Animal Development. Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages..

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Animal Development. Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages.."

Transcription

1 Animal Development Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages.. 1. Gametogenesis - gamete production 2. Fertilization - gamete --> zygote 3. Cleavage - Zygote --> Blastula 4. Gastrulation - Blastula --> Gastrula 5. Organogenesis - Organ Formation -i.e. Neurulation- Gastrula --> Neurula

2 Fertilization Fertilization-male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote Sperm must pass through 3 barriers 1. Jelly coat 2. Vitelline layer 3. Plasma membrane

3 Acrosome cap - contains digestive enzymes that eat away at jelly layer Fertilization 1. Sperm attaches the jelly coat of the egg

4 Fertilization 2. Sperm reach vitelline envelope Vitelline layerspecies-specific boundary involved in sperm-egg recognition ensure other species cannot fertilize the egg

5 Fertilization 3. Sperm /egg plasma membrane fuse Sperm nucleus enters the egg Fertilization occurssperm nucleus and egg nucleus form a 2N zygote

6 Fertilization 4. Prevention of Polyspermy entrance of multiple sperm 1.Change of electrical potential of the egg plasma membrane- fast 2.Confusion of sperm- Egg releases all of their Ca ions 3.Cortical reaction- slower, mechanical block, initiated in response to Ca release

7 Fertilization Cortical granules - reside just below of plasma membrane Cortical reaction under high Ca levels granules release contents between plasma and vitelline membrane, causes water to rush in Vitelline layer - hardens and separates from the plasma membrane= fertilization membrane formed

8 Animal Development Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages.. 1. Gametogenesis - gamete production 2. Fertilization - gamete --> zygote 3. Cleavage - Zygote --> Blastula 4. Gastrulation - Blastula --> Gastrula 5. Organogenesis - Organ Formation -i.e. Neurulation- Gastrula --> Neurula

9 Cleavage Cleavage-rapid succession of cell division doubling with each division each cell smaller than zygote Blastula- multi-cellular embryo formed from a single celled zygote

10 Blastula- hollow ball of cells with a large cavity surrounded by one or more layers of cells Blastocoel fluid filled cavity forms at the center of embryo Cleavage

11 Animal Development Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages.. 1. Gametogenesis - gamete production 2. Fertilization - gamete --> zygote 3. Cleavage - Zygote --> Blastula 4. Gastrulation - Blastula --> Gastrula 5. Organogenesis - Organ Formation -i.e. Neurulation- Gastrula --> Neurula

12 Gastrulation Gastrulation - sorts all the cells into distinct cell layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) Blastula (hollow ball of cells) transformed into the Gastrula (three layered stage)

13 Gastrulation 1. Gastrulation begins- Blastopore formed Blastopore - midway opening on one side of the blastula Site of cell migration from the surface into the interior Future site of anus

14 Gastrulation 2. Cell migrating to form layers Archenteron primitive gut formed (endoderm) future mouth

15 Gastrulation 3.Gastrulation complete - Gastrula formed Endoderm and archenteron -replace the blastocoel Mesoderm - forms a layer between the ectoderm and endoderm Ectoderm- forms the outer layer except for a cluster of endodermal cells (yolk plug) Yolk plug- (endoderm) marks the site of the blastopore and of the future anus

16 Animal Development Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages.. 1. Gametogenesis - gamete production 2. Fertilization - gamete --> zygote 3. Cleavage - Zygote --> Blastula 4. Gastrulation - Blastula --> Gastrula 5. Organogenesis - Organ Formation -i.e. Neurulation- Gastrula --> Neurula

17 Neurulation Neurulation embryonic formation of the neural tube directed by the underlying notochord Notochord- stiff rod (mesoderm) runs down the back of the embryo provides support for other developing tissues -Future backbone

18 Neurulation 1. Neurulation begins - neural tube formation Neural plate thickened region (ectoderm) arises a pair of pronounced ridges called the neural fold Neural tube formed when neural folds meet future brain and spinal cord

19 Neurulation 2. Neurulation complete - Neurula formed Neurula- an embryo with a neural tube Somites-internal segmented structures (mesoderm) Give rise to vertebrae and associated muscles of the backbone Coelom body cavity (mesoderm) developed next to somites

