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1

2 Figure 12.4

3 physics of biomolecular chemistry and structures under stress e.g. protein conformations protein-protein bonds cell membranes unfolding/refolding single bond kinetics pore formation strength * lifetime dynamics of defect nucleation and thermal activation under stress!

4 Example 12.3 y1 (x1,y1) 8m F1 Fsum (0,0) m F2 x1 8m

5 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

6 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

7 Figure 12.14

8 If rocket 7 is launched with a speed > 25,000 mph, will it return to A? A. yes B. no

9 If rocket 7 is launched with a speed > 25,000 mph, will it return to A? A. yes B. no

10 Figure 12.15

11 The planet Saturn has 100 times the mass of the Earth and is 10 times more distant from the Sun than the Earth is. Compared to the Earth s acceleration as it orbits the Sun, the acceleration of Saturn as it orbits the Sun is A. 100 times greater. B. 10 times greater. C. the same. D. 1/10 as great. E. 1/100 as great.

12 The planet Saturn has 100 times the mass of the Earth and is 10 times more distant from the Sun than the Earth is. Compared to the Earth s acceleration as it orbits the Sun, the acceleration of Saturn as it orbits the Sun is A. 100 times greater. B. 10 times greater. C. the same. D. 1/10 as great. E. 1/100 as great.

13 Compared to the Earth, Planet X has twice the mass and twice the radius. This means that compared to the Earth s surface gravity, the surface gravity on Planet X is A. 4 times as much. B. twice as much. C. the same. D. 1/2 as much. E. 1/4 as much.

14 Compared to the Earth, Planet X has twice the mass and twice the radius. This means that compared to the Earth s surface gravity, the surface gravity on Planet X is A. 4 times as much. B. twice as much. C. the same. D. 1/2 as much. E. 1/4 as much.

15 Compared to the Earth, Planet X has twice the mass and twice the radius. This means that compared to the amount of energy required to move an object from the Earth s surface to infinity, the amount of energy required to move that same object from Planet X s surface to infinity is A. 4 times as much. B. twice as much. C. the same. D. 1/2 as much. E. 1/4 as much.

16 Compared to the Earth, Planet X has twice the mass and twice the radius. This means that compared to the amount of energy required to move an object from the Earth s surface to infinity, the amount of energy required to move that same object from Planet X s surface to infinity is A. 4 times as much. B. twice as much. C. the same. D. 1/2 as much. E. 1/4 as much.

17 A satellite is moving around the Earth in a circular orbit. Over the course of an orbit, the Earth s gravitational force A. does positive work on the satellite. B. does negative work on the satellite. C. does positive work on the satellite during part of the orbit and negative work on the satellite during the other part. D. does zero work on the satellite at all points in the orbit.

18 A satellite is moving around the Earth in a circular orbit. Over the course of an orbit, the Earth s gravitational force A. does positive work on the satellite. B. does negative work on the satellite. C. does positive work on the satellite during part of the orbit and negative work on the satellite during the other part. D. does zero work on the satellite at all points in the orbit.

19 Astronauts on the orbiting space station are weightless because... A. there is no gravity in space and they do not weigh anything. B. space is a vacuum and there is no gravity in a vacuum. C. space is a vacuum and there is no air resistance in a vacuum. D. the astronauts are far from Earth's surface at a location where gravitation has a minimal affect. E. There are no surface normal forces

20 Astronauts on the orbiting space station are weightless because... A. there is no gravity in space and they do not weigh anything. B. space is a vacuum and there is no gravity in a vacuum. C. space is a vacuum and there is no air resistance in a vacuum. D. the astronauts are far from Earth's surface at a location where gravitation has a minimal affect. E. There are no surface normal forces

21 Astronauts shown in the picture... A. will drift in the direction higher than the space station COG if they are above the COG B. will drift toward the COG of the space station if they are higher than its COG C. will remain in the same place in the space station, regardless of whether they are above or below the center of gravity

22 Astronauts shown in the picture... A. will drift in the direction higher than the space station COG if they are above the COG B. will drift toward the COG of the space station if they are higher than its COG C. will remain in the same place in the space station, regardless of whether they are above or below the center of gravity

23 A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves from aphelion to perihelion, the Sun s gravitational force A. does positive work on the planet. B. does negative work on the planet. C. does positive work on the planet during part of the motion and negative work during the other part. D. does zero work on the planet at all points between aphelion and perihelion.

24 A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves from aphelion to perihelion, the Sun s gravitational force A. does positive work on the planet. B. does negative work on the planet. C. does positive work on the planet during part of the motion and negative work during the other part. D. does zero work on the planet at all points between aphelion and perihelion.

25 A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves from aphelion to perihelion, the planet s angular momentum A. increases during part of the motion and decreases during the rest of the motion. B. increases at all times. C. decreases at all times. D. remains the same at all times.

26 A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves from aphelion to perihelion, the planet s angular momentum A. increases during part of the motion and decreases during the rest of the motion. B. increases at all times. C. decreases at all times. D. remains the same at all times.

27 Star X has twice the mass of the Sun. One of Star X s planets has the same mass as the Earth, and orbits Star X at the same distance at which the Earth orbits the Sun. The orbital speed of this planet of Star X is A. faster than the Earth s orbital speed. B. the same as the Earth s orbital speed. C. slower than the Earth s orbital speed. D. not enough information given to decide

28 Star X has twice the mass of the Sun. One of Star X s planets has the same mass as the Earth, and orbits Star X at the same distance at which the Earth orbits the Sun. The orbital speed of this planet of Star X is A. faster than the Earth s orbital speed. B. the same as the Earth s orbital speed. C. slower than the Earth s orbital speed. D. not enough information given to decide

29 Suppose the Sun were to shrink to half of its present radius while maintaining the same mass. What effect would this have on the Earth s orbit? A. The size of the orbit would decrease and the orbital period would decrease. B. The size of the orbit would increase and the orbital period would increase. C. The size of the orbit and the orbital period would remain unchanged. D. none of these

30 Suppose the Sun were to shrink to half of its present radius while maintaining the same mass. What effect would this have on the Earth s orbit? A. The size of the orbit would decrease and the orbital period would decrease. B. The size of the orbit would increase and the orbital period would increase. C. The size of the orbit and the orbital period would remain unchanged. D. none of these

A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great. Q12.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

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