Atomic structure, chemical reactions and the periocic table

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1 Atomic structure, chemical reactions and the periocic table 9 minutes 9 marks Page of 40

2 Q. The diagram shows an atom. (a) On the diagram, write the names of structures A, B, C and D. (4) To which Group of the periodic table does this atom belong?... Give one reason for your answer (c) Name the element which is made up of this type of atom.... () (Total 7 marks) Page of 40

3 Q. Magnesium burns in oxygen. By Kingsway School [CC BY.0], via Flickr (a) Use the Chemistry Data Sheet to help you to answer this question. The word equation for magnesium burning is: magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide Draw one line from each substance to its correct description. Substance Description compound magnesium metal magnesium oxide mixture oxygen non-metal (3) Page 3 of 40

4 The diagram represents a magnesium atom. Complete the table to show the name of each particle and the charge of each particle in the magnesium atom. Name of particle Charge proton + neutron (c) Use the Chemistry Data Sheet to help you to answer these questions. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. core. (i) In a magnesium atom, the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. shell. () The number of protons in a magnesium atom is the atomic number mass number. group number. () (iii) The sum of the protons and neutrons in a magnesium atom is the atomic number. mass number. group number. () (Total 8 marks) Page 4 of 40

5 Q3. The Sun is mainly hydrogen and helium. The diagrams show an atom of hydrogen and an atom of helium. Hydrogen Helium (a) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. molecule. (i) The centre of each atom is called the nucleus. shell. () a bond. The circle (labelled R) around the centre of each atom is called an electrical charge. an energy level (shell). () Use the diagrams in part (a) to help you to answer these questions. Draw one line from each question to its correct answer. Question Answer How many protons are there in the hydrogen atom? How many electrons are there in the helium atom? 3 What is the mass number of the helium atom? 4 (3) Page 5 of 40

6 (c) The Sun is 73% hydrogen and 5% helium. The rest is other elements. What is the percentage of other elements in the Sun?... % () (d) One of the other elements in the Sun is neon. Neon is in the same group of the periodic table as helium. Use the Chemistry Data Sheet to help you to answer these questions. (i) How many protons are there in a neon atom?... () Which group of the periodic table are helium and neon in?... () (Total 8 marks) Q4. The diagram shows a light bulb. (a) (i) An argon atom has the structure shown. Use the words in the box to label the particles in the atom. Each word should only be used once. electron neutron proton Page 6 of 40

7 Argon is unreactive. Why? () Oxygen would not be a suitable gas to use in a light bulb. Explain why (Total 5 marks) Q5. Natural gas is mainly a hydrocarbon called methane. (a) Use one word from the box to complete the sentence. compounds elements molecules Hydrocarbons contain hydrogen and carbon only. Hydrogen and carbon are.... () The diagrams represent atoms of hydrogen and carbon. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentences. bond. (i) The centre of each atom is called the nucleus. symbol. () Page 7 of 40

8 three The hydrogen atom has one electron and the carbon atom has four electrons. six () (c) A molecule of methane can be represented as Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentences. CH (i) The formula of methane is CH 4 C 4 H 4 () bond. The line between C H is called a molecule. nucleus. () (d) Methane burns to produce carbon dioxide (CO ) and water (H O). (i) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. carbon. When methane burns it reacts with nitrogen. oxygen. () Page 8 of 40

9 Hydrogen (H ) can be used as a fuel. Suggest why burning hydrogen would be less harmful to the environment than burning methane () (Total 7 marks) Q6. Human stomachs contain hydrochloric acid. Stomach ache can be caused by too much acid in the stomach. Indigestion tablets can be used to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach. (a) The graph shows how the volume of carbon dioxide produced changes with time, after some calcium carbonate is added to hydrochloric acid. (i) Complete the sentence to explain what happens between O and P. Between O and P the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid... () Page 9 of 40

10 Complete the sentence to explain what happens at P. At P the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid... because... (iii) Describe the test for carbon dioxide gas. Test... Result of the test... Calcium carbonate is found in limestone. Limestone is removed from the ground by quarrying. Photograph supplied by Stockbyte/Thinkstock Tick ( ) one advantage and tick ( ) one disadvantage of quarrying limestone. Statement Quarrying limestone destroys the shells and skeletons of marine organisms that formed the limestone. Quarrying limestone releases dust, and lorries release carbon dioxide from burning diesel fuel. Quarrying limestone provides building materials, employment and new road links. Quarrying limestone removes ores from the ground. Advantage Tick ( ) Disadvantage Tick ( ) Page 0 of 40