20 Animal Development Embryology - study of development of the embryo 5 major stages.. 1. Gametogenesis - gamete production (i.e. Meiosis) 2. Fertilization - union of sperm & egg cell --> 2n zygote 3. Cleavage - rapid succession of cell divisions forms hollow ball of cells called BLASTULA embryo 4. Gastrulation - period of cell migrations as BLASTULA embryo converted into a 3 layered stage called GASTRULA embryo 5. Organogenesis - Organ Formation -i.e. Neurulation- Gastrula --> Neurula

21 Starfish Development

22 Blastocoel Blastula Blastopore

23 Archenteron Gastrulation Blastopore becomes the anus

24 Mouth Anus

25

26 Frog Development

27 Cell size difference

28

29 Yolk Plug

30

31 Chicken Development

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

Chapter 47: Animal Development

Chapter 47: Animal Development Name Period Overview 1. An organism s development is controlled by the genome of the zygote as well as by molecules from the mother that are in the cytoplasm of the egg. What are these proteins and RNAs

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Note: At least 1 point must be earned from each of parts (a), (b), (c), and (d) in order to earn a maximum score of 10. The ability to reproduce is a characteristic

More information

The first steps to forming a new organism Descriptive embryology 2. Cleavage, Gastrulation, Neurulation and Organogenesis

The first steps to forming a new organism Descriptive embryology 2. Cleavage, Gastrulation, Neurulation and Organogenesis Developmental Biology BY1101 P. Murphy Lectures 4 and 5 The first steps to forming a new organism Descriptive embryology 2 Cleavage, Gastrulation, Neurulation and Organogenesis Early animal development

More information

SEA URCHIN FERTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT. Introduction

SEA URCHIN FERTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT. Introduction SEA URCHIN FERTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT Introduction A sexually reproducing organism begins as a zygote (the cell produced when an ovum is fertilized by a sperm). The events that occur next are quite

More information

Embryo Clay Model Embryogenesis and Stem Cell Development

Embryo Clay Model Embryogenesis and Stem Cell Development Embryo Clay Model Embryogenesis and Stem Cell Development Objective: To identify stages and locations of early embryonic development To see at what point stem cells are totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent

More information

Chapter 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity

Chapter 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Name Period Concept 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers 1. Like the fungi, animals are multicellular heterotrophs. How do they feed?

More information

Human Embryonic Development. AP Biology

Human Embryonic Development. AP Biology Human Embryonic Development Human fetal development Day 1: 1 st cleavage 1 cell becomes 2 (2-cell stage) Day 2: 2 nd cleavage 4-cell stage Day 3: 6-12 cell stage can test at this stage for genetic diseases

More information

Plantae. Protista. Domain Bacteria. Eukaryotes Eucarya

Plantae. Protista. Domain Bacteria. Eukaryotes Eucarya ANIMALS Domain Eucarya Plantae Animalia Prokaryotes Fungi Domain Bacteria Archaea Eucarya Kingdom -- -- Plantae Animalia Fungi Protista Protista Eukaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea ANIMALS Eukaryotes

More information

AP Biology. Endocrine System Hormones & Reproduction. Male reproductive system. Reproductive hormones Testosterone from testes.

AP Biology. Endocrine System Hormones & Reproduction. Male reproductive system. Reproductive hormones Testosterone from testes. Endocrine System Hormones & Reproduction Sex & Growth Hormones Large scale body changes how do they work turn genes on start new processes in the body by turning genes on that were lying dormant AP Biology

More information

Animal body plans and developmental patterns Another characteristic of multicellular organisms: Senescence (aging)

Animal body plans and developmental patterns Another characteristic of multicellular organisms: Senescence (aging) Multicellular organisms have a new problem: development. This is because they have a life cycle that includes a unicellular stage (or stages). Typically: Adult (multicellular) gametes (unicellular) zygote

More information

Vertebrate Development Chapter 60

Vertebrate Development Chapter 60 Vertebrate Development Chapter 60 Copyright McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display Raven - Johnson - Biology: 6th Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies Stages

More information

Lecture 24 Embryonic & Fetal Development

Lecture 24 Embryonic & Fetal Development Lecture 24 Embryonic & Fetal Development Acrosomal Reaction and Sperm Penetration An ovulated oocyte is encapsulated by: The corona radiata and zona pellucida Extracellular matrix Sperm binds to the zona

