Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

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1 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R P A G E S CONNECTIONS TO AP AP Chemistry: III. Reactions A. Reaction Types 1. Acid-base reactions 2. Precipitation reactions 3. Oxidationreduction reactions B. Stoichiometry 1. Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems: net ionic equations TIME FRAME 45 minutes MATERIALS periodic table solubility rules student white boards (optional) TEACHER NOTES This lesson should follow a study of the five main types of chemical reactions. Having students write net ionic equations will enhance their ability to understand what is really happening in the beaker type questions. The student lecture notes can provide the basis for your lecture over this material. Guide students through the proper steps of writing net ionic equations using several examples until the students feel confident. It often helps to demonstrate the example chemical reactions. This is easily accomplished by mixing the stated solutions in a test tube or beaker and asking students to explain in chemical terms what has taken place. Did the solution change color? Did a gas form? (Your demonstration solutions may need to be fairly concentrated in some cases so that enough gas is formed to actually cause bubbling.) Did a precipitate form? Follow this lesson with The Eight Solution Problem lab to reinforce observing chemical reactions and give students more practice writing net ionic equations. 410 Laying the Foundation in Chemistry

2 14 Train students to write the state symbols for each species. Doing so will reduce the chance of incorrect spectator cancellations. For example, if zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, the following net ionic equation results: Zn(s) + 2 H + (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) Students often cancel out the zinc terms even though one is a solid metal while the other is an ion in solution. Requiring students to write the state symbols makes it a bit more evident that the two terms are not identical and therefore do not cancel. Students should memorize the strong acids and the strong bases. An abbreviated table of the most common solubility rules is presented within this lesson. It is strongly recommended that your students begin memorizing the solubility rules during the first year of chemistry. The solubility rules must be memorized for the AP* exam. Continue writing net ionic reactions throughout the year when explaining the chemical reactions associated with demonstrations as well as during pre- and post-lab discussions to continually reinforce this concept. Answers to the examples from the notes: Demonstrate these reactions whenever possible as you guide students through the example reactions. Recognition of state symbols is much easier when students actually see the reaction take place. Example 1 is worked out on the student pages. The answers to examples 2 5 follow. Example 2: Solutions of iron(iii) nitrate and potassium hydroxide are mixed. Balanced formula equation: Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + 3 KOH(aq) 3 KNO 3 (aq) + Fe(OH) 3 (s) T E A C H E R P A G E S Total ionic equation: Fe 3+ (aq) + 3 NO 3 (aq) + 3 K + (aq) + 3 OH (aq) 3 K + (aq) + 3 NO 3 (aq) + Fe(OH) 3 (s) Balanced net ionic equation: Fe 3+ (aq) + 3 OH (aq) Fe(OH) 3 (s) Example 3: Magnesium ribbon reacts with hydrochloric acid. Balanced formula equation: Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Total ionic equation: Mg(s) + 2 H + (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + H 2 (g) Balanced net ionic equation: Mg(s) + 2 H + (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) Laying the Foundation in Chemistry 411

3 14 Example 4: Solutions of acetic acid and lithium bicarbonate are mixed. Balanced formula equation: HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + LiHCO 3 (aq) LiC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 CO 3 (aq) Total ionic equation: HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + Li + (aq) + HCO 3 (aq) Li + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) Balanced net ionic equation: HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + HCO 3 (aq) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) T E A C H E R P A G E S Example 5: Solutions of magnesium chloride and calcium nitrate are mixed. Balanced formula equation: MgCl 2 (aq) + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Total ionic equation: Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) Balanced net ionic equation: No net ionic equation everything cancels so there is no driving force this was just a physical combination of two different solutions with no chemical reaction taking place. ANSWERS TO THE CONCLUSION QUESTIONS 1. Solutions of lead(ii) nitrate and lithium chloride are mixed. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 LiCl(aq) 2 LiNO 3 (aq) + PbCl 2 (aq) Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) + 2 Li + (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) 2 Li + (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) + PbCl 2 (s) Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) PbCl 2 (s) 2. Copper metal is placed into a solution of silver nitrate. Cu(s) + 2 AgNO 3 (aq) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Ag(s) Cu(s) + 2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) + 2 Ag(s) Cu(s) + 2 Ag + (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Ag(s) 3. Solid potassium chlorate decomposes upon heating. 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) NOTE: Solids and gases do not ionize. All three reactions are therefore the same. Students do not need to write three identical equations to receive full credit. 412 Laying the Foundation in Chemistry

