Defining a framework to measure soil quality

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Defining a framework to measure soil quality"

Transcription

1 Defining a framework to measure soil quality Joan Romanyà, Isabel Serrasolses & Ramon Vallejo Dept. Natural Products, Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Barcelona CEAM. Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo

2 Multiple functions of soil: Soil regulates environmental quality Regulates water supply Primary production Food Plant based chemicals Other goods (fiber fiber,, wood, bioenergy) Habitat organisms Regulates atmospheric pollution Soil Natural system of recycling organic matter and nutrients Purifying capacity Environmental functions Space to build infrastructures Human health & welfare

3 Exponential demographic growth Increase of land use intensity Cultivated soil ha/capita ha/capita Potentially cultivated soils ha/capita FAO, WSR 2000

4 Land use changes in the world during the 90s decade Tropical areas Natural vegetation and forest plantations 1990: : Non tropical areas Natural vegetation and forest plantations 1990: : Clearing & Breaking the sod Forest plantations Clearing, Breaking the sod &Sealing 4 33 Land set aside & Forest Plantations Other land uses (agricultural and urban ) 1990: : Other land uses (agricultural and urban) 1990: : In millions of ha FAO, 2000

5 Land use and ecosystem services Foley et al., Science 309:

6 Why should we care about soil quality? Soils are in the base of the services we get from the functioning of the terrestrial ecosystems Soils are a limited and non renewable resource Soil use is subjected to the human needs of the environmental services Any sustainable management of our environment must aim that any changes in land use should be reversible

7 Relevance of soil quality The environment (biodiversity) Soil quality Biological productivity (fiber and food quality and quantity) Human health and welfare

8 , Water supply to crops

9 Relevance of soil quality The environment (biodiversity) Soil quality Biological productivity (fiber and food quality and quantity) Human health and welfare

10 How do we normally measure soil quality? 1. Plant productivity integrates many aspects of soil functioning and thus it has been often used as an indicator of soil quality, both in forest and in agricultural soils. 2. Virtually all indicators of soil quality are related in some way to plant productivity and can inform about several, not all, environmental issues. 3. In particular soil related environmental issues with relevance to animal life (human health and welfare) have not been much addressed in terms of soil quality because of the recent awareness we have of these issues and because they occur out of the soils. As an example of these issues we can mention endocrine disrupting and carcinogenic chemicals.

11 Holistic approach to soil quality Soil function 1. Food security (quality and quantity) 2. Environmental quality and biodiversity 3. Human health and welfare Soil quality indicators Old Major threats to soils Current Erosion Salinisation Loss of OM Acidification Compaction Contamination Sealing Soil degradation thresholds multifunctional (cover all soil functions) specific to soil type and environmental context identify the most relevant threats Management thresholds Specific to soil use and management May stress one of the soil functions

12 General threshold definition (wordreference.com) 1. A region marking a boundary 2. The starting point of a new state 3. The space that the door can close 4. The smallest detectable sensation Soil management threshold (Schjonning et al., 2004) The most severe disturbance any management may accomplish without inducing significant changes towards unsustainable conditions

13 Threshold definition is strongly related to the resilience concept Soil stability Resilience. Capacity of a soil to recover from changes stimulated by disturbances Resistance. Capacity of a soil to resist a change when confronted with a disturbance Threshold definition normally refers to a given indicator The process of deriving indicators/thresholds in any particular situation might be more important than the robustness of the indicators/thresholds themselves (Treewek and Bubb)

14 How to derive thresholds as a reference to interpret soil quality indicators? Thresholds should be based on field observations and on the understanding of the key processes occurring in a given area Data bases across different land uses may help in the process of deriving thresholds Example: Soil organic matter data base in Spain 518 Arable soil profiles 127 Pastures 798 Forest soils (Forest and Shrublands)

15 Comparing forests with grasslands and arable lands Arable soils 8 Organic C (%) A A B Climate Land use Climate X L. use BC C BC Semiarid Mediterranean Nemoral BC BC Maximum OC stabilisation capacity Limits for soil degradation Benito & Díaz Fierros (1992) (for grasslands) Loveland & Webb (2003) Malinda (1995) Loveland & Webb (2003) 0 Forest Gassl. Aband. Tree Ir. Tree R. Herb. Vine. Hort.