More information

Reproduction in all but a few vertebrates unites two

Reproduction in all but a few vertebrates unites two 60 Vertebrate Development Concept Outline 60.1 Fertilization is the initial event in development. Stages of Development. Fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm occurs in three stages: penetration, activation

More information

DESCRIPTIVE EMBRYOLOGY

DESCRIPTIVE EMBRYOLOGY chapter 33 DESCRIPTIVE EMBRYOLOGY Outline Fertilization Egg Activation Metabolic and Nuclear Events Embryonic Development, Cleavage, and Egg Types Quantity and Distribution of Yolk Cleavage Patterns The

More information

Bio200 Signaling and Fertilization

Bio200 Signaling and Fertilization Bio200 Signaling and Fertilization Outline Questions Understanding Fertilization How do cells signal to each other? What molecules are released, and what molecules are used to recognize signals? Why would

More information

Outline. Fertilization

Outline. Fertilization 1 2 1 Outline Fertilization Development before Birth Fetal Circulation Embryonic Development Fetal Development Birth Development after Birth Aging 3 Steps of fertilization. Fertilization Several sperm

More information

Folding of the neural ectoderm results in the neural tube The neural tube is the precursor of the brain & spinal cord

Folding of the neural ectoderm results in the neural tube The neural tube is the precursor of the brain & spinal cord Lecture Outline The Primary Germ Layers Notochord Formation The Events of Neurulation Bottle Cells Bottle Cells & Neurulation Induction of Neural Tissue by Chordamesoderm Hensen's Node Induces Neural Axis

More information

2-Vertebrate Structure and Development (Part I)

2-Vertebrate Structure and Development (Part I) 2-Vertebrate Structure and Development (Part I) VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY CHORDATE PHYLOGENY AND HOMOLOGY DEUTEROSTOME DEVELOPMENT CHORDATE BODY PLAN How do they do that???? DIVERSITY Pough et al. 2005, p.

More information

Developmental Biology BIOS E-55 Harvard Extension School Spring 2011

Developmental Biology BIOS E-55 Harvard Extension School Spring 2011 Developmental Biology BIOS E-55 Harvard Extension School Spring 2011 Jenna Galloway, Ph.D. Research Fellow Department of Genetics Harvard Medical School Developmental Biology BIOS E-55 Central Questions

More information

Fertilization. Fertilization. Gastrula 4/30/2012. Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation. Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation. Morula.

Fertilization. Fertilization. Gastrula 4/30/2012. Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation. Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation. Morula. Fertilization Acrosome reaction: enzymes allo sperm to penetrate granulosa cells, and the zona pellucida A single sperm & headpiece enter the egg Nuclei from egg and sperm fuse (fertilization) Egg prevents

More information

Germ cell formation / gametogenesis And Fertilisation

Germ cell formation / gametogenesis And Fertilisation Developmental Biology BY1101 P. Murphy Lecture 3 The first steps to forming a new organism Descriptive embryology I Germ cell formation / gametogenesis And Fertilisation Why bother with sex? In terms of

More information

Human Brain Development

Human Brain Development Human Brain Development *Neural Tube Formation *Brain Growth *Synapse Formation By Cheryl Wilson, Belmont High School http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:brain_090407.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:neuron_with_mhtt_inclusion.jpg

More information

2. What muscle pulls the testis down into the scrotum during development?

2. What muscle pulls the testis down into the scrotum during development? Anatomy & Physiology Reproductive System Worksheet Male 1. Put the following structures in order from testis to urethra: ductus deferens, rete testis, epididymus, seminiferous tubules 1) 2) 3) 4) 2. What

More information

Cell division. Unit 14: Cell biology

Cell division. Unit 14: Cell biology Unit 14: Cell biology. 14 4 Cell division The process of cell division is responsible for a new life being made. When an egg is fertilised it divides over and over again to eventually make a baby. Children

More information

Human Embryonic Development. Human fetal development

Human Embryonic Development. Human fetal development Human Embryonic Development Day 1: 1 st cleavage 1 cell becomes 2 (2-cell stage) Day 2: 2 nd cleavage 4-cell stage Day 3: 6-12 cell stage can test at this stage for genetic diseases if done by IVF Day

More information

AP Biology 2012 Scoring Guidelines

AP Biology 2012 Scoring Guidelines AP Biology 2012 Scoring Guidelines The College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College

More information

4. Base your answer to the following question on on the picture below which represents systems in a human male and on your knowledge of biology.

