Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p"

Transcription

1 Nuclear Chemistry Why? Nuclear chemistry is the subdiscipline of chemistry that is concerned with changes in the nucleus of elements. These changes are the source of radioactivity and nuclear power. Since radioactivity is associated with nuclear power generation, the concomitant disposal of radioactive waste, and some medical procedures, everyone should have a fundamental understanding of radioactivity and nuclear transformations in order to evaluate and discuss these issues intelligently and objectively. Learning Objectives λ Identify how the concentration of radioactive material changes with time. λ Determine nuclear binding energies and the amount of energy released in a nuclear reaction. Success Criteria λ Determine the amount of radioactive material remaining after some period of time. λ Correctly use the relationship between energy and mass to calculate nuclear binding energies and the energy released in nuclear reactions. Resources Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p Prerequisites atoms and isotopes New Concepts nuclide, nucleon, radioactivity, α β γ radiation, nuclear reaction equation, daughter nucleus, electron capture, positron, fission, fusion, rate of decay, decay constant, half-life, carbon-14 dating, nuclear binding energy

2 Radioactivity Nucleons two subatomic particles that reside in the nucleus known as protons and neutrons Isotopes Differ in number of neutrons only. They are distinguished by their mass numbers U Is Uranium with an atomic mass of 233 and atomic number of 92. The number of neutrons is found by subtraction of the two numbers nuclide applies to a nucleus with a specified number of protons and neutrons. Nuclei that are radioactive are radionuclides and the atoms containing these nuclei are radioisotopes. Nuclear equations Some atoms are unstable. Emission of particles or electromagnetic radiation is one way to gain stability. Alpha radiation Uranium undergoes alpha decay in attempt to be stable 92 U Th + 4 2He daughter nuclide: the nuclide formed from the decay Parent nuclide: the original nuclide undergoing decay Beta radiation Consists of a stream of beta particles which are high speed electrons. Represented by the symbol 0-1e Iodine-131 is an example of a radioactive isotope that undergoes Beta emission. (an antineutrino also emitted) I Xe + 0-1e

3 Notice the atomic number increases. Beta emission results in the conversion of a neutron ( 1 0n ) to a proton ( 1 1p) 1 0 n 1 1p + 0-1e ( the electron comes from the neutron being converted NOT from the electron cloud) Gamma radiation High energy photons (electromagnetic radiation of a short wavelength) Gamma radiation does not change the mass or atomic number and is represented as 0 0 It almost always accompanies other radioactive emission because it represents the energy lost when the remaining nucleons reorganize into more stable arrangements. Generally you do not show gamma rays when writing nuclear equations Positron emission A positron is a particle that has the same mass as an electron but opposite charge. The positron is represented as 0 1e. Carbon-11 is an example of a particle that undergoes positron emission C 11 5B + 0 1e Notice the atomic number goes down. Positron emission is the effect of converting a proton to a neutron 1 1 p 1 0n + 0 1e Electron capture Capture by the nucleus on an inner shell electron of the electron cloud. Rubidium-81 does this Rb + 0-1e(orbital electron) 81 36Kr Electron capture has the effect of positron emission, converting a proton to a neutron 1 1 p 1 0n + 0 1e Nuclear Stability What makes a nucleus stable?

4 It depends on a variety of factors and no single rule allows us to predict whether a nucleus is radioactive and might decay unless we observe it. There are some observations that have been made to help us make predictions Neutron to proton ratio Strong nuclear force exists between nucleons. The more protons packed together the more neutrons are needed to bind the nucleus together. Atomic nucleus with an atomic number up to twenty has almost equal number of protons and neutrons. Nuclei with higher atomic numbers have more neutrons to protons. The number of neutrons needed to create a stable nucleus increase more than the number of protons. Belt of stability All nuclei with 84 or more protons are radioactive 1. Nuclei above the belt of stability These neutron rich isotopes can lower their ratio and move to the belt of stability by emitting a beta particle. This increases number of protons and decreases neutrons