11 (Total 7 marks) Q7. Atoms are made up of three main particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Use the periodic table on the data sheet to help you to answer these questions. (a) Sodium is in Group of the periodic table. (i) Why are potassium and sodium in the same Group of the periodic table? How many protons are in an atom of sodium?... () () (iii) The atomic number of sodium is. How many neutrons are in an atom of sodium with mass number 3?... () (iv) Each sodium atom has electrons. Complete the electronic structure of sodium. Page of 40

12 The chemical equation for a reaction of sodium is shown below. Na + Cl NaCl Describe this reaction of sodium in terms of the names of the substances and the numbers of the atoms involved (3) (Total 8 marks) Q8. Hydrogen is an element. (a) The diagram shows the parts of a hydrogen atom. Use words from the box to label the diagram. electron group nucleus symbol Page of 40

13 Hydrogen can be used as a clean fuel for cars. (i) When hydrogen burns in air, it reacts with another element. Complete the word equation for this reaction. hydrogen +... water () Suggest one reason why hydrogen is called a clean fuel () (Total 4 marks) Q9. The periodic table on the Data Sheet might help you to answer this question. Diagrams A D show models of four different molecules. Page 3 of 40

14 Complete the table to give the name and the formula of each of the molecules A D. The first one has been done for you. Molecule Name Formula A Hydrogen H B C D (Total 6 marks) Q0. (a) The diagram represents an atom of beryllium. Use words from the box to label the diagram. electron ion isotope molecule nucleus Use crosses (x) to complete the diagram to show the electronic structure of a magnesium atom. The atomic (proton) number of magnesium is. (Total 4 marks) Page 4 of 40

15 Q. The diagram shows the structure of a lithium atom. (a) (i) What is represented by... What is represented by... What is the symbol for lithium?... () (Total 3 marks) Q. Lithium metal is used in alkaline batteries. (a) The diagram shows the atoms in lithium metal. Why is lithium metal described as an element? () Page 5 of 40

16 The diagram below represents a lithium atom. Choose words from the box to label parts of the atom. bond electron molecule nucleus (Total 3 marks) Q3. Iron is the main structural metal used in the world. (a) The diagram represents the particles in iron, Fe. Draw a ring around the correct word in the box to complete the sentence. Iron is described as an element because all the atoms compounds metals are the same. () Page 6 of 40

17 Stainless steel is mostly iron. The diagram represents the particles in stainless steel. Use the correct words from the box to complete the sentences about alloys. metal mixture molecule polymer smart structure Stainless steel is an alloy because it is a... of iron, chromium and nickel. An alloy is made up of more than one type of.... Stainless steel alloys are harder than iron because the different sized atoms added change the.... An alloy that can return to its original shape after being deformed is called a... alloy. (4) (c) In the UK, we use about.8 billion steel cans every year but only 5% are recycled. Used steel cans are worth about 00 per tonne. Recycling saves raw materials and reduces waste that would end up in landfill. Producing steel by recycling used cans saves 75% of the energy that would be needed to produce steel from iron ore. This also reduces carbon dioxide emissions. (i) Give two reasons, from the information above, to explain why recycling used steel cans is a good idea Page 7 of 40

18 Al + O Al O 3 () Suggest how the local council could increase the percentage of used steel cans that are recycled () (Total 8 marks) Q4. (a) Balance these chemical equations. (i) H + O H O () Briefly explain why an unbalanced chemical equation cannot fully describe a reaction (Total 4 marks) Q5. Sodium reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas and a solution of sodium hydroxide. Complete the word equation for this reaction (do not use symbols or formulae) (Total 3 marks) Page 8 of 40

19 Q6. The drawing shows an airship that was used about 80 years ago. (a) The gas bag was filled with hydrogen. A leak from the gas bag could be very dangerous. Use your knowledge of the reactions of hydrogen to explain why Modern airships are filled with helium. (i) What property makes both hydrogen and helium suitable for use in airships? () Helium is safer than hydrogen for use in airships. Explain why. You should use the position of helium in the periodic table in your answer (Total 5 marks) Page 9 of 40

20 Q7. Hot air balloons burn hydrocarbons to heat the air. (a) The hot air contains these gases: nitrogen, N oxygen, O argon, Ar carbon dioxide, CO water vapour, H O (i) Argon is an element. What is an element? () Name one other gas in the hot air that is also an element.... () Propane, C 3 H 8, can be represented as: H H H H C C H H H C H Use the correct words from the box to complete the sentences. bond carbon compound element mixture (i) Propane is a... and is made up of atoms of hydrogen and... Page 0 of 40

21 Each line between the atoms in propane represents a chemical... () (Total 5 marks) Q8. To make crude oil more useful it is separated into different fractions. (a) Complete the gaps in the following sentences. Crude oil is separated into different fractions by a process called Each fraction has a different.... Each fraction is a mixture of compounds. Most of these compounds are hydrocarbons, made up of the elements hydrogen and carbon. (i) Explain the difference between a mixture and a compound Page of 40