4. Base your answer to the following question on on the picture below which represents systems in a human male and on your knowledge of biology. 1. Which structure is correctly paired with its function? A) ovary provides milk for newborns B) testis development of sperm C) placenta storage of released eggs D) uterus produces estrogen 2. Base your

More information

Types of Tissues. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege

Types of Tissues. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Types of Tissues Bởi: OpenStaxCollege The term tissue is used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin. Microscopic observation

More information

CHAPTER 23: HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. 1. Define the term fertilization and name the site where fertilization typically occurs.

CHAPTER 23: HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. 1. Define the term fertilization and name the site where fertilization typically occurs. 1. Define the term fertilization and name the site where fertilization typically occurs. 2. Explain what is meant by capacitation of a sperm. 3. Describe the structure of a secondary oocyte when it is

More information

Why are Echinoderms considered to be bilaterally symmetrical? 5 Classes: Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers

Why are Echinoderms considered to be bilaterally symmetrical? 5 Classes: Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers Protostome The Deuterostomes Echinoderms and Chordates Ch 35 Deuterostomes The SECOND opening of the digestive system (in the gastrula stage) becomes the mouth Deuterostomes Characteristics: Bilaterally

More information

2. Predators have bilateral symmetry, good musculature sense organs and a well developed nervous system.

2. Predators have bilateral symmetry, good musculature sense organs and a well developed nervous system. A. A.INTRODUCTION 1. Animals are heterotrophic; they must take in food. 2. Predators have bilateral symmetry, good musculature sense organs and a well developed nervous system. 3. Bilareral symmetry (cut

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

Stage 7 FIG. 3 1 Age 16 to 17 days Carnegie collection 7802 Reference The late trilaminar blastocyst with a notochordal process

Stage 7 FIG. 3 1 Age 16 to 17 days Carnegie collection 7802 Reference The late trilaminar blastocyst with a notochordal process 14 FIG. 3 1 A view of the right half of the late trilaminar blastocyst (embryonic shield period) showing its relation to the surrounding trophoblastic layer, connecting stalk, amniotic and yolk sac cavities

More information

Human Reproduction Practice Problems #1 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer

Human Reproduction Practice Problems #1 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer Human Reproduction Practice Problems #1 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 1 through

More information

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER 8.11 Chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs In humans, somatic cells have chromosomes forming 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Somatic cells are cells all cells of the

More information

WHAT CELL REPRODUCTION ACCOMPLISHES. Reproduction

WHAT CELL REPRODUCTION ACCOMPLISHES. Reproduction WHAT CELL REPRODUCTION ACCOMPLISHES Reproduction may result in the birth of new organisms but more commonly involves the production of new cells. When a cell undergoes reproduction, or cell division, two

More information

EARLY EMBRYOGENESIS AND MATERNAL RECOGNITION OF PREGNANCY

EARLY EMBRYOGENESIS AND MATERNAL RECOGNITION OF PREGNANCY EARLY EMBRYOGENESIS AND MATERNAL RECOGNITION OF PREGNANCY Chapter 13; Pathway to Pregnancy and Parturition AVS 222 (Instructor: Dr. Amin Ahmadzadeh) I. THERMINOLOGY AND EMBRYO ATTACHMENT A. Four steps

More information

E - Horton AP Biology

E - Horton AP Biology E - Bio @ Horton AP Biology Unit Anatomy and Physiology Notes Embryonic/Fetal Development A. Development covers events from conception (fertilization) to birth. 1. Human gestation period is 9 months, calculated

More information

The Emergence of the Ectoderm: Central Nervous System and Epidermis

The Emergence of the Ectoderm: Central Nervous System and Epidermis Biology 4361 The Emergence of the Ectoderm: Central Nervous System and Epidermis November 27, 2007 Ectoderm Overview Ectodermal derivatives Neurulation Neural plate Neural tube Neurulation Neural tube