16 Organic C deficit in arable and in old fields Organic C deficit in the soil surface (%) n.s. n.s. a b Semiarid Mediterranean Nemoral Arable soils Climate Land use Climate * Land use a b c a b b a b b a b c Grassl. Aband. C. ar. r. C. ar. s. C. her. Vi. Hor. Is low in semiarid soils

17 Methodology to quantify land use impact assessment Quality A D Transformation process S of type of land Occupation impacts Transformation impacts S Q permanent Transformation impacts may involve soil degradation processes (having gone accross some threshold) or may result from ecological impacts in the site Indicator B C Surface S Q temporal time Occupation process S time relaxation time Legend S: Area Q: change in (land) quality Time These thresholds are normally associated to biotic factors that may or may not originate in the soil Soil management thresholds result from transformation impacts. t 1 t 2 t 3 Indicator referring to soil quality itself Indicator referring to soil services (e.g. plant growth)

18 Without transformation impact Land use impacts that go beyond soil degradation threshold Quality D A Transformation process S of type of land Occupation impacts Transformation impacts = 0 Quality A Irreversible transformation process B C S Q temporal time relaxation time B C No relaxation time threshold limit value Occupation process S time Legend S: Area Q: change in (land) quality t 1 t 2 t 3 Time t 1 point of no return Time No threshold Soil degradation threshold

19 Land ocupation impacts in soils close to the degradation thresholds Without transformation impact Quality D A Transformation Transformation impacts = 0 Occupation process impacts S of type of land S Q temporal time Quality A Land use impacts that go beyond soil degradation threshold Irreversible transformation processes are likely originated from soil degradation Irreversible transformation process B C Threshold relaxation time B C Threshold threshold limit value Occupation process S time Legend S: Area Q: change in (land) quality t 1 t 2 t 3 Time t 1 point of no return Time Distance used to calculate the vulnerability to irreversible land degradation by an inverse non linear relationship When the threshold distance = 0 implies the maximum vulnerability

20 Considerations for defining thresholds affecting the major soil threats Indicator directly measuring soil quality Loss of OM Contamination Compaction Salinisation Acidification Erosion Sealing Natural relaxation likely Backup technologies required in some cases Variable distance from threshold Natural relaxation less likely Natural relaxation negligible Backup technologies required & may be costly At or close to the threshold Indicator measuring soil services (e.g. plant growth) Loss of OM Contamination Compaction Salinisation Acidification Erosion Sealing Natural relaxation likely Backup technologies required in some cases Variable distance from threshold

21 When using soil services as indicators, instead of using the intrinsic soil parameters, we will not detect the cumulative changes that may become relevant once the soil gets close to the threshold ph Exchangeable cations CaCO 3 Al(OH) 3 Fe(OH) Cumulative acid charge (kmol (H + ) / kg soil)

22 When measuring soil indicators we need to cope with soil spatial variability Spruce Beech Meiwes et al.

23 Challenges of agricultural soils management Soil fertility Diversity in soil Soil physical form Soil contamination (xenobiotics) Its effects occur mostly on the site and thus it is reasonable to address these issues by using soil indicators. As its effects may be more important in other environmental compartments than in the site itself and may be relevant for animal life, the issues associated to soil contamination should be addressed by other methodologies involving toxicology and risk analysis methods.

24 In conclusion: Natural soils of a given area can be a sound reference for testing the effects of management on soil quality. Soil quality indicators must inform about the soil functions in addition to the soil capacity to grow plants. Soil quality indicators must be interpreted with reference to their specific threshold. Soil quality indicators have a growing interest when show values close to the degradation threshold. Soil transfer of biologically active chemicals to other environmental compartments is an issue of major interest that often escapes the main definition of the soil quality.

25 Thank you

Status of the World s Soil Resources

Status of the World s Soil Resources 5 December 2015 Status of the World s Soil Resources The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS), the main scientific advisory body to the Global Soil Partnership (GSP) hosted by the Food and

More information

AG 525 ECOLOGY/ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AG 525 ECOLOGY/ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AG 525 ECOLOGY/ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE COURSE DESCRIPTION: A course that provides science instruction and practical experience in environmental science including agricultural/industrial chemical issues,

More information

the world s soil status resources INTERGOVERNMENTAL TECHNICAL PANEL ON SOILS

the world s soil status resources INTERGOVERNMENTAL TECHNICAL PANEL ON SOILS status of soil the world s resources INTERGOVERNMENTAL TECHNICAL PANEL ON SOILS life depends on soils status of the soil world s resources The overwhelming conclusion of the first-ever comprehensive report

More information

ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15

ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15 Coordination of the Agricultural Research In the Mediterranean Area Call i text ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15 SUBMISSION Pre-proposal by December 1 st, 2014 Full Proposal by May 11 th 2015 on http://arimnet-call.eu/

More information

Biodiversity Concepts

Biodiversity Concepts Biodiversity Concepts WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. For any kind of animal or plant each individual is not exactly the same as any other; nor are species or ecosystems.