22 Explain the difference between a compound and an element (Total 6 marks) Q9. Rutile is an ore of titanium. Rutile contains titanium dioxide. The flow chart shows how titanium metal is extracted from titanium dioxide. (a) Titanium is much more expensive than iron. Give one reason why () Name the only waste product shown on the flow chart.... () Page of 40

23 (c) Describe the example of recycling shown on the flow chart (d) The air is removed from Reactor. An atmosphere of argon is used for the reaction between titanium chloride and magnesium metal. Explain why (e) Titanium metal is produced by reacting titanium chloride with magnesium. 950 kg of titanium chloride was mixed with 40 kg of magnesium metal. The mixture was heated and produced 950 kg of magnesium chloride. Calculate the mass of titanium metal produced.... Mass =... kg () Page 3 of 40

24 (f) The graph shows the mass of titanium metal produced from a pure rutile ore and from an impure rutile ore. The difference between the two lines represents the amount of waste rock in the impure ore. 300 kg of titanium metal was produced from the impure ore. Calculate the mass of waste rock in the impure ore.... Mass =... kg () (Total 8 marks) Page 4 of 40

25 Q0. (a) Sulphur is a yellow element. It is a non-metal. (i) Complete the sentence. In an element, all the atoms () Give two properties you would expect sulphur to have because it is a non-metal Use the names of metals from the box to complete the table. copper iron magnesium manganese zinc Use Name of metal for electric wiring in a house... for manhole covers... to galvanise iron... (3) (c) Copper is used to make hot water pipes. Both iron and steel are cheaper. Suggest two reasons why copper is used rather than iron or steel Page 5 of 40

26 (d) The drawing shows a container of a compound called sodium chloride. (i) Which other element has combined with sodium to form this compound?... () For every atom of sodium, how many atoms of the other element have combined with it?... () (Total 0 marks) Page 6 of 40

27 M. (a) A electron B nucleus C proton D neutron Group / alkali metals has one electron in outer shell accept 3 protons / 3 electrons / atomic number 3 therefore lithium (so Group / alkali metals) (c) lithium accept Li [7] M. (a) one mark for each substance linked correctly to its description do not accept more than one line from each substance 0 / zero / none / no charge 3 electron (c) (i) nucleus atomic number Page 7 of 40

28 (iii) mass number [8] M3. (a) (i) nucleus an energy level (shell) 3 (c) / two(%) (d) (i) 0 / ten (group) 0 accept noble gases ignore (group) 8 [8] M4. (a) (i) all correct two marks one or two correct one mark electron proton neutron (argon has) a full outer shell (of electrons) accept energy level for shell accept does not lose or gain electrons do not accept does not form bonds or react or is a noble or inert gas oxygen would react (with metal) accept oxygen is reactive do not accept metal would react (neutral) Page 8 of 40

29 metal would burn accept metal would be destroyed or metal oxide formed or metal is oxidised do not accept it would explode or would not last long accept filament for metal [5] M5. (a) elements (i) nucleus six (c) (i) CH 4 bond (d) (i) oxygen any one from: (water) does not pollute accept no harmful gas(es) allow less pollution (only) water is produced no carbon dioxide / monoxide (is produced) accept no greenhouse gas(es) / effect or no global warming [7] M6. (a) (i) react allow neutralise allow bubbles / fizzes accept produces gas / CO ignore rises stop reacting / producing stops on its own is insufficient allow stop working / bubbling / fizzing Page 9 of 40

30 the (hydrochloric) acid / (calcium) carbonate is used up accept because the (calcium) carbonate has neutralised the (hydrochloric) acid OR have been used up () the graph line becomes horizontal / levels out () OR stays the same / no change () ignore reference to graph line no further reaction () (iii) bubble the gas through limewater / calcium hydroxide solution allow (add) limewater test must be correct to gain result mark (the solution) goes cloudy allow milky advantage > Quarrying limestone provides building materials, employment and new road links disadvantage > Quarrying limestone releases dust, and lorries release carbon dioxide from burning diesel fuel [7] M7. (a) (i) both have one / electron in the outer energy level / shell allow both react in a similar way eleven / (iii) twelve / (iv) (x) max if candidate changes the number of electrons in the first energy level / shell 8x (in second energy level / shell) x (in outer energy level / shell) Page 30 of 40

31 two sodium atoms (react) two (bonded) chlorine atoms (react) allow one chlorine molecule (reacts) two sodium ions and two chloride ions (are produced) allow two molecules of sodium chloride (are produced) or two sodium chloride particles (are produced) [8] M8. (a) electron nucleus words must be in correct position (i) oxygen / O ignore air any one from: (water) does not pollute accept no harmful gas(es) (only) water is produced no carbon dioxide (is produced) accept no greenhouse gas(es) / effect no sulfur dioxide (is produced) accept no acid rain no nitrogen oxides (are produced) no carbon / no particles (are produced) [4] Page 3 of 40