5 1 0 n 1 1p + 0-1e U "# 9! 4.51 x 10 yr Th " $! 24.1days Pa " $! 1.17 min U " # 5! 2.47 x 10 yr Th etc...! ! P " # 7.5 x 10 4 yr 2. Nuclei below the belt of stability These proton rich nuclei increase their neutrons and decrease protons by positron emission (more common in lighter nuclei) and electron capture (more common in heavier nuclei) 1 1 p 1 0n + 0 1e 3. Nuclei with atomic numbers greater than 84 These tend to undergo alpha emission. This emission decreases the number of neutrons and protons by 2 moving the nucleus diagonally toward the belt of stability 92 U Th + 4 2He EXAMPLE: Predict what mode of decay will C-14 undergo? Just remember this is a prediction and may not always go as predicted. Radioactive series Some nuclei will not gain stability by one emission and may undergo many until they reach stability. For example, U- decays to Th-234 which decays to Pa- 234 which decays eventually, lead-206 is obtained.

6 Three series occur in nature. The other two is Uraniunm-235 to lead-207 and thorium-232 and ends with lead-208 Other observations for prediction Nuclei with 2,8,20,28,50, or 82 protons or 2,8,20,28,50,82, or 126 neutrons are generally more stable..magic numbers Nuclei with even number of protons or neutrons are more stable than odd number These stability factors can be liken to the stability of 2,8,18,32 in electron shells Nuclear Transmutations Nuclear reactions that are induced are called nuclear transmutations The first conversion was performed by Rutherford in Converted nitrogen-14 into oxygen-17 by bombarding with alpha particles from radium 14 7 N + 4 2He 17 8O + 1 1H The particles must be moving fast to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between the charged particle and the charged nucleus. Particle accelerators (atom smashers) Fermi National accelerator laboratory in Batavia, Ill has a particle accelerator 6.3 km in circumference Using neutrons Neutrons can be used to bombard nuclei and do not need to be accelerated since they have no charge. All transuranium elements (elements after uranium that are synthetic) are produced by this method. 92 U + 1 0n U Np + 0-1e Some are made by bombardment of one atom type with another Bismuth bombarded with nickel for several days produced element 111.

7 Rates of Radioactive Decay g t = g 0 (½) n Example: The half-life of cobalt-60 is 5.3 years. How much of a mg sample will remain after 15.9 years? Dating Because the half-life of any nuclide is constant, the amount of substance remaining in an artifact can serve as a nuclear clock to determine ages of objects. When an animal is alive it maintains a caron-14 to carbon-12 ratio identical to that in the atmosphere. When it dies, this ratio decreases. By measuring this ratio and contrast it to the atmosphere, we can get an approximate age. Radioactive decay is a first order process. Remember, half-life of a first order process is T 1/2 = 0.693/k where k is the decay constant. We can determine the k constant by using the rate equation of a first order reaction ln (N t /N o ) = -kt Example: If we start with grams of Sr-90, grams will remain after 2.0 years. (a) what is the half-life of strontium-90? (b) How much strontium-90 will remain after 5.00 years? (28.8 yr, 0.887g)

8 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions E = mc 2 A very familiar equation that shows mass and energy change are proportional. If a system loses mass, it loses energy (exothermic) and if it gains mass, it gains energy (endothermic). The c 2 shows a small mass loss can cause a large energy loss. This is why conservation of mass seems to hold in reactions. For example, combustion of one mole methane loses 9.9 x 10-9 grams. In nuclear reactions, this mass change are much greater, 50,000 times greater than methane combustion. Look at the following 92 U Th + 4 2He The nuclei in this reaction have the following masses: 92 U =.0003 amu, Th = amu and 4 2He = amu The )m is products minus reactants is = g Change in energy would be E = ( g)(1kg/1000g) (3.00 x 10 8 m/s) 2 = -4.1 x kg-m 2 /s 2 = -4.1 x J Example: How much energy is lost or gained when Co-60 undergoes betw decay? Mass of Co-60 is amu, Mass of Ni-60 is amu. (-2.7 x J)