More information

MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER (The story of how we make more) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER (The story of how we make more) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER (The story of how we make more) You have 46 Chromosomes or 23 homologous pairs 23 chromosomes come from each parent for a total of 46 One pair of chromosomes are sex chromosomes

More information

Page 1. 1. The production of monoploid cells by spermatogenesis occurs in (1) zygotes (3) ovaries (2) testes (4) meristems

Page 1. 1. The production of monoploid cells by spermatogenesis occurs in (1) zygotes (3) ovaries (2) testes (4) meristems 1. The production of monoploid cells by spermatogenesis occurs in (1) zygotes (3) ovaries (2) testes (4) meristems Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the diagram below of the female reproductive

More information

Applied Agricultural Science and Technology Animal Growth and Development Class Notes Key

Applied Agricultural Science and Technology Animal Growth and Development Class Notes Key Applied Agricultural Science and Technology Animal Growth and Development Class Notes Key INTRODUCTION Growth and development have important implications for domestic animal production because they significantly

More information

Lab 6. Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis

Lab 6. Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis Lab 6. Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis Cell Division - Mitosis Sexually-reproducing, multicellular organisms begin life as a single cell, the fertilized egg. This cell, the zygote, through the

More information

As unlikely as it seems, based on embryological evidence, the echinoderms appear to be the most-likely ancestors to the early chordates

As unlikely as it seems, based on embryological evidence, the echinoderms appear to be the most-likely ancestors to the early chordates Chordates Members of the Phylum Chordata include animals with which we are probably most likely familiar (including fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians and beasts like ourselves) As unlikely as it seems,

More information

The genes and chromosomes in the DNA determine individual traits

The genes and chromosomes in the DNA determine individual traits Chapter 3 Fetal Development Key Terms Viability Chorion Decidua Diploid Dizygotic Haploid Placenta teratogens Body Cell DNA and nucleus control cell function The genes and chromosomes in the DNA determine

More information

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Los Angeles Mission College Biology 3 Name: Date: INTRODUCTION BINARY FISSION: Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) reproduce asexually by binary fission. Bacterial

More information

Unit 18.4: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

Unit 18.4: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Unit 18.4: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Lesson Objectives Summarize traits of echinoderm invertebrates. Outline the characteristics and classification of chordates. Describe the two subphyla

More information

Dichotomous Keys. KEY A: Key to the DOMAINS of LIVING THINGS. KEY B: KEY to the KINGDOMS in the DOMAIN EUKARYA

Dichotomous Keys. KEY A: Key to the DOMAINS of LIVING THINGS. KEY B: KEY to the KINGDOMS in the DOMAIN EUKARYA 1 Dichotomous Keys Dichotomous keys are used to assist in the identification and classification of specimens of living things. To use a key, start at the top. At each decision point within a key, there

More information

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction 10 Name Due Date Show Me NOTE: This worksheet is based on material from pages 367-372 in Science Probe. 1. Sexual reproduction requires parents,

More information

Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis

Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis students will describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis o define and explain the significance of chromosome number in somatic and sex cells o explain the events of

More information

Human Growth and Reproduction

Human Growth and Reproduction Human Growth and Reproduction Sperm reach ovum and cluster around it Only one sperm is allowed to penetrate egg When the sperm penetrates the egg, the egg immediately releases a chemical creating a hard

More information

IMPLANTATION Definition: It is the attachment of blastocyst to the endometrial layer of the uterine wall.

IMPLANTATION Definition: It is the attachment of blastocyst to the endometrial layer of the uterine wall. 2 nd week of Development Learning Objectives: At the end of the lecture, student should be able to Define implantation State its normal site Explain the formation of outer and inner cell masses Discuss

More information

The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance You began life as a single cell, but there are now more cells in your body than stars in the Milky Way Just in the past second, millions of

More information

REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT

REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT Name Per Date REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT I. CHROMOSOMES rod shaped structures in nucleus consist of genes which contain genetic information (DNA) sex chromosomes determine sex of an organism a. EGGS =

More information

Animal Form and Function. Vertebrate Animals. Kingdom Animalia. A combination of features distinguish the Animalia from all other Kingdoms

Animal Form and Function. Vertebrate Animals. Kingdom Animalia. A combination of features distinguish the Animalia from all other Kingdoms Animal Form and Function Kight Vertebrate Animals Kingdom Animalia A combination of features distinguish the Animalia from all other Kingdoms 1. Eukaryotic cells. 2. Heterotrophic Thought Question: What

More information

The illustrations below reflect other scientists results in identifying and counting the stages of the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula.