32 M9. B carbon monoxide CO accept carbon oxide do not credit carbon dioxide do not credit if any superscripts or subscripts used but accept C O, accept OC do not credit if obviously lower case C water H O accept hydrogen oxide do not accept hydrogen hydroxide do not credit if obviously lower case or if not subscript do not accept HOH accept OH D ammonia NH 3 do not accept ammonium do not credit if obviously lower case, or if 3 not subscript accept nitrogen hydride or hydrogen nitride do not accept hydrogen nitrate or nitrite allow H 3 N [6] M0. (a) nucleus electron correct number of electrons accept dots and circles.8. [4] Page 3 of 40

33 M. (a) (i) neutron (name only) nucleus / protons and neutrons each for mark (do not allow mass number) Li (correct cases of letters required) for mark [3] M. (a) made of one sort of atom accept it is in the periodic table accept it only has lithium atoms nucleus labelled correctly electron labelled correctly [3] M3. (a) atoms mixture metal structure smart Page 33 of 40

34 (c) (i) any two from: saves raw materials / iron ore saves energy / fuels accept cheaper / saves money make new / useful items make money / it is economic reduces pollution allow less harmful for the environment decreases cost of steel cans reduces carbon dioxide emissions decreases waste materials / use of landfill any one from: provide information / education of the need to recycle legislate against / charge for waste reward / pay people to recycle accept fine people for not recycling put labels on the cans provide recycling bags / bins / areas [8] M4. (a) (i) H + O H O *both circled correct for mark A + O A O 3 all circled correct for mark Page 34 of 40

35 idea that: must end up with the same number of atoms as at the start any each otherwise matter is shown to be lost/gained for mark won t show correct amount of each element/compound [4] M5. correct reactants (i.e. sodium + water either way round) correct products (i.e. sodium hydroxide + hydrogen, either way round) arrow / = [do not allow produce/makes or similar] [do not allow symbols or formulae] each for mark [3] M6. (a) any two from: could explode (owtte) accept pop reacts with oxygen (air) ignites easily or flammable or fire risk (owtte) (i) lighter / less dense than air accept each has a very low density any two from: noble gas accept group 0, 8 or 8 or has full shells so (very) unreactive or inert accept not reactive will not burn / explode / react [5] Page 35 of 40

36 M7. (a) (i) made up of one sort of atom accept it is in the periodic table or has its own symbol nitrogen / N / N or oxygen / O / O do not accept argon or helium do not accept oxide (i) compound carbon bond [5] M8. (a) fractional distillation boiling point or use (i) mixture: compounds or elements or substances together but not chemically combined ignore references to separation compound: (different) elements or different atoms together and chemically combined ignore references to separation element: contains only one type of atom accept made of atoms which contain the same number of protons compound: contains different types of atom chemically combined chemically combined not needed here if already stated in (i) [6] Page 36 of 40

37 M9. (a) any one from: ignore references to cost / mining / availability there are many stages needed (to extract titanium) allow longer / slower / more complicated process / batch process more energy / materials are needed (to extract titanium) ignore higher temperature ignore reference to electrolysis titanium cannot be extracted by using carbon do not accept titanium extracted by electrolysis carbon dioxide allow CO (c) magnesium chloride is electrolysed / used / decomposed magnesium and / or chlorine are recycled / reused allow the products of electrolysis are recycled word / symbol equation = mark (d) accept titanium for magnesium because oxygen / nitrogen (in air) would react with the magnesium or would produce magnesium oxide / nitride whereas argon is inert / unreactive or argon does not react with magnesium ignore argon is in Group 0 / noble gas (e) 40 (f) 50 allow range 45 to 50 [8] M0. (a) (i) are identical / the same or have the same number of protons / the same proton number / electrons not similar Page 37 of 40

38 any two of low melting point low boiling point brittle (solid) do not credit just solid poor conductor of heat or heat insulator poor conductor of electricity or electrical insulator accept just poor / low conductor or just insulator once only dull surface or not shiny cannot be hammered / bent (into shape) or not malleable cannot be stretched (into shape) or not ductile does not make a clanging sound (when struck) or not sonorous copper acidic oxides low density iron zinc correct symbols (c) can be bent (easily) or malleable or can be joined easily do not credit just can be joined not reactive or does not corrode or does not react (with hot water) accept does not rust Page 38 of 40

39 (d) (i) chlorine do not credit chloride one / same number / amount [0] Page 39 of 40

40 Page 40 of 40

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