9 Nuclear Binding Energies Scientists discovered in the that the masses of nuclei combined are always less than these nucleons individually. Mass of 2 protons 2( amu) Mass of 2 neutrons 2( amu) Total = amu The mass of a Helium-4 nucleus is causing a mass defect of amu. The origin of this mass defect is some of the mass is converted to binding energy which binds the nucleons together in the nucleus. Energy then needs to be added to separate these nucleons to overcome this binding energy. This energy added to break the nucleons apart is called nuclear binding energy. Nuclear Fission Splitting of heavy nuclei to create energy. Uses: warfare, nuclear power plants

10 Problem: radioactive elements are used. Nuclear Fusion Combining of nuclei also release energy. Uses: possible alternative energy source that can fuse light nonradioactive nuclei to obtain energy. Problem: The reaction needs high temperatures to overcome the repulsion between nuclei.. The lowest temperature found to fuse deuterium with tritium is 40,000,000 K. Cold Fusion is a hot research topic today.

11

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 2: Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions There are some very distinct differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. in a chemical reaction bonds break, atoms

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chemistry 1C-Dr. Larson Chapter 21 Review Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) By what process does thorium-230 decay to radium-226?

More information

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Nuclear reactions change the nucleus of an atom. Chemical Reactions vs. Nuclear Reactions Atoms and molecules are striving to achieve the most stable arrangement.

More information

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X? 1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

More information

Radioactivity Review

Radioactivity Review Science Section 7- Name: Block: Radioactivity Review. Complete the following table: Isotope Mass Number Atomic Number (number of protons) Number of Neutrons nitrogen-5 5 7 8 sulfur-3 3 6 neon- magnesium-5

More information

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least

More information

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my!

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either

More information

Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In balancing the nuclear reaction 293 92 U 234 90 E + 4 He, the identity of element

More information

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery

More information

Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 19. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 19. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 19 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chemical Processes vs. Nuclear Processes Chemical reactions involve changes in

More information

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12 Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes

More information

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves 1 General Chemistry II Jasperse Nuclear Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involved The

More information

Nuclear Stability. From Hyperphysics:

Nuclear Stability. From Hyperphysics: Radioactive Decay Certain isotopes of elements are unstable and decompose through one of several processes that release particles or high-energy electromagnetic radiation. In this unit we'll cover examples

More information

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

More information

102 Sample Test 8 SAMPLE TEST FOR CHAPTER 20.

102 Sample Test 8 SAMPLE TEST FOR CHAPTER 20. 102 Sample Test 8 SAMPLE TEST FOR CHAPTER 20. 1. Radioactivity is a. emission of visible light after exposure to light. b. spontaneous emission of penetrating radiation that is not stimulated by light.

More information

Nuke review. Figure 1

Nuke review. Figure 1 Name: Tuesday, June 10, 2008 Nuke review The radioisotopes carbon-14 and nitrogen-16 are present in a living organism. Carbon-14 is commonly used to date a once-living organism. Figure 1 A sample of wood

More information

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams A radioactive isotope has an unstable nucleus; it emits radiation to become more stable and can be one

More information

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set Nuclear Chemistry Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Nuclear Chemistry 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Big Bang 1. How old is the Universe? 2. Name and describe the three subatomic particles. 3. Nuclear fusion reactions power stars. Name 2 elements that can be formed in

More information

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Describe and give an example of artificial (induced) transmutation Construct and complete nuclear reaction equations Artificial transmutation is the changing or manipulation

More information

Li Lithium Nuclear Physics. Atom Basics. Atom Basics. Symbol Charge Mass(u) Electron e p Proton. Neutron

Li Lithium Nuclear Physics. Atom Basics. Atom Basics. Symbol Charge Mass(u) Electron e p Proton. Neutron atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element An atom is composed of Nucleons Protons Subatomic Neutrons Particles Electrons Atom Basics The number of protons

More information

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei.