More information

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES: Where do we go? Emer. Prof. Dr. ir. Oswald Van Cleemput Ghent University Belgium.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES: Where do we go? Emer. Prof. Dr. ir. Oswald Van Cleemput Ghent University Belgium. AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES: Where do we go? Emer. Prof. Dr. ir. Oswald Van Cleemput Ghent University Belgium Oswald.Vancleemput@Ugent.be Content 1. Agriculture in the 20th century 2. Agriculture in the 21st

More information

Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater

Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater We cannot think about freshwater and the global water cycle without thinking about mixed forests and biodiversity. These play an absolutely indispensable

More information

Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville

Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville 1. Introduction to Environmental Science (5 days) Describe the three categories into which most environmental problems fall Explain how the

More information

Land resources and sustainable intensification of agriculture in Europe Winfried E.H. Blum

Land resources and sustainable intensification of agriculture in Europe Winfried E.H. Blum Land resources and sustainable intensification of agriculture in Europe by Winfried E.H. Blum RISE Foundation Brussels and Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences,

More information

SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE

SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURE CONSERVATION CURRICULUM FOR MSc. (MNRSA) DEGREE PROGRAMME May 2009 MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABLE

More information

SLOW ONSET EVENTS. climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY

SLOW ONSET EVENTS. climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC UNEP) Characterizing and addressing SLOW ONSET EVENTS climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY

More information

Defining Ecosystem Services

Defining Ecosystem Services Defining Ecosystem Services Beto Borges Director, Community and Markets Program Forest Trends 6 April 2011 Defining Ecosystem Services What are ecosystems? Ecosystems in Uganda What are ecosystem services?

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

Chapter 11: Environmental Outlook for Limpopo Province: Planning for the Future

Chapter 11: Environmental Outlook for Limpopo Province: Planning for the Future Limpopo Environmental Outlook Report 2016 1 st DRAFT Chapter 11: Environmental Outlook for Limpopo Province: Planning for the Future This document is an ongoing outcome of a consultative process that underpins

More information

How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms?

How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms? How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms? Why aren t Kangaroos in N. America? Factors affecting the distribution of organisms can be divided in to biotic and abiotic categories. Biotic

More information

SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture

SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture SoCo Policy Seminar, Brussels, 28 May 2009 1 SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture by E. Rusco, L. Montanarella, B. Marechal JRC IES Land management and Natural Hazards

More information

Unit 8: Global Problems. Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management

Unit 8: Global Problems. Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management Unit 8: Global Problems Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management 1. Forests Types & Importance 2. Temperate Deforestation old growth forest, U.S. & Canada 3. Tropical Deforestation clearing & degrading

More information

Beyond Plants Indicators and Soil Surface Properties in STM s. Arlene Tugel Soil Scientist Liaison to ARS USDA-NRCS Las Cruces, NM

Beyond Plants Indicators and Soil Surface Properties in STM s. Arlene Tugel Soil Scientist Liaison to ARS USDA-NRCS Las Cruces, NM Beyond Plants Indicators and Soil Surface Properties in STM s Arlene Tugel Soil Scientist Liaison to ARS USDA-NRCS Las Cruces, NM Soil degradation can affect: Plant production, reproduction and mortality

More information

Ecological Restoration of a Brackish Marsh at Parcel 11, Estate Carolina, St. John

Ecological Restoration of a Brackish Marsh at Parcel 11, Estate Carolina, St. John Ecological Restoration of a Brackish Marsh at Parcel 11, Estate Carolina, St. John Gary Ray, Ph.D. Virgin Forest Restorations For Coral Bay Community Council Aerial of Parcel 11 Brackish Marsh Ecological

