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1 Math 104: Introduction to Analysis SOLUTIONS Alexander Givental HOMEWORK Prove that n 2 = 1 n(n+1)(2n+1) for all n N. 6 Put f(n) = n(n + 1)(2n + 1)/6. Then f(1) = 1, i.e the theorem holds true for n = 1. To prove the theorem, it suffices to assume that it holds true for n = m and derive it for n = m + 1, m = 1, 2, 3,... We have f(m + 1) f(m) = 1 (m + 1)[(2m + 3)(m + 2) m(2m + 1)] 6 = 1 6 (m + 1)(6m + 6) = (m + 1)2. By the induction hypothesis, f(m) = m k=1 k2, and therefore f(m + 1) = f(m) + (m + 1) 2 = m Decide for which n the inequality 2 n > n 2 holds true, and prove it by mathematical induction. The inequality is false n = 2, 3, 4, and holds true for all other n N. Namely, it is true by inspection for n = 1, and the equality 2 4 = 4 2 holds true for n = 4. Thus, to prove the inequality for all n 5, it suffices to prove the following inductive step: For any n 4, if 2 n n 2, then 2 n+1 > (n + 1) 2. This is not hard to see: 2 n+1 = 2 2 n 2n 2, which is greater than (n+1) 2 provided that (n+1) < 2n i.e. when n > 1/( 2 1) = 2+1, which includes all integers n bc. Put ( ( n k) := n!/k!(n k)!, prove (a) n ) ( k + n ) ( k 1 = n+1 ) k for k = 1,..., n, and (b) derive the binomial theorem by induction. (b) Note that 1 k + 1 (n k + 1) + k = n k + 1 k(n k + 1) = k=1 Therefore n! k!(n k)! + n! (k 1)!(n k + 1)! = n! (k 1)!(n k)! [ ] = n! (k 1)!(n k)! n + 1 k(n k + 1) k 2. n + 1 k(n k + 1). (c) For n = 1 we have (a + b) n = a + b = ( 1 1) a + ( 1 1) b. 1 = [ ] 1 k + 1 n k + 1 (n + 1)! k!(n k + 1)!.

2 2 Suppose for some n 1 Then (a + b) n+1 = (a + b) (a + b) n = l=0 n k=0 ( ) n a k b n k. k n ( ) n n+1 [( ) n a l b n l = + l k 1 k=0 n+1 ( n + 1 = k k=0 ) a k b n+1 k. ( )] n a k b n+1 k k 2.5. Show that [3 + 2] 2/3 does not represent a rational number. Suppose it does represent a rational number q. Then q 3 = [3+ 2] 2 = = Then 2 = (q 3 11)/6 Q, which contradicts irrationality of 2. HOMEWORK 2 3.6b. Use induction to prove a 1 + a a n a 1 + a a n for n numbers a 1, a 2,..., a n. 1 For n = 1, we need a 1 a 1, which is true tautologically. 2 Suppose the required inequality is true for n = k. Then for n = k + 1, using the triangle inequality, we obtain: a 1 + +a k +a k+1 a 1 + +a k + a k+1 a a k + a k+1. Thus the required inequality holds true for any n = 1, 2, Find infima of sets: (a) inf[0, 1] = 0 (b) inf(0, 1) = 0 (c) inf[2, 7] = 2 (d) inf{π, e} = e (e) inf{ 1 : n N} = 0 (f) inf{0} = 0 n (g) inf[0, 1] [2, 3] = 0 (h) inf n=1 = [2n, 2n + 1] = 2 (i) inf n=1 [ 1, ] = 0 (j) inf{1 : n N} = 2 n n 3 n 3 (k) inf{n + ( 1)n : n N} = 0 (l) inf{r Q : r < 2} = n (m) inf{r Q : r 2 < 4} = 2 (n) inf{r Q : r 2 < 2} = 2 (o) inf{x R : x < 0} = (p) inf{1, π, 3 π2, 10} = 1 (q) inf{0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16} = 0 (r) inf n=1(1 1, ) = 1 n n (s) inf{ 1 : n N is prime} = 0 (t) inf{x R : n x3 < 8} = (u) inf{x 2 : x R} = 0 (v) inf{cos πn : n N} = 1 3 (w) inf{sin πn : n N} = 3 3 2