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei. CHAPTER 13 1. What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei 2. Stable nuclei (that is, nonradioactive nuclei) have mass

More information

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these

More information

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

More information

CHEM J-4 June 2014

CHEM J-4 June 2014 CHEM1101 014-J-4 June 014 Technetium-99m is an important radionuclide for medical imaging. It is produced from molybdenum-99. Fill in the box below to give a balanced nuclear equation for the production

More information

Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry

Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry Chem 1151 Lab 5 - Nuclear Chemistry Learning Objectives: 1) Understand the concept of radioactive decay 2) Know the change associated with an alpha, beta or gamma decay of a nucleus 3) Write the product

More information

Chapter 28. Radioactivity. Types of Radiation. Beta Radiation. Alpha Radiation. Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation. Objectives: Nuclear Radiation

Chapter 28. Radioactivity. Types of Radiation. Beta Radiation. Alpha Radiation. Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation. Objectives: Nuclear Radiation Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation Chapter 28 Nuclear Radiation Objectives: Discuss the processes of radioactivity and radioactive decay Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of composition

More information

Exam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes)

Exam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes) Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 3 marks (46 minutes). Which of the following causes the greatest number of ionizations as it passes through cm of air? (The total energy of the

More information

Unit 1 Atomic Structure

Unit 1 Atomic Structure Unit Atomic Structure 4. Defining the Atom I. Atomic Theory A. Modern Atomic Theory. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. Atoms of the same element are chemically alike 3. Individual

More information

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

More information

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom

More information

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy.

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 8

CHM1 Review for Exam 8 The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Subatomic particles a. Alpha, α 42He 2+ b. Beta, β 0-1e c. Positron, β + 0 +1e 0 d. gamma, γ 0γ 1 e. neutron, n 0n 1 f. proton,

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 9 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons

More information

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy. 1 Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist

More information

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp. Given the nuclear equation: H + X 6 3 Li + 4 He The particle repr esented by X is 9 4 Li 9 4 Be 0 5 Be 0 6 C. Which isotope will spontaneously decay and emit particles with

More information

Main properties of atoms and nucleus

Main properties of atoms and nucleus Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom

More information

Warm Up. Shorthand notation. Protons Neutrons Electrons Atom /cat/a n Atomic mass. Atomic # Pd P

Warm Up. Shorthand notation. Protons Neutrons Electrons Atom /cat/a n Atomic mass. Atomic # Pd P Chapter 4 Annotated Warm Up Shorthand notation Atomic mass Pd 2+ 106 Atomic # Protons Neutrons Electrons Atom /cat/a n 11 5 5 11 12 10 32 P 3-55 79 55 Today s Agenda QOTD: Why are the masses on the periodic

More information

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy.

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. Physics and Chemistry 1501 Nuclear Science Part I Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. (Read objectives on screen.) In this program,

More information

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations Topic 13 National 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Nuclear Chemistry In this topic you will learn about radioactive elements whose atoms are so unstable that they have to release radiation in order to become

More information

1. According to quantum theory, light energy is carried in discrete units called. A) protons B) photons C) photoelectrons D) quarks

1. According to quantum theory, light energy is carried in discrete units called. A) protons B) photons C) photoelectrons D) quarks Name: Photon Energy. ccording to quantum theory, light energy is carried in discrete units called. ) protons ) photons ) photoelectrons ) quarks 2. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does a

More information

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis )

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nucleosynthesis reactions in the interior of stars have produced nearly all of the naturally occurring elements on earth. In a nuclear transmutation a nucleus

More information

Nuclear Physics. Remember: Particles have a wave nature. Only certain wavelengths meet the boundary conditions, so only certain energies are allowed.

Nuclear Physics. Remember: Particles have a wave nature. Only certain wavelengths meet the boundary conditions, so only certain energies are allowed. Nuclear Physics The forces holding together the nucleus are large. And so are the energies involved. Radioactivity is a natural process. Certain nuclei fall apart and emit ionizing radiation as they do.

More information

A given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z

A given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Units of Chapter 30 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Radioactivity Alpha Decay Beta Decay Gamma Decay Conservation

More information

Masses in Atomic Units

Masses in Atomic Units Nuclear Composition - the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev) - the constituents

More information

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.