More information

Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management

Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management tutorial by Paul Rich 1. Forests Types & Importance Outline 2. Temperate Deforestation old growth forest, U.S. & Canada 3. Tropical

More information

Liquid Biofuels for Transport

Liquid Biofuels for Transport page 1/11 Scientific Facts on Liquid Biofuels for Transport Prospects, risks and opportunities Source document: FAO (2008) Summary & Details: GreenFacts Context - Serious questions are being raised about

More information

FUTURE CHALLENGES OF PROVIDING HIGH-QUALITY WATER - Vol. II - Environmental Impact of Food Production and Consumption - Palaniappa Krishnan

FUTURE CHALLENGES OF PROVIDING HIGH-QUALITY WATER - Vol. II - Environmental Impact of Food Production and Consumption - Palaniappa Krishnan ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION Palaniappa Krishnan Bioresources Engineering Department, University of Delaware, USA Keywords: Soil organisms, soil fertility, water quality, solar

More information

Conservation Genetics. Scope of Ecology. Density and Distribution of Populations. Ecology

Conservation Genetics. Scope of Ecology. Density and Distribution of Populations. Ecology Conservation Genetics Scope of Ecology Ecology The study of the interactions of organisms with other organisms, and The physical environment Habitat - Place where an organism lives Population - All the

More information

Technology For Adaptation. Forestry Conservation Management. Dr. Javier Aliaga Lordemann

Technology For Adaptation. Forestry Conservation Management. Dr. Javier Aliaga Lordemann Technology For Adaptation. Forestry Conservation Management Dr. Javier Aliaga Lordemann Forests has more carbon store than the currently carbon free atmosphere. By contrast, are important sources of emissions

More information

Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options. Feedback from the Riskbase workshop

Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options. Feedback from the Riskbase workshop Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options Feedback from the Riskbase workshop Corinne Merly 1, Olivier Cerdan 1, Laurence Gourcy 1 Emmanuelle

More information

Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers

Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers Agricultural biodiversity the variability of crops and their wild relatives, trees, animals, arthropods,

More information

Agroforestry and climate change. Emmanuel Torquebiau FAO webinar 5 February 2013

Agroforestry and climate change. Emmanuel Torquebiau FAO webinar 5 February 2013 Agroforestry and climate change Emmanuel Torquebiau FAO webinar 5 February 2013 Agroforestry: well-known buffering and resilience effects Climate variability is well buffered by agroforestry because of

More information

Long Term Challenges for Tidal Estuaries

Long Term Challenges for Tidal Estuaries A view from a former tidal river manager expert with experience from 6 decades living at, with and from the Tidal River Elbe chairman of the European Interreg Project TIDE (Tidal River Development) Land

More information

A cool CAP post-2013: What measures could help adapt Cyprus farming and biodiversity to the consequences of climate change?

A cool CAP post-2013: What measures could help adapt Cyprus farming and biodiversity to the consequences of climate change? A cool CAP post-2013: What measures could help adapt Cyprus farming and biodiversity to the consequences of climate change? 26 September 2012: IFOAM EU Conference Future farming in times of climate change

More information

Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE

Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE CONTENTS Introduction..1 Convention Guidance... 2 Agricultural

More information

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6 Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6 Ecology The study of living organisms in the natural environment How they interact with one another How they interact with their non-living environment Organization

More information

Introduction to protection goals, ecosystem services and roles of risk management and risk assessment. Lorraine Maltby

Introduction to protection goals, ecosystem services and roles of risk management and risk assessment. Lorraine Maltby Introduction to protection goals, ecosystem services and roles of risk management and risk assessment. Lorraine Maltby Problem formulation Risk assessment Risk management Robust and efficient environmental

More information

Maintenance of soil organic matter

Maintenance of soil organic matter Maintenance of soil organic matter Introduction The Importance of Soil Organic Matter Soil organic matter comprises all living soil organisms and the remains of previous living organisms in their various

More information

The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage

The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage Ian Thompson, Canadian Forest Service Brendan Mackey, Australian National University Alex Mosseler, Canadian Forest

More information

We can look at agricultural data in two general groups:

We can look at agricultural data in two general groups: The agricultural statistics series will be based on the Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics that is located in the resource section and available from the Wikipedia web page (wiki.asfoc.ibge.gov.br).

More information

Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector.

Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector. Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector. Matilda Skosana Environmental Programmes (ILO Definition): 1. DEFINITION OF GREEN JOB. Jobs are green when they help reduce negative environmental

More information

Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity

Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity Middle School: 5-8 Task Overview: Soil profile refers to layers of soil. A typical soil profile takes nearly 1,000 to 100,000 years to form. The formation of the soil

More information

College of Arts and Sciences

College of Arts and Sciences College of Arts and Sciences Biology (BIOL) BIOL 1305 and 1113: Ecology and Environmental Problems o An introduction to ecological principles and the analysis of environmental problems. BIOL 3309 and 3109:

More information

Testing Framework for Sustainable Biomass ("Cramer Criteria") - The Netherlands

Testing Framework for Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Criteria) - The Netherlands Testing Framework for Sustainable Biomass ("Cramer Criteria") - The Netherlands Country/ Organization Initiative Membership - Governing bodies - Type and implementation approach Feedstock(s) covered Type(s)

More information

Environmental capacity for cage fish farming in large hydroelectric reservoirs: a need for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Southeastearn Brazil

Environmental capacity for cage fish farming in large hydroelectric reservoirs: a need for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Southeastearn Brazil Environmental capacity for cage fish farming in large hydroelectric reservoirs: a need for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Southeastearn Brazil Gianmarco S. David São Paulo State Agribusiness Technology

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Sustainability in Agriculture

Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Sustainability in Agriculture Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Sustainability in Agriculture Mannava V.K. Sivakumar Robert Stefanski World Meteorological Organization 1 Presentation Sustainability the concept and definitions

More information

Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change

Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Side Event UNFCCC COP15 Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Key messages from the AHTEG report Dr Guy Midgley 11 December, 2009 Biodiversity is life Biodiversity is our life Biodiversity and climate

More information

Ref.: SCBD/MPO/AF/CR/84948 31 August 2015 N O T I F I C A T I O N. Preparation for the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit 2015

Ref.: SCBD/MPO/AF/CR/84948 31 August 2015 N O T I F I C A T I O N. Preparation for the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit 2015 Ref.: SCBD/MPO/AF/CR/84948 31 August 2015 Dear Madam/Sir, N O T I F I C A T I O N Preparation for the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit 2015 I am pleased to inform you that the President of

More information

CONNECTIVITY CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION ADVENTURES IN A GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT

CONNECTIVITY CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION ADVENTURES IN A GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT CONNECTIVITY CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION ADVENTURES IN A GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT A presentation addressing Aichi Targets: 5 By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including

More information

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem?

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem? I. What is an ecosystem? Ecosystems An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that work together. Ecosystems have no particular size. An ecosystem can be as large as a desert or as small

More information

IS Desertification A Reality or Myth? What is desertification?

IS Desertification A Reality or Myth? What is desertification? IS Desertification A Reality or Myth? What is desertification? Desertification is a process of fertile land transforming into a desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate

More information

Areas of protection and the impact chain

Areas of protection and the impact chain Areas of protection and the impact chain Bo P. Weidema 2001.01.10 1. Introduction A modified scheme of areas of protection (also known as safeguard subjects) by Udo de Haes & Lindeijer (2000) has opened

More information

Earth as a Living System

Earth as a Living System Earth as a Living System FOCUS ON ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THROSTURTH@HI.IS Earth as a Living System Earth itself is a system of biological communities Biota: All the organisms of all

More information

Presented by: Mr. David Bynoe (BSc.), (MSc.) Agronomist & Environmental Economist

Presented by: Mr. David Bynoe (BSc.), (MSc.) Agronomist & Environmental Economist Presented by: Mr. David Bynoe (BSc.), (MSc.) Agronomist & Environmental Economist REGIONAL FOOD SECURITY This can be defined as all people within region having access to safe and nutritious food that

More information

Environmental Science

Environmental Science Environmental Science UNIT I: Introduction to Environmental Science The student will demonstrate the ability to use scientific skills necessary to identify and analyze environmental issues. a. Define environmental

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

The Position of Agriculture in Developing Countries' Economy and Society and the Role of Investments. Lubos Smutka, Ph.D.