3 4.12. Prove that given a < b, there exists an irrational x such that a < x < b. Hint: first show that r + 2 is irrational when r Q. Following the hint, we prove by contradiction (reductio ad absurdum) that r + 2 is irrational when r Q. Indeed, if for a rational r, the number x = r + 2 were rational, then 2 = x r would have been rational, which is false. Now, using density of Q in R, find a rational r such that a 2 < r < b 2. Then x = r + 2 is irrational, and such that a < x < b. 4.14b. For bounded subsets A, B R, and S = {a+b : a A, b B}, prove that inf S = inf A + inf B. For any a A and b B, we have: a inf A, b inf B, and hence a + b inf A + inf B. Therefore x := inf A + inf B is a lower bound of S. To prove that x is the greatest lower bound, let us show that for any ǫ > 0 we can find s S such that x s < ǫ (which would guarantee that no lower bound of S greater than x exists). For this, find a A and b B such that inf A a < ǫ/2 and inf B b < ǫ/2. Then s = a + b S will satisfy x s < e indeed Let a, b R. Show that if a b+ 1 for all n N, then a b. n Let us argue by reductio ad absurdum. Suppose that a > b. Then a b > 0, and therefore, by the Archimedian property of R, there exists n N such that a b > 1. For this n, we have: a > b + 1, n n which contradicts the hypotheses. HOMEWORK Show that s n = cos(nπ/3) does not converge. For n = 1,..., 6 the terms of the sequence are 1/2, 1/2, 1, 1/2, 1/2, 1, which then repeat periodically. Thus for any number s, and any N one can find n > N such that s n = 1, hence s n+3 = 1, an therefore, by the triangle inequality, either s n s 1, or s n+3 s c Prove that lim[ 4n 2 + n 2n] = 1/4. n 4n2 + n 2n = 4n2 + n + 2n = n For any 1 < a, we have 1 < a < a 2, and therefore 1 lim [ 2n lim ] = = 1. 2n 3

4 4 Applying other theorems about behavior of limits under arithmetic operations with sequences, we conclude that lim 1 1 = = n 9.5. Let t 1 = 1 and t n+1 = (t 2 n + 2)/2t n for n 1. Assume that t n converges and find the limit. Suppose that t := lim t n exists. Then lim t n+1 = t as well. For all n, we have: 2t n t n+1 = t 2 n + 2. Passing to the limit and using theorems about limits of sums and products of sequences, we conclude that 2t 2 = t (In other words, the limit t if exists, must be a fixed point of the function t n+1 = (t 2 n + 2)/2t n, namely: t = (t 2 + 2)/2t.) We find therefore t = ± 2. Since the sequence t n with the initial value t 1 = 1 stays positive for all n, the limit has to be + 2. Remark. Trying this method of computing 2, we find: t 1 = 1, t 2 = 3/2, t 3 = 17/12, which is already a good approximation, since (17/12) 2 = 289/144 = Assume all s n 0 and that the limit L = lim s n+1 /s n exists. Show that if L < 1, then lim s n = 0. Pick a such that L < a < 1. For ǫ = a L > 0, there exists N such that for all n N the ratio s n+1 /s n differs from L by no more than ǫ, and hence s n+1 /s n < L + ǫ = a < 1. In particular, s N+1 < a s N, s N+2 < a s N+1 < a 2 s N, and so on, i.e. by induction, s N+n < a n s N for all n N. We conclude: when a < 1. lim s n = lim s N+n lim a n s N = s N lim a n = 0 n n n n Show that lim n a n n! = 0 for all a R. Put s n = a n /n! and find that s n+1 /s n = a/(n + 1) tends to 0 as n. Therefore, by the previous exercise, lim s n = 0. (In other words, n! grows faster than any exponential sequence a n.) HOMEWORK (a) Let (s n ) be a sequence such that s n+1 s n < 2 n for all n N. Prove that (s n ) is a Cauchy sequence and hence a convergent sequence. For any m > n, we have s m s n s k+1 s k < 2 k = 2 n+1 2 m < 2 n+1. n k<m n k<m

