Note: FL180 means flight level 180 A flight level is the altitude shown when your altimeter is set to the standard altimeter setting of Ex. If you set your altimeter to and fly an indicated altitude of feet, you are flying at FL230 You fly at Flight Levels in the Standard Pressure Region.

11 Standard Pressure Region In the standard pressure region, your altimeter must be set to (except for take-off and landing) In the altimeter setting region, your altimeter must be set to the closest reporting station The standard pressure region is all highlevel airspace (Lesson 4), and all airspace (even low-level airspace) in the standard pressure region outlined in this diagram. Image source: Transport Canada

12 VFR Weather minimums Recall what VFR means How poor can the weather get before you are not allowed to fly under VFR? Weather minimums answer this question

13 VFR Weather Minima AIRSPACE FLIGHT VISIBILITY DISTANCE FROM CLOUD DISTANCE AGL Control zones not less than 3 miles horizontally: 1 mile vertically: 500 feet 500 feet Other Controlled Airspace not less than 3 miles horizontally: 1 mile vertically: 500 feet feet AGL or above not less than 1 mile (day) 3 miles (night) horizontally: 2000 feet vertically: 500 feet - Uncontrolled Airspace below 1000 feet AGL not less than 2 miles (day) 3 miles (night) clear of cloud -

14 Special VFR If in a control zone, and weather conditions are too poor for VFR flight, you may request Special VFR. Special VFR will allow flight in visibility as low as 1 mile, and only require you to stay clear of cloud. Special VFR will only be offered to you if you request it, but never for take-offs at night.

15 Minimum altitudes Over a built-up area: Must maintain an altitude that would allow an emergency landing without causing a hazard to people or property on the ground. No lower than 1000 feet above the highest obstacle within a 2000 foot horizontal radius around the aircraft.

16 Minimum altitudes Not over a built-up area: Must not fly within 500 feet of any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure

17 Notice Although images from Transport Canada have been used, no part of this presentation is an official version from Transport Canada. This presentation has not been made in affiliation with nor with the endorsement of Transport Canada.

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