4 14 4. Solid sodium metal is placed into distilled water. 2 Na(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g) 2 Na(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) 2 Na + (aq) + 2 OH (aq) + H 2 (g) 2 Na(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) 2 Na + (aq) + 2 OH (aq) + H 2 (g) NOTE: There are no spectator ions in this equation; therefore students need not repeat the second equation in order to receive full credit. 5. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of magnesium bromide. Cl 2 (g) + MgBr 2 (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + Br 2 (l) Cl 2 (g) + Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Br (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + Br 2 (l) Cl 2 (g) + 2 Br (aq) 2 Cl (aq) + Br 2 (l) 6. Methane gas is burned in the presence of oxygen gas. CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(g) NOTE: All reactants and products are either gases or molecular compounds, so this is the net ionic equation. 7. Solutions of silver acetate and barium chloride are mixed. 2 AgC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) 2 AgCl(s) + Ba(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) 2 Ag + (aq) + 2 C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) 2 AgCl(s) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) 8. Solutions of sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid are mixed. NaHCO 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 CO 3 (aq) Na + (aq) + HCO 3 (aq) + H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) HCO 3 (aq) + H + (aq) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) NOTE: Carbonic acid quickly decomposes into liquid water and carbon dioxide gas. T E A C H E R P A G E S 9. Solutions of ammonium perchlorate and barium hydroxide are mixed. 2 NH 4 ClO 4 (aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq) 2 NH 4 OH(aq) + Ba(ClO 4 ) 2 (aq) 2 NH 4 + (aq) + 2 ClO 4 (aq) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 OH (aq) 2 NH 3 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 ClO 4 (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) NOTE: Ammonium hydroxide decomposes into ammonia gas and liquid water. 10. Solutions of tin(ii) fluoride and lithium carbonate are mixed. SnF 2 (aq) + Li 2 CO 3 (aq) SnCO 3 (s) + 2 LiF(aq) Sn 2+ (aq) + 2 F (aq) + 2 Li + (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq) SnCO 3 (s) + 2 Li + (aq) + 2 F (aq) Sn 2+ (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq) SnCO 3 (s) NOTE: Carbonate was not listed directly in the solubility rules so it is considered insoluble. Laying the Foundation in Chemistry 413

5 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions Now that you have mastered balancing chemical equations it is time to focus only on the reacting species. Chemical reactions that occur spontaneously do so as a result of several types of driving forces. Writing the net ionic equation for a reaction often makes it evident which driving force caused the reaction. The most common driving forces for chemical reactions are: formation of a precipitate, formation of a molecular compound such as water, and formation of a gas. PURPOSE In this activity you will write balanced formula equations, balanced total ionic equations and balanced net ionic equations to explain chemical reactions. MATERIALS periodic table solubility rules student white boards (optional) CLASS NOTES Net ionic equations represent only the species that are actually reacting in a chemical reaction. The parts of the equation that are not shown in the net ionic equation are known as the spectator ions. Spectator ions do just that; they spectate as opposed to participate in a chemical reaction. Spectator ions must be present initially in order for the reaction to occur since compounds are neutral; however they are not directly involved in the reaction. The type of equations that you have become familiar with thus far are known as balanced formula equations. In balanced formula equations all species are included. Each compound is represented by its correct chemical formula and coefficients are used to balance the equation so that it obeys the law of conservation of matter. In a total ionic equation, substances that ionize extensively in solution are written as separate ions while all others are written as undissociated molecules. How do you know if a substance will extensively ionize in solution? All strong electrolytes will ionize extensively in solution. Electrolytes are comprised of three classes of compounds strong acids, strong bases, and soluble salts. Using the information that follows you should be able to determine whether or not to ionize a particular substance. 1. Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, H 2 SO 4, HNO 3, and HClO 4 Notice HF is missing from this list, so it is classified as a weak acid. Why? The fluoride atom is very small and as a result it is highly attracted to the hydrogen atom. As a result, it does not dissociate completely in aqueous solution. 414 Laying the Foundation in Chemistry