The Position of Agriculture in Developing Countries' Economy and Society and the Role of Investments. Lubos Smutka, Ph.D. The Position of Agriculture in Developing Countries' Economy and Society and the Role of Investments Lubos Smutka, Ph.D. CULS in Prague Agriculture is the mother of all arts. When it is well conducted,

More information

Chapter 8 Biodiversity

Chapter 8 Biodiversity 8.1 Biodiversity at risk Chapter 8 Biodiversity It's likely that enough dust and ash were thrown into the atmosphere to block out much of the sunlight. The last dinosaurs died out about 65 millions years

More information

Economics of Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought (DLDD) in India

Economics of Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought (DLDD) in India Economics of Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought (DLDD) in India Study Methodology Prof. Kanchan Chopra For MOEF&CC Project workshop at TERI May 20, 2015 What is land degradation? UNCCD definition

More information

SALEM COMMUNITY COLLEGE Course Syllabus. Course Title: Environmental Science I. Course Code: BIO103. Lecture Hours: 2 Laboratory Hours: 4 Credits: 4

SALEM COMMUNITY COLLEGE Course Syllabus. Course Title: Environmental Science I. Course Code: BIO103. Lecture Hours: 2 Laboratory Hours: 4 Credits: 4 SALEM COMMUNITY COLLEGE Course Syllabus Course Title: Environmental Science I Course Code: BIO103 Lecture Hours: 2 Laboratory Hours: 4 Credits: 4 Course Description: Environmental Science I is the first

More information

Ecosystem Ecology in a Restoration Context

Ecosystem Ecology in a Restoration Context Objectives: How can the foundations of and theory in ecosystem ecology restoration ecology ecological restoration 1) Ecosystem Concept 2) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function (BEF) Paradigm 1 Ecological

More information

NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA

NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA Onua Amoah (CEO, Anuanom Industrial Bio Products Ltd., Ghana) Order of presentation Introduction Which feedstock for biodiesel

More information

Defining Forest Degradation for an Effective Mechanism to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

Defining Forest Degradation for an Effective Mechanism to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) Defining Forest Degradation for an Effective Mechanism to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) Background Sean Cadman October 2008 1 At the request of the Bali COP, SBSTA convened

More information

Biodiversity and the Ecosystem (Lexile 910L)

Biodiversity and the Ecosystem (Lexile 910L) iodiversity and the Ecosystem (Lexile 910L) 1 Where is your special habitat? You, like a bird, a lizard, or even an ant, need a healthy habitat to survive. habitat is the place where an animal or plant

More information

Responding to the Challenges of Water Security: the VIII Phase of the International Hydrological Programme 2014-2021

Responding to the Challenges of Water Security: the VIII Phase of the International Hydrological Programme 2014-2021 3rd UNECWAS Annual Seminar 21st of August, TUT Responding to the Challenges of Water Security: the VIII Phase of the International Hydrological Programme 2014-2021 Blanca Jimenez-Cisneros Director of the

More information

Discussion Paper. Tropical Forest Deforestation

Discussion Paper. Tropical Forest Deforestation Discussion Paper Tropical Forest Deforestation December 2014 Author: Eimear Dempsey (email: eimear@naturalforeststandard.com) Published: 2 December 2014 Introduction Tropical Forests can vary widely in

More information

Availability & Sustainability of Biomass for Heating in the UK

Availability & Sustainability of Biomass for Heating in the UK Availability & Sustainability of Biomass for Heating in the UK Dr Patricia Thornley, Mr Andrew Welfle & Dr Paul Gilbert, Tyndall Centre, University of Manchester Overview Background Feedstocks for biomass

More information

Belowground Ecology in a Restoration Context

Belowground Ecology in a Restoration Context Objectives: How can the foundations of and theory in soil science restoration ecology ecological restoration? Topographic heterogeneity Overview of soil physical, chemical and biological properties 1 Heterogeneity

More information

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy

More information

National Environment Awareness Campaign(NEAC) 2014-2015. Theme

National Environment Awareness Campaign(NEAC) 2014-2015. Theme National Environment Awareness Campaign(NEAC) 2014-2015. Theme COMBATING DESERTIFICATION, LAND DEGRADATION AND DROUGHT Background Note Desertification is about land degradation: the loss of the land s

More information

State of Climate Change Science in the Great Lakes Basin: A Focus on Climatological, Hydrological and Ecological Effects