5 Therefore, for any given ǫ > 0, choosing N such that 2 N+1 < ǫ, we will have s m s n < ǫ for all m n N. Thus (s n ) is a Cauchy sequence. (b) Is the result (a) true if we only assume that s n+1 s n < 1/n for all n N? No. To construct a counter-example, let us prove first that n=1 1 n =. Indeed, for each k, there are 2 k 2 k 1 2 k = 2 k 1 numbers of the form 1/n between 1/(2 k 1 + 1) and 1/2 k. Each of them is at least as large as 1/2 k, and hence they and up to 2 k 1 /2 k = 1. Thus the sum of the first m such groups is at least m/2, i.e. 2 m n=2 m 1 n 1 2 = m 2. k=1 Thus the sum of finitely many many terms of the series becomes greater than any positive integer m when the number of the summands increases. Now, put s n := n 1 k=1, so that lims k n =, but s n+1 s n = 1 n + 1 < 1 n for all n N Let S be a bounded non-empty subset of R, and suppose sup S / S. Prove that there is a non-decreasing sequence (s n ) of points in S such that lim s n = sup S. For each n N, construct s n S such that sup S s n < 1/n and s n > s n 1 for n > 1. Then (s n ) will be an increasing sequence converging to sup S. Start by picking s 1 S such that sup S s 1 < 1. This is possible since otherwise sup S 1 < sup S is not an upper bound of S. Proceed by induction: suppose that s 1 <... < s n 1 with required properties have been found. Since sup S / S, we have s n 1 < sup S. Therefore there exists s n S such that sup S s n > s n 1 and sup S s n < 1/n, which is possible since neither s n 1 < sup S nor sup S 1/n < sup S is an upper bound of S.

6 Let (s n ) and (t n ) be the following two sequences that repeat in cycles of four: Then: (s n ) = (0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 1,...), (t n ) = (2, 1, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0,...). (a) lim inf s n + lim inf t n = = 0, (b) lim inf(s n + t n ) = 1, (c) lim inf s m + lim sup t n = = 2, (d) lim sup(s n + t n ) = 3, (e) lim sup s n + lim sup t n = = 4, (f) lim inf s n t n = 0, (e) lim sup s n t n = 2. Problem. Let p n denote the semiperimeter of a regular 3x2 n - gon (i.e. 3-angle, 6-gon, 12-gon, 24-gon, etc.) inscribed into a circle of radius 1. Prove that the sequence p n converges, and that the limit (commonly called π) is greater than 3. Solution. When the number of sides of a regular polygon doubles, each side of the m-gon is replaced by a broken line consisting of two adjacent sides of the 2m-gon connecting the same endpoints. Since, by the triangle inequality, a broken line is longer than the straight segment connecting the same endpoints, we conclude that the sequence p n of semiperimeters is increasing. It is easy to see from elementary geometry that the side of a regular hexagon inscribed into a unit circle has length 1, and therefore p 1 = 3. Thus, it suffices to show that the sequence p n is bounded above, to conclude that the limit π exists and is greater than 3. In fact it is not hard to show that the perimeter of any convex polygon does not exceed the perimeter of any polygon containing it. To see this, go around the convex polygon clockwise and extend each side of it forward up to its first intersection with the boundary of the enclosing polygon. Then write down the triangle inequality estimating above each of the extended sides by the length of the broken line connecting its endpoints and consisting of the extending segment of the previous side, and a part of the perimeter of the enclosing polygon. Summing up all these inequalities, we obtain the required inequality between the perimeters of the enclosed and enclosing polygons (since the extending segments occur on both sides of the inequality and thus cancel out). This implies that each p n is smaller than the semiperimeter of any polygon enclosing the unit disk, (e.g. the square of size 2 2, whose semiperimeter equals 4). In particular, we conclude that π < 4.