The illustrations below reflect other scientists results in identifying and counting the stages of the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula. Abstract: The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to identify in what stage of mitosis viewed cells were in. The stages of mitosis include prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Although the

More information

Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives)

Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives) Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List their similarities and differences. Learn the three domains of living organisms and the 6 emergent

More information

Introduction to Animals

Introduction to Animals Introduction to Animals Unity and Diversity of Life Q: What characteristics and traits define animals? 25.1 What is an animal? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Animals are different from other living things

More information

How does a single cell become a human being? Cell division. Cell division growth. Cell division plays a role in: Cell division gametes

How does a single cell become a human being? Cell division. Cell division growth. Cell division plays a role in: Cell division gametes Cell division How does a single cell become a human being? Every time a cell divides, a copy is made of all the DNA in every chromosome Fertilized egg Blastula Many things happen Number of cells increase

More information

Phylum Echinodermata and Phylum Chordata

Phylum Echinodermata and Phylum Chordata Phylum Echinodermata and Phylum Chordata Objectives: Differentiate between protostome and deuterostome characteristics. Identify traits of echinoderms. Differentiate between the different Chordate subphyla.

More information

Proses apa yang menyebabkan terjadinya Variasi dan diversitas?

Proses apa yang menyebabkan terjadinya Variasi dan diversitas? Proses apa yang menyebabkan terjadinya Variasi dan diversitas? MEIOSIS, THE BASIS OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Why do kids look different from the parents? How are they similar to their parents? Why aren t brothers

More information

Cell Cycle Control Systems

Cell Cycle Control Systems Cell Cycle Phases Dividing cells are always in one of two phases: the mitotic phase or interphase. The mitotic phase (M phase) consists of mitosis and cytokinesis. Interphase consists of G 1, S and G 2

More information

Chapter 10 Outline and Terms

Chapter 10 Outline and Terms Chapter 10 Outline and Terms 10.1. Halving the Chromosome Number (p. 160) A. Sexual reproduction 1. Requires gamete formation and then fusion of gametes to form a zygote. 2. If gametes contained same number

More information

Vertebrate Body Organization

Vertebrate Body Organization Vertebrate Body Organization Digestive tube suspended in coelom from mouth to anus Body supported by internal skeleton of jointed bones Vertebrae and Cranium protects nervous system Diaphragm divides coelom

More information

NPTEL Biotechnology Tissue Engineering. Tissue Organization

NPTEL Biotechnology Tissue Engineering. Tissue Organization Tissue Organization S. Swaminathan Director Centre for Nanotechnology & Advanced Biomaterials School of Chemical & Biotechnology SASTRA University Thanjavur 613 401 Tamil Nadu Joint Initiative of IITs

More information

5/18/2012. Animal Complexity and Body Plans. Organization of Animal Complexity. Organization of Animal Complexity

5/18/2012. Animal Complexity and Body Plans. Organization of Animal Complexity. Organization of Animal Complexity Animal Complexity and Body Plans 34 different phyla of multicellular animals About 100 phyla generated during Cambrian explosion Animal body plans well-defined and established early in evolutionary history

More information

TWO major types of cell division take place in flowering

TWO major types of cell division take place in flowering Cell Division TWO major types of cell division take place in flowering plants. They are mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis, along with cytokinesis, involves the division of cells for growth and development.

More information

Development of the skin and its derivatives

Development of the skin and its derivatives Development of the skin and its derivatives Resources: http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/ Larsen s Human Embryology Chapter 7 The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology Dr Annemiek Beverdam

More information

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616)

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Chapter 24 Reproduction of Seed Plants Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Key Concepts What are the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms? How does pollination

More information

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616)

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Chapter 24 Reproduction of Seed Plants Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) This section describes the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms. It also explains

More information

Human Embryology. Weeks 1-4

Human Embryology. Weeks 1-4 Human Embryology Weeks 1-4 Week 1 Fertilisation to Implantation For this presentation embryonic age will be expressed as days or weeks from fertilisation. On this basis human pregnancy lasts about 266±3