State of Climate Change Science in the Great Lakes Basin: A Focus on Climatological, Hydrological and Ecological Effects State of Climate Change Science in the Great Lakes Basin: A Focus on Climatological, Hydrological and Ecological Effects With funding support from: In collaboration with: 1 Context - Canada and Ontario

More information

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH World Environment Day June 2010 111 BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH By: Shahid Saleem Biodiversity loss and other environmental problems that the world is facing today are the products of hundreds of

More information

CHALLENGE 7. STRATEGIES AND TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND SUBSTRATE MANAGEMENT. Janjo de Haan (Wageningen UR) Alice Abjean-Uguen (CERAFEL)

CHALLENGE 7. STRATEGIES AND TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND SUBSTRATE MANAGEMENT. Janjo de Haan (Wageningen UR) Alice Abjean-Uguen (CERAFEL) CHALLENGE 7. STRATEGIES AND TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND SUBSTRATE MANAGEMENT Janjo de Haan (Wageningen UR) Alice Abjean-Uguen (CERAFEL) International year of the soil Soil and substrate crucial role

More information

Ecological Succession. 10C: observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

Ecological Succession. 10C: observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds. Ecological Succession 10C: observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds. 10C Vocabulary 1) Equilibrium (in reference to ecosystems):

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Looking to the Future: 4 Danish scenarios for future farming

Looking to the Future: 4 Danish scenarios for future farming Looking to the Future: 4 Danish scenarios for future farming Christian Ege, Danish Ecological Council Tommy Dalgaard, Aarhus University Alex Dubgaard, University of Copenhagen 1 A Danish project: Future

More information

DSM Position on Sustainable Biomass

DSM Position on Sustainable Biomass Corporate Public Affairs Het Overloon 1, 6411 TE Heerlen, the Netherlands www.dsm.com April 2012 DSM Position on Sustainable Biomass Key messages DSM is a leading Life Sciences and Materials Sciences company

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE ESCI 101 - INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE ESCI 101 - INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE ESCI 101 - INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Prepared By: Rajiv Narula, Ph.D. SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND CRIMINAL

More information

The Bachelor of Science program in Environmental Science is a broad, science-based

The Bachelor of Science program in Environmental Science is a broad, science-based The Bachelor of Science program in Environmental Science is a broad, science-based curriculum designed to prepare students for a variety of environmentally-related technical careers, as well as for graduate

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X The Royal Society for Protection of Nature (RSPN) in collaboration with Department of Curriculum Research & Development (DCRD) of Ministry of Education

More information

Establishing ecologically sustainable forest biomass supply chains: A case study in the boreal forest of Canada

Establishing ecologically sustainable forest biomass supply chains: A case study in the boreal forest of Canada Establishing ecologically sustainable forest biomass supply chains: A case study in the boreal forest of Canada Evelyne Thiffault Canadian Forest Service David Paré Canadian Forest Service Sylvain Volpé

More information

Based on the Article 88 item 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro I hereby issue

Based on the Article 88 item 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro I hereby issue Based on the Article 88 item 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro I hereby issue THE DECREE ON PROCLAMATION OF THE LAW ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE The Law on Organic Agriculture adopted by the

More information

The Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences

The Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences The Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences February 4, 2016 In the fall of 2015 the Agronomy, Crop Science and Soil Science societies put out a call for white papers to help inform

More information

DRAFT. USDA NRCS Conservation Practices that Maintain or Enhance Agriculture Viability and Critical Areas

DRAFT. USDA NRCS Conservation Practices that Maintain or Enhance Agriculture Viability and Critical Areas USDA NRCS Conservation Practices that Maintain or Enhance Agriculture Viability and Critical Areas Wetlands Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or groundwater supporting a prevalence

More information

One Major Six Concentrations. Department of Environmental Conservation University of Massachusetts Amherst

One Major Six Concentrations. Department of Environmental Conservation University of Massachusetts Amherst One Major Six Concentrations Natural Resources Conservation Undergraduate Major Department of Environmental Conservation University of Massachusetts Amherst Conserving Earth s biological diversity and

More information

Module 4.4.2: Biomes and Biodiversity of Africa and Albertine Rift

Module 4.4.2: Biomes and Biodiversity of Africa and Albertine Rift Module 4.4.2: Biomes and Biodiversity of Africa and Albertine Rift Key Definitions -Biome: This is a large area with similar flora, fauna and microorganisms e.g. Tropical Rainforest, Tundra in the Arctic.