7 HOMEWORK 5 Problem. A set is called closed if it contains all its subsequential limits (see p. 72). A set is called open if its complement is closed. Prove that a set is open if and only if together with any point, it contains some open interval containing this point. Suppose that x S is not contained in S together with any open interval. Then for any n N there exists x n / S such that x n x > 1/n. The sequence (x n ) is in the complement of S and converges to x, which is not in the complement. Thus the complement of S is not closed. Vice versa, suppose the complement of S is not closed, i.e. there exists a sequence (x n ) in the complement of S which converges to x S. Then any open interval containing x will contain some elements of the sequence (x n ) and thus will not lie in S. 11.9b. Is there a sequence (s n ) such that (0, 1) is its set of subsequential limits? No, the set of subsequential limits of any set must be closed, but the interval (0, 1) (not including its endpoints) is not closed Prove that (s n ) is bounded if and only if lim sup s n < +. If lim sup s n = +, then there exists a subsequence (s nk ) such that lim s nk = +, and therefore this subsequence is unbounded. Vice versa, if (s n ) is unbounded, then for any k N there exists s nk such that s nk > k. We may assume that n 1 < n 2 <... < n k <..., and thus get a subsequence (s nk ) such that lim s nk = +, i.e. lim sup s n = b. determine if the series [ n + 1 n] converges. Partial sums of the series are n n 1+ n + 1 n = n + 1 1, and form a sequence that tends to +. Thus the series diverges Find a series a n which diverges by the Root Test, but for which the Ratio Test gives no information. Consider the series a n := 2 ( 1)nn. Applying the Root Test we get the sequence a n 1/n = 2 ( 1)n which consists of two constant subsequences 2 and 1/2, and therefore has lim sup a n 1/n = 2 > 1. Thus the series diverges. Applying the Root Test we get the sequence a n /a n 1 = 2 ( 1)n(2n 1) which consists of two subsequences: 2 2n 1 for even n, and 1/2 2n 1 for odd n, converging respectively to + and to 0. Thus lim inf a n /a n 1 = 0 < 1 < + = lim sup a n /a n 1, 7

8 8 i.e. the Ratio Test is inconclusive. (a) HOMEWORK 6 n 1 1 n(n + 1) converges by the comparison test: 1/n(n + 1) < 1/n 2 for all n N. (n!) 2 (b) (2n)! n 1 converges by the ratio test: lim a n /a n 1 = lim n 2 /2n(2n 1) = 1/4 < 1. n! (c) n n n 1 converges by the ratio test: lim a n+1 /a n = lim(1 + 1/n) n = e 1 < 1. (n!) 2 (d) 2 n2 n 1 converges by the ratio test: lim a n /a n 1 = lim n 2 /2 2n 1 = 0 < (e) converges by the ratio test: lim a n /a n 1 = lim( n)/(2n + 1) = 1/2 < 1. (f) (2 1/2 2 1/3 )(2 1/2 2 1/5 ) (2 1/2 2 1/(2n+1) ) n 1 converges by the ratio test: lim a n /a n 1 = lim(2 1/2 2 1/2n+1 ) = 2 1 < 1. n 2 (g) (2 + 1 n )n n 1 converges by the root test: lim a n 1/n = lim n 2/n /(2 + 1/n) = 1/2 < 1. (h) n 1 n n+ 1 n (n + 1 n )n diverges since lim a n = lim n 1/n /(1 + 1/n 2 ) n > 1/e > 0. { 1/n if n = m 2 (i) a n where a n := 1/n 2 if n m 2. n=1

