1 Socialization: The Art of Becoming PART FIVE: THE AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION: PEER GROUPS
2 Peer Groups By the time they enter school, children have joined a peer group, a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common. Unlike the family and the school, the peer group lets children escape the direct supervision of adults. Among their peers, children learn how to form relationships on their own. Peer groups also offer the chance to discuss interests that adults may not share with their children (such as clothing and popular music) or permit (such as drugs and sex).
3 Peer Groups It is not surprising, then, that parents often express concern about who their children s friends are. In a rapidly changing society, peer groups have great influence, and the attitudes of young and old may differ because of a generation gap. The importance of peer groups typically peaks during adolescence, when young people begin to break away from their families and think of themselves as adults. Even during adolescence, however, parental influence on children remains strong.
4 Peer Groups Peers may affect short-term interests such as music or films, but parents have greater influence on long-term goals,such as going to college. Finally, any neighborhood or school is made up of many peer groups. Individuals tend to view their own group in positive terms and put down other groups. In addition, people are influenced by peer groups they would like to join, a process sociologists call anticipatory socialization, learning that helps a person achieve a desired position.
5 Peer Groups In school, for example, young people may copy the styles and slang of a group they hope will accept them. Later in life, a young lawyer who hopes to become a partner in the law firm may conform to the attitudes and behavior of the firm s partners in order to be accepted. When children move out from family to child-care centers, school, and the community at large, they begin to form attachments, and friendships emerge through their play. These relationships influence behavior. Even infants and toddlers are observed reacting to other infants by touching them, by crying when others cry, and later by offering nurturance or comfort.
6 Peer Groups By about age three, early friendships begin to form and children s peers begin to have a more lasting influence Gradually, children discover that others can share their feelings or attitudes or have quite different ones. The perspectives of others will affect how children feel about their own families. Children usually have a family view of their own and of other cultures. So, when confronted with other perspectives, they often need to rethink their own viewpoints.
7 Peer Groups It is often difficult for children to adjust to the idea that other families can function radically differently from their own and yet hold many of the same attitudes and beliefs and be equally nurturing and secure. The peer group serves as a barometer for children examining themselves and their feelings about self and family. The peer group also influences development of children s socializing skills. These early friendships help children learn how to negotiate and relate to others, including their siblings and other family members.
8 Peer Groups They learn from peers how to cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group-sanctioned modes of behavior. The peer group can influence what the child values, knows, wears, eats, and learns. The extent of this influence, however, depends on other situational constraints, such as the age and personality of children and the nature of the group. Socialization is particularly important for children with disabilities, and it is the reason many programs include peers who are typically developing in special education programs or include children with disabilities in general education classrooms.
9 Peer Groups In its most acceptable form, the peer group is a healthy coming-of-age arbiter, by which children grasp negotiating skills and learn to deal with hostility and to solve problems in a social context. In its most destructive mode, the peer group can demand blind obedience to a group norm, which can result in socially alienated gangs with pathological outlooks.
10 Peer Groups They learn from peers how to cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group-sanctioned modes of behavior. The peer group can influence what the child values, knows, wears, eats, and learns. The extent of this influence, however, depends on other situational constraints, such as the age and personality of children and the nature of the group. Socialization is particularly important for children with disabilities, and it is the reason many programs include peers who are typically developing in special education programs or include children with disabilities in general education classrooms.
11 The mass media are the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience. The term media (plural of medium) comes from the Latin word for middle, suggesting that media connect people. Mass media arise as communications technology (first newspapers and then radio, television, films, and the Internet) spreads information on a massive scale. In the United States today, the mass media have an enormous influence on our attitudes and behavior.
12 By comparison, just 95 percent have telephones. Five out of six households also have cable or satellite television. The United States has one of the highest rates of television ownership in the world. In this country, it is people with lower incomes who spend the most time watching TV as well as using their television to watch movies and to play video games. Just how glued to the tube are we? Survey data show that the average household has at least one television set turned on for eight hours each day and that people spend more than half their free time watching television.