More information

Intervention on behalf of Denmark, Norway and Ireland on the occasion of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals meeting on

Intervention on behalf of Denmark, Norway and Ireland on the occasion of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals meeting on Intervention on behalf of Denmark, Norway and Ireland on the occasion of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals meeting on Sustainable Consumption and Production, including Chemicals and

More information

safe to use 100% natural Power up your plants. B I O L O G I C A L S Y S T E M S panoramix.com

safe to use 100% natural Power up your plants. B I O L O G I C A L S Y S T E M S panoramix.com 100% natural safe to use Power up your plants. B I O L O G I C A L S Y S T E M S panoramix.com The very best that you can give your seeds Panoramix A new seed dressing by Koppert Biological Systems The

More information

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral

More information

Ecosystem Services conservation in the Cantareira - Mantiqueira Corridor. Oscar Sarcinelli, PhD Student

Ecosystem Services conservation in the Cantareira - Mantiqueira Corridor. Oscar Sarcinelli, PhD Student Ecosystem Services conservation in the Cantareira - Mantiqueira Corridor Oscar Sarcinelli, PhD Student Presentation Structure: 1. What are ecosystem services and it s conservation; 2. Cantareira Mantiqueira

More information

Global Perspective to Food and Climate. The Food and the Environment Kaisa Karttunen , Viikki

Global Perspective to Food and Climate. The Food and the Environment Kaisa Karttunen , Viikki Global Perspective to Food and Climate The Food and the Environment Kaisa Karttunen 28.10.2011, Viikki Contents: 1. What is food security? 2. The present global food security situation 3. The impact of

More information

MSc Thesis Summary by Laura A Edwards: September 2008. Supervisors: Dr Nick Voulvoulis and Dr Martin Head

MSc Thesis Summary by Laura A Edwards: September 2008. Supervisors: Dr Nick Voulvoulis and Dr Martin Head Developing a Methodology for In situ Soil Quality Assessment for the Function of Biodiversity Support MSc Thesis Summary by Laura A Edwards: September 2008 Supervisors: Dr Nick Voulvoulis and Dr Martin

More information

Biomes. Biomes. Animals and plants have narrow ranges of tolerance to abiotic factors

Biomes. Biomes. Animals and plants have narrow ranges of tolerance to abiotic factors Biomes What defines a biome? Where are the lines drawn? What are the major controlling factors? What about aquatic biomes Biomes Animals and plants have narrow ranges of tolerance to abiotic factors This

More information

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS CEIP Ginés Morata 4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? An ecosystem is made up of all the living things and non-living things that function together in one place. All ecosystems

More information

Using Grassland Vegetation Inventory Data

Using Grassland Vegetation Inventory Data Using Grassland Vegetation Inventory Data The GVI represents the Government of Alberta s comprehensive biophysical, anthropogenic and land-use inventory of the province s grassland natural region. Information

More information

Soil Quality Management and Assessment in Organic Agriculture

Soil Quality Management and Assessment in Organic Agriculture Soil Quality Management and Assessment in Organic Agriculture Varughese Philip Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore Soil Management Section Plant Health Laboratory Department Laboratories Group,

More information

2015 2016 Environmental Science Scope & Sequence

2015 2016 Environmental Science Scope & Sequence 2015 2016 Environmental Science Scope & Sequence The suggested time frames in this document are for a year long environmental science class with approximately 45 minute class periods. All of the material

More information

Bamboo, Rattan and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Bamboo, Rattan and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Preparation for the COP21-Paris negotiation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, October, 2015 Bamboo, Rattan and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change The UN Framework Convention

More information

The DPSIR Framework. Background 1

The DPSIR Framework. Background 1 The DPSIR Framework Peter Kristensen National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark Department of Policy Analysis European Topic Centre on Water, European Environment Agency Email: pkr@dmu.dk Paper

More information

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity: Third Edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Scope of the Presentation Status and trends

More information

Ecosystem services from integrating perennial polycultures to crop rotation: An assessment.

Ecosystem services from integrating perennial polycultures to crop rotation: An assessment. Ecosystem services from integrating perennial polycultures to crop rotation: An assessment. Potential of lucerne-clover-gras and wildflower compositions in German agriculture Peter Weißhuhn, Hubert Wiggering

More information

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed

More information