9 Partial sums of this series form an increasing sequence which is bounded by the sum of n=1 1/n2 with m=1 1/m2. Thus the series converges. (j) converges by the ratio test. Indeed, a n = 2 b n, where b 0 = 0, b n = 2 + b n 1 > 0 for n > 0. Then 9 a n = 2 bn 2 + bn 2 + bn = 4 b 2 n 2 + bn = 2 bn bn = a n bn. Thus lim sup a n /a n 1 1/ 2 < 1. HOMEWORK b. Prove that x is a continuous function on R. Solution. x is continuous at any x 0 since it coincides with x for x > 0 and with x for x < 0. At x = 0, the function f(x) = x is continuous because for any ǫ > 0 we have: x 0 < ǫ implies f(x) f(0) = x < ǫ. 17.8c. Prove that if f and g are continuous at x 0, then min(f, g) is continuous at x 0. Solution. According to 17.8a, min(f, g) = 1(f + g) 1 f g, 2 2 and therefore continuity of min(f, g) follows from the property of the absolute value function (17.7b) and the sum, difference, scalar multiple, and composition of continuous functions to be continuous b. Let f and g be continuous real-valued functions on (a, b) such that f(r) = g(r) for each rational number r in (a, b). Prove that f(x) = g(x) for all x (a, b). Solution. For any x (a, b) there exists a sequence of rational numbers r n such that lim f n = x. Then f(x) = lim f(r n ) = lim g(r n ) = g(x) b. Let h(x) = x for all x Q and h(x) = 0 for all x R Q. Show that h is continuous at x = 0 and no other point. Solution. For any ǫ > 0, if x 0 < ǫ, then h(x) h(0) is either 0 (if x is irrational) or x (if x is rational, and thus in both cases is smaller than ǫ. This proves continuity of h at x = 0. For any other x, consider two sequences with the limit x, one (r n ) consisting of rational numbers, and another x n consisting of irrational numbers. Then lim h(x n ) = 0, and lim h(r n ) = x 0. This proves discontinuity of h at x 0.

10 For each rational number x write x = p/q where p, q are integers with no common factors and q > 0, and then define f(x) = 1/q. Also define f(x) = 0 for all x R Q. Show that f is continuous at each point of R Q and discontinuous at each point of Q. Solution. For a rational x = p/q (as above), find a sequence x n of irrational numbers such that limx n = x. Then lim f(x n ) = 0, but f(x) = 1/q 0, i.e. f is discontinuous at x. For an irrational x, and any ǫ > 0, let δ > 0 be the distance from x to the closest irreducible fraction p/q with the denominator q 1/ǫ (there are at most finitely many such fractions on any bounded interval). Then for any x such that x x < δ we will have f(x ) f(x) < ǫ. This proves continuity of f at x R Q. HOMEWORK Prove that every rational function is continuous. Solution. A rational function is obtained from constants and the identity function y = x by the operations of multiplication, addition, and division. Since the identity and constant functions are obviously continuous, the result follows from the theorems about continuity of sums, products, and ratios of continuous functions Where does the proof of Theorem 18.1 (p. 126 of the textbook) break down if the domain of the function is an open (rather than closed) interval (a, b)? Solution. The limit x 0 (or y 0 ) of the subsequence x nk (a, b) (resp. y nk (a, b)) may be an endpoint a or b of the interval and thus lie outside the domain of the function Let S R be not closed. Show that there exists an unbounded continuous function on S. Solution. Let x 0 / S be such that there exists a sequence (x n ) in S which converges to x 0 (such a number x 0 exists since S is not closed). Then the function f(x) = x x 0 (i.e. the distance to x 0 ) is continuous and strictly positive on S. Thus 1/f is well-defined and continuous on S. It is unbounded since lim 1/ x n x 0 = Prove that x = cosx for some x on (0, π/2). Solution. Indeed, f(x) := x cos x is continuous on [0, π/2], negative at x = 0, and positive at x = π/2. Therefore, by the Intermediate Value Theorem, there exists an x (0, π/2) such that f(x) = Suppose that f is continuous on [0, 2], and f(0) = f(2). Prove that there exist x, y [0, 2] such that x y = 1, and f(x) = f(y).