More information

the plant & animal cell

the plant & animal cell 6.1 Basic unit of life Biology Biology Structure & functions of 06 the plant & animal cell In 1665, Robert Hooke observed a section of a cork using a microscope prepared by him. He discovered a structure

More information

GENERALIZED ANIMAL CELL A cell is the basic living, structural and functional unit of the body. A generalized cell is a composite that represents

GENERALIZED ANIMAL CELL A cell is the basic living, structural and functional unit of the body. A generalized cell is a composite that represents GENERALIZED ANIMAL CELL A cell is the basic living, structural and functional unit of the body. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. Cytology is the science concerned

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction We know all about asexual reproduction 1. Only one parent required. 2. Offspring are identical to parents. 3. The cells that produce the offspring are not usually

More information

Evolution of the Animal Phyla

Evolution of the Animal Phyla Evolution of the Animal Phyla Fig. 21.2 Evolutionary trends among the animals 21.6 Roundworms: The Evolution of a Body Cavity The evolution of an internal body cavity was important for three reasons Circulation

More information

Introduction to Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis (Sex and the Single Gene) Part III

Introduction to Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis (Sex and the Single Gene) Part III Introduction to Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis (Sex and the Single Gene) Part III December 4th Bellwork: What are Gametes? How do Gametes differ from other Cells? Vocabulary 1. Heredity 2. Genetics 3.

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis. Part I Mitosis

Mitosis and Meiosis. Part I Mitosis Mitosis and Meiosis Name Date Part I Mitosis It was discovered in 1858, by Rudolf Virchow, that new cells can only arise from previously existing cells. This is done in two ways: mitosis and meiosis. Body

More information

Conception. Prenatal Development. Developmental Processes. Developmental Processes

Conception. Prenatal Development. Developmental Processes. Developmental Processes Prenatal Development Nature and nurture combine forces in prenatal development. Much of development is generated by the fetus itself. Conception Conception is the union of the mother s and father s sex

More information

Mitosis, Meiosis and Gametogenesis

Mitosis, Meiosis and Gametogenesis Mitosis, Meiosis and Gametogenesis Mitosis is the mechanism by which somatic (body) cells in higher organisms replicate & divide. each cell has 2 copies of each of each chromosome, one that is of paternal

More information

General Biology 1004 Chapter 8 Lecture Handout, Summer 2005 Dr. Frisby

General Biology 1004 Chapter 8 Lecture Handout, Summer 2005 Dr. Frisby Slide 1 CHAPTER 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance PowerPoint Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential Biology with Physiology Presentation prepared by Chris C.

More information

Lecture Outline Implantation of the Embryo

Lecture Outline Implantation of the Embryo Early Development: The Blastocyst, Implantation & Extraembryonic Membranes Lecture Outline Implantation of the Embryo Implantation: The Sequence of Events Cell Adhesion Molecules & Implantation The Fetal/Maternal

More information

UCI ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES & PROCEDURES

UCI ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES & PROCEDURES UCI ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES & PROCEDURES RESEARCH AND SPONSORED ACTIVITIES Human Stem Cell Research Oversight Program Section 484-1: Review of Human Stem Cell Activities Responsible Office: Office of Research

More information

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria in cells.

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria in cells. B3 Question Which process occurs in the mitochondria in cells? Why do the liver and muscle cells have large number of mitochondria? What is the function of the ribosomes? Answer Respiration occurs in the

More information

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching this

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching this Unit E: Plant Propagation Lesson 1: Understanding Sexual Reproduction Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Discuss the

More information

1. FERTILIZATION. RECOMMENDED READING: Larsen s Human Embryology, 3rd Edition, pp.18-19.

1. FERTILIZATION. RECOMMENDED READING: Larsen s Human Embryology, 3rd Edition, pp.18-19. 1. FERTILIZATION Dr. Gregg Gundersen Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology Phone: 305-1899 E-mail: gg1@columbia.edu RECOMMENDED READING: Larsen s Human Embryology, 3rd Edition, pp.18-19. SUMMARY: Fertilization

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis. Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen

Mitosis & Meiosis. Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 1 Mitosis & Meiosis Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 2 Cells arise only from preexisting cells all cells come from cells perpetuation of life based on reproduction of cells referred to as cell division 3 Cells