6 14 2. Strong Bases: Hydroxides of group IA and IIA, but Be and Mg are classified as weak since they do not dissociate completely. This is due to the fact that they are small atoms and as a result are highly attracted to the hydroxide ion. Therefore they do not dissociate completely in aqueous solution and are considered weak bases. Ba(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, and Ca(OH) 2 are marginally strong bases since they are not as soluble as IA hydroxides. For these IIA hydroxides, to the little extent that they do dissolve, they dissociate 100%. 3. Soluble Salts: Use the solubility rules presented in Table 1 to determine whether or not a compound containing a metal and non-metal will dissolve in aqueous solution and thus behave as a strong electrolyte. Table 1: Solubility Rules Always Soluble if in a Compound Except With NO 3, Group IA, NH 4 +, C 2 H 3 O 2, ClO 4, ClO 3 No Exceptions Cl, Br, I Pb 2+, Ag +, Hg 2 2+ SO 4 2 Pb 2+, Ag +, Hg 2 2+ Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ If a substance is not addressed by one of the three rules listed in Table 1, assume the substance is insoluble or it is a weak electrolyte and does not ionize in solution. (This won t always be correct, but will cover most of the situations you will encounter.) A few other important points: Gases, pure liquids, and solids are non-electrolytes do not ionize H 2 CO 3 (aq) decomposes into H 2 O(l) and CO 2 (g) NH 4 OH(aq) decomposes into H 2 O(l) and NH 3 (g) If a driving force is absent, no gas forms, no precipitate forms nor does any molecular substance such as water form. If you encounter such a situation, write NO REACTION. Example 1 Solutions of sodium chloride and lead(ii) nitrate are mixed. First, write the balanced formula equation. Balanced formula equation: Write the correct chemical formula for each compound and use coefficients to balance the equation. 2 NaCl(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2 NaNO 3 (aq) + PbCl 2 (s) Laying the Foundation in Chemistry 415

7 14 Total ionic equation: Determine which substances are strong electrolytes and write them in ionic form. 2 Na + (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) + PbCl 2 (s) Cancel ions that are common to both sides of the equation. These are the spectator ions. 2 Na + (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + 2 NO 3 (aq) + PbCl 2 (s) Balanced net ionic equation: Rewrite the equation, focusing on the reacting species. 2 Cl (aq) + Pb 2+ (aq) PbCl 2 (s) Identify the spectator ions in the equation above: Na + and NO 3 Example 2 Solutions of iron(iii) nitrate and potassium hydroxide are mixed. Balanced formula equation: Total ionic equation: Balanced net ionic equation: Example 3 Magnesium ribbon reacts with hydrochloric acid. Balanced formula equation: Total ionic equation: Balanced net ionic equation: 416 Laying the Foundation in Chemistry

8 14 Example 4 Solutions of acetic acid and lithium bicarbonate are mixed. Balanced formula equation: Total ionic equation: Balanced net ionic equation: Example 5 Solutions of magnesium chloride and calcium nitrate are mixed. Balanced formula equation: Total ionic equation: Balanced net ionic equation: Laying the Foundation in Chemistry 417

9 14 Name Period Making Sense of Chemical Reactions CONCLUSION QUESTIONS Using your own paper, write the balanced formula equation, the balanced total ionic equation and finally the balanced net ionic equation for each of the following chemical reactions. You must write all three balanced equations in order to receive full credit. Be sure to include state symbols for each component and correct charges for ions where appropriate. 1. Solutions of lead(ii) nitrate and lithium chloride are mixed. 2. Copper metal is placed into a solution of silver nitrate. 3. Solid potassium chlorate decomposes upon heating. 4. Solid sodium metal is placed into distilled water. 5. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of magnesium bromide. 6. Methane gas is burned in the presence of oxygen gas. 7. Solutions of silver acetate and barium chloride are mixed. 8. Solutions of sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid are mixed. 9. Solutions of ammonium perchlorate and barium hydroxide are mixed. 10. Solutions of tin(ii) fluoride and lithium carbonate are mixed. 418 Laying the Foundation in Chemistry

10 14 Laying the Foundation in Chemistry 419

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