11 Solution. Put g(x) = f(x + 1) f(x). Then g is defined and continuous on [0, 1], g(0) = f(1) f(0) = f(1) f(2) = g(1). By the intermediate value theorem, there exists x [0, 1] such that g(x) = 0, i.e. f(x + 1) = f(x). 11 HOMEWORK b. Verify uniform continuity of f(x) = x 2 on [0, 3]. Solution. For a given positive ǫ, take δ = ǫ/6. then for any x, y [0, 3] such that x y < δ, we have f(x) f(y) = x 2 y 2 = x + y x y < (3 + 3)δ = ǫ. 19.4a. Prove that a function uniformly continuous on a bounded set is bounded. Solution. Suppose that f is uniformly continuous but unbounded. Then there exists a sequence (x n ) in the domain of f such that f(x n ) n. Since the domain is bounded, the sequence contains a convergent subsequence (x nk ) (by the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem). A convergent subsequence is Cauchy, and therefore the sequence of values f(x nk ) is Cauchy by the property of uniformly continuous functions. But the sequence f(x nk ) n k is unbounded contradiction. 19.6a. Show that f(x) = x is uniformly continuous on (0, 1] although f is unbounded. Solution. The derivative f (x) = 1/2 x tends to as x 0, and is therefore unbounded. However, since f is continuous on the closed interval [0, 1], it is uniformly continuous on [0, 1], and therefore on the subset (0, 1] as well Show that lim x 0 ( 1 + 3x 3 1)/x 2 exists, and find its value. Solution. We have: 1 + 3x2 1 x 2 = (1 3x2 ) 1 ( 1 + 3x 2 + 1)x 2 = x2 + 1, which is a composition of continuous functions (the polynomial x 1 + 3x 2, y y, addition of 1, inversion, multiplication by 3), welldefined near x = 0. Thus, the function has a limit as x 0, equal to the value of the function at x = 0, i.e. to 3/2.

12 Show that the function g such that g(x) = x 2 sin 1/x for x 0, and g(0) = 0, is continuous on R, and find out if it is uniformly continuous. Solution. The limit g(x) lim x 0 x = lim x sin 1 x 0 x = 0, i.e. g is differentiable at x = 0 (and g (0) = 0). At x 0, g (x) = 2x sin 1 x + x2 cos 1 x ( 1 x 2) = 2x sin 1 x cos 1 x, which is bounded. Indeed, since cosy) 1, and siny y for any y, and hence for y = 1/x, we have: 2x sin 1 x cos 1 x = 2 sin y cosy = 3. y Thus, g is defined and bounded on R, and therefore g is uniformly continuous. HOMEWORK Prove Leibniz rule: (fg) (n) = n ( n k=0 k) f (k) g (n k). Solution: Induction on n. For n = 1, Leibniz rule turns into the product rule 9fg) = f g + fg. Suppose that Leibniz rule holds true for a given n = m. Then m ( ) m m ( ) m (fg) (m+1) = (f g + fg ) (m) = f (k+1) g (m k) + f (k) g (m+1 k) k k k=0 k=0 m+1 [( ) ( )] m m = + f (k) g (m+1 k) k 1 k k=0 m+1 ( ) m + 1 = f (k) g (m+1 k), k k=0 where the last equality is due to the defining property of Pascal s triangle: ( ) ( m+1 k = m ( k 1) + m k). 28.4c. For g(x) = x 2 sin 1/x at x 0, and g(0) = 0, show that g is not continuous at x = 0. Solution. According to the solution to 19.10, g is differentiable everywhere, g(0) = 0, and g (x) = x sin 1/x cos 1/x at x 0. The summand x sin 1/x tends to 0 as x 0, and cos 1/x has no limit at x = 0. Thus the sum g (x) has no limit at x 0, and hence g is discontinuous at x = 0.