More information

II. Germ Layers Ontogeny can reveal a great deal about evolutionary relationships. Answer and discuss the following:

II. Germ Layers Ontogeny can reveal a great deal about evolutionary relationships. Answer and discuss the following: Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia by Dana Krempels Perhaps even more than the other Eukarya, Animalia is characterized by a distinct progression of complexity in form and function as one moves from the

More information

Cell Division & Its Regulation: (Mitosis & Meiosis) (Outline) Why do cells divide? New Terms: gamete, zygote, somatic cells, germ cells, haploid, and

Cell Division & Its Regulation: (Mitosis & Meiosis) (Outline) Why do cells divide? New Terms: gamete, zygote, somatic cells, germ cells, haploid, and Cell Division & Its Regulation: (Mitosis & Meiosis) (Outline) Why do cells divide? New Terms: gamete, zygote, somatic cells, germ cells, haploid, and diploid. Types of eukaryotic cell division- Mitosis

More information

Section 1: Cells. Q1. Why is it important for the cell membrane to be selectively permeable?

Section 1: Cells. Q1. Why is it important for the cell membrane to be selectively permeable? The Cell BIOLOGY CELLS AND DNA THE CELL Section 1: Cells What is a cell? All organisms are made of cells, whether they are unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, or multicellular, such as plants and

More information

Nucleus Cell Control Center

Nucleus Cell Control Center Nucleus Cell Control Center Contains the directions to make proteins (DNA) Two main jobs is to protect the DNA and make sure that DNA is always available for use. Found in all cells 1 Nucleolus Located

More information

Frog Dissection Vista Murrieta High School Advanced Biomedical Science. Mr. Diaz

Frog Dissection Vista Murrieta High School Advanced Biomedical Science. Mr. Diaz Frog Dissection Vista Murrieta High School Advanced Biomedical Science Mr. Diaz Comparative Frog dissection lab report What do you turn in? 1. Microscopic drawings of skin. Two views 2. Draw or take picture

More information

Chapter 12. Sexual Life Cycle and Meiosis

Chapter 12. Sexual Life Cycle and Meiosis Chapter 12 Sexual Life Cycle and Meiosis Overview: Variations on a Theme Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and

More information

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic cell organelles Plasma membrane structure Basic function of membrane proteins Tissues Skin Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Your objectives are List the

More information

Echinoderms, which include the familiar starfish, have

Echinoderms, which include the familiar starfish, have 47 Echinoderms Concept Outline 47.1 The embryos of deuterostomes develop quite differently from those of protostomes. Protostomes and Deuterostomes. Deuterostomes the echinoderms, chordates, and a few

More information

PSY 23 - Development 1

PSY 23 - Development 1 Phases of Prenatal Development Three periods of fertilized ovum period of the zygote, embryo & fetus Period of the zygote: ~2 weeks Fertilization to implantation in uterine lining blastocyst - protective

More information

The Continuity of Life How Cells Reproduce

The Continuity of Life How Cells Reproduce The Continuity of Life How Cells Reproduce Cell division is at the heart of the reproduction of cells and organisms Organisms can reproduce sexually or asexually. Some organisms make exact copies of themselves,

More information

Human Karyotype XY Male. Normal Page 319

Human Karyotype XY Male. Normal Page 319 Human Karyotype XY Male Normal Page 319 Human Karyotype XXY Male (Klinefelter s) Sex Chromosomal aberration Sex Chromosome aneuploidy Human Karyotype XYY Male ( Supermale ) Sex Chromosomal aberration Sex

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 1 Ojectives Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid. List the phases of meiosis I and

More information

Principles of Biology

Principles of Biology Principles of Biology Bi 21552L Laboratory Manual Portland State University Winter 20164 1 Principles of Biology Bi 21552L Laboratory Manual 2 Table of Contents Lab syllabus ---------- 4 Expectations for

More information

1A. From Cleavage To Gastrulation

1A. From Cleavage To Gastrulation INTRODUCTION TO EMBRYOLOGY I 1A. From Cleavage To Gastrulation Dr. Ann-Judith Silverman Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology Telephone: 5-3450 Email: as36@columbia.edu Learning objectives: 1. Understand

More information