13 One study, by the Kaiser Family Foundation, found that, compared to adults, school-age youngsters typically spend even more time about seven and a half hours each day watching television or playing video games. The extent of daily television viewing is greater for African American children (averaging almost six hours) and Hispanic children (almost five and a half hours) than for white children (about three and a half hours). About two-thirds of U.S. children report that the television is typically on during meals, and more than 70 percent claim that parents do not limit the amount of time they spend in front of the screen.
14 Younger children favor watching television and playing video games; as children get older, music videos and Web surfing become a bigger part of the mix. At all ages, boys favor video games and girls lean toward music videos (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010; Nielsen Media Research, 2011). Years before children learn to read, television watching is a regular part of their daily routine. As they grow, children spend as many hours in front of a television as they do in school or interacting with their parents.
15 This is the case despite research suggesting that television makes children more passive and less likely to use their imagination. Researchers explain that most television is not itself harmful to children; however, watching television prevents children from engaging in other activities especially interacting with other children and adults which is vital to social and mental development. Television and Politics The comedian Fred Allen once quipped that we call television a medium because it is rarely well done.
16 Television and Politics For a number of reasons, television (as well as other mass media) provokes plenty of criticism. Some liberal critics argue that for most of television s history, racial and ethnic minorities have not been visible or have been included only in stereotypical roles (such as African Americans playing butlers and maids, Asian Americans playing gardeners, or Hispanics playing new immigrants).
17 Television and Politics In recent years, however, minorities have moved closer to center stage on television. There are ten times as many Hispanic actors on primetime television as there were in the 1970s, and they play a far larger range of characters. On the other side of the fence, conservative critics charge that the television and film industries are dominated by a liberal cultural elite. In recent years, they claim, politically correct media have advanced liberal causes, including radical feminism and acceptance of homosexuality.
18 Television and Politics But not everyone agrees, with some studies suggesting that the mainstream media are fairly conservative on many issues In addition, some television cable channels (such as MSNBC) have a decidedly liberal point of view, while others (such as Fox Network) are more conservative. One study of the 2008 presidential election found that the Democratic candidate Barack Obama was endorsed by almost three times as many U.S. newspapers as Republican candidate John McCain ( Ongoing Tally, 2008).
19 Television and Politics At the same time, research suggests that a wide range of political opinion is available in today s mass media and that most of us tend to focus on those media sources, whether more liberal or more conservative, that are closer to our own personal opinions. However, the media available to the distinct political perspectives suggests that the mainstream media, meaning the traditional media enterprises of newspaper, and major network news, are heavily dominated by a more liberal perspective.
20 Television and Politics The continual loss in revenue in these mediums, while similar mediums that provide a more conservative viewpoint succeed, suggests that a large segment of the American population are dissatisfied with the bias, or particular slant, provided by liberal news outlets. Television and Violence In 1996, the American Medical Association issued the startling statement that violence in television and films had reached such a high level and that it posed a hazard to our health.
21 Television and Violence More recently, a study found a strong link between aggressive behavior and the amount of time elementary school children spend watching television and playing video games. The public is concerned about this issue: Threefourths of U.S. adults report having walked out of a movie or turned off the television because of too much violence. About two-thirds of parents say that they are very concerned that their children are exposed to too much media violence.
22 Television and Violence There may be reason for this concern: Almost twothirds of television programs contain violence, and in most such scenes, violent characters show no remorse and are not punished. Back in 1997, the television industry adopted a rating system. But we are left to wonder whether watching sexual or violent programming harms people as much as critics say. More important, why do the mass media contain so much sex and violence in the first place?
23 Television and Violence Television and the other mass media enrich our lives with entertaining and educational programming. The media also increase our exposure to diverse cultures and provoke discussion of current issues. At the same time, the power of the media especially television to shape how we think remains highly controversial.
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