13 For f(x) = x/2 + x 2 sin 1/x at x 0, and f(0) = 0, show that f (0) > 0, but f is not increasing on any interval containing 0, and compare this result with the theorem 29.7 (i) saying that a function is increasing on a given interval if it has positive derivative on it. Solution. We have: f (0) = lim x 0 f(x) x On the other hand, at x 0, we have [ 1 = lim x x sin 1 ] = 1 x > 0. f (x) = 2x sin 1 x cos 1 x. While the first term tends to 0 as x 0, the last term oscillates between 1 and 1 infinitely many times in any neighborhood of x = 0. Since 1/2 1 < 0, in any neighborhood of x = 0, the derivative f stays negative on some intervals. By the result of Theorem 29.7, the function f is decreasing on these intervals. Thus f is not increasing in any neighborhood of x = 0. If f were continuous at x = 0, then it would remain positive in some neighborhood of x = 0 (since f (0) = 1/2 > 0, and thus f would have been increasing in that neighborhood. Thus this counter-example is due to discontinuity of f at x = Show that for r = m/n, the derivative of the function f(x) = x r (in the appropriate domain depending on m and n) is equal to rx r 1. Solution. Since (x m ) = mx m 1 for m 0 (induction on m based on the product rule), 1/x) = 1/x 2 (the theorem about derivatives of reciprocal functions), and (x 1/n ) = x 1 n 1 (derivatives of inverse functions), the derivative of the function x m/n := (x m ) 1 n can be computed by the chain rule: d dx (xm ) 1 y 1 n 1 n = n y=x m mxm 1 = m 1 n xm( n 1) x m 1 = m n x m n Prove that a sequence (s n ), defined recursively by the rule s n+1 := f(s n ) and a choice of s 0, converges provided that f is a function differentiable on R with the derivative bounded in the absolute value by a number a < 1. Solution. By the mean value theorem, for each n > 0, we have: s n+1 s n = f(s n ) f(s n 1 ) = f (y)(s n s n 1 a s n s n 1. 13

14 14 By induction, this implies: s n+1 s n a n s 1 s 0 for all n > 0. Furthermore, for any m n > 0, we have: m m s m+1 s n s k+1 s k (s 1 s 0 ) a k. k=n Since the geometric series a k with a < 1 converges, its partial sums n k=0 ak form a Cauchy sequence. The previous estimate implies therefore that (s n ) is a Cauchy sequence, and hence converges by the completeness property of R. HOMEWORK 11 We have 1/ tan(y + π/2) = 1/ cot( y) = tany = y + o( y ), and 1/ tan(3y + 3π/2) = 1/ cot( 3y) = tan3y = 3y + o( y ). Therefore (a) k=n tan3x lim x π/2 tan x = lim tany y 0 tan 3y = y + o( y ) 3y + ( y ) = 1 3. Furthermore, we have tanx = x + x 3 /3 + o( x 3 ), sin x = x x 3 /6 + o( x 3 ). Therefore (b) lim x 0 (c) 3 tan4x 12 tanx 3 sin 4x 12 sinx = lim 12x + 64x 3 12x 4x 3 + o( x 3 ) x 0 12x 32x 3 12x + 2x 3 + o( x 3 ) = 2. Since lim x 0 sin bx/ sin ax = b/a, we have by l Hospital s rule: ln(sin ax) lim x 0 + ln(sin bx) = lim a cosax/ sin ax x 0 + b cosbx/ sin bx = a b b a = 1. Next, lim x 0 x ln x = 0 (by l Hospital s rule, or just because x = e t decreases much fastes as t than ln x = t grows in the absolute value). Therefore x x = exp(x lnx) tends to 1 as x 0 +. Hence x x lnx = ln x xx tends to as x 0 +, and thus x xx tends to 0. We conclude (d) lim 1) = 0 1 = 1. x 0 +(xxx By l Hospital s rule, y 2n lim = nyn 2, y e y2 e y2 if the latter limit exists. Since e y2 tensd to 0 as y, we conclude by induction on n 0 that the limits exist and are equal to 0. Taking y = 1/x we conclude that (e) lim x 0 e 1/x2 x 100 = 0.

### 1 if 1 x 0 1 if 0 x 1

Chapter 3 Continuity In this chapter we begin by defining the fundamental notion of continuity for real valued functions of a single real variable. When trying to decide whether a given function is or

### 0 ( x) 2 = ( x)( x) = (( 1)x)(( 1)x) = ((( 1)x))( 1))x = ((( 1)(x( 1)))x = ((( 1)( 1))x)x = (1x)x = xx = x 2.

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