More information

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Decay Introduction The Nucleus Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Decay Almost any phrase that has the word nuclear in it has a bad reputation. The term conjures up images of mushroom clouds and radioactive mutants. It

More information

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion CHAPTER 0 2 SECTION Nuclear Changes Nuclear Fission and Fusion KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What holds the nucleus of an atom together? What happens when the nucleus

More information

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion Why? Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fission and fusion are two processes that alter the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear fission provides the energy in nuclear power plants and fusion is the source of the sun s

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following statements about the atomic nucleus is accurate? A) The nucleus

More information

This is Nuclear Chemistry, chapter 20 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0).

This is Nuclear Chemistry, chapter 20 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0). This is Nuclear Chemistry, chapter 2 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/

More information

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq. 1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

More information

Increasing Energy Decreasing Energy Increasing Frequency Decreasing Frequency Decreasing Wavelength Increasing Wavelength

Increasing Energy Decreasing Energy Increasing Frequency Decreasing Frequency Decreasing Wavelength Increasing Wavelength Chapter 7 Radiation and Nuclear Energy radiation - energy given off by a body electromagnetic radiation - energy which is made up of a varying electrical field and a varying magnetic field. The fields

More information

Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics James H. Dann, PhD (JamesHD) James Dann, (JamesJD) Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version

More information

[Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N.

[Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. Problem Set #1: Nuclear Transformations [Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. 1. Among the following physical units, which is not the unit of energy? a) Joule, J b)

More information

CHEMISTRY LESSON PLANS FOR HSTI ATOM MODULE

CHEMISTRY LESSON PLANS FOR HSTI ATOM MODULE CHEMISTRY LESSON PLANS FOR HSTI ATOM MODULE Lesson 1: Introduction to Radioactivity (1) Discuss the discovery of radiation/radioactive emissions and the scientists involved. (2) Identify the three types

More information

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of

More information

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30 Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page of 30 Q. A beta particle is a high-energy electron. (i) Which part of

More information

RADIATION PROTECTION NOTE 1: RADIOACTIVITY BASICS

RADIATION PROTECTION NOTE 1: RADIOACTIVITY BASICS RDITIO PROTECTIO OTE 1: RDIOCTIVITY BSICS ITRODUCTIO n understanding of the underlying principles involved in the radioactive decay process is essential for the safe working and handling of radioactive

More information

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. Those properties can be explained by examining the atoms that compose the matter. An atom is the smallest particle

More information

The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom

The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom 1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle

More information

FUSION NEUTRON DEUTERIUM HELIUM TRITIUM.

FUSION NEUTRON DEUTERIUM HELIUM TRITIUM. FUSION AND FISSION THE SUN Every second, the sun converts 500 million metric tons of hydrogen to helium. Due to the process of fusion, 5 million metric tons of excess material is converted into energy

More information

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically

More information

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy - energy from the atomic nucleus. Nuclear fission (i.e. splitting of nuclei) and nuclear fusion (i.e. combining of nuclei) release enormous amounts of energy. Number of protons determines

More information

5. In the equation: 1. Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 226. Ra -

5. In the equation: 1. Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 226. Ra - . Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 6 Ra? 6 Ra - 6 Rn + He 6 6 Ra - 9 Ac + 0 e 6 6 Ra - 7 Fr + 0 + e 6 5 Ra - Ra + 0 n. The chart below shows the spontaneous nuclear decay of U-3 to Th-3

More information

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation Marc R. Roussel Nuclear reactions Ordinary chemical reactions do not involve the nuclei, so we can balance these reactions by making sure that

More information

ISOTOPES & AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS

ISOTOPES & AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS ISOTOPES & AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS Agenda P. 26-27-Average Atomic Mass (O/S) HW: P.27# 1; P.29 # 1-9 and w/s ATOMS Each elements is made up unique atoms The atoms of an element have identical chemical properties

More information

Radiation and the Universe B+ questions

Radiation and the Universe B+ questions Radiation and the Universe B+ questions Name: Q. The diagram below shows a method of controlling the thickness of paper produced at a paper mill. A radioactive source which emits beta radiation is placed

More information

Development of the Atomic Bomb

Development of the Atomic Bomb Chapter 28 Nuclear Fission Fission, Fusion, Binding Energy, and Half Life How would we write this Nuclear Reaction? Uranium Isotopes Naturally occurring Uranium contains two major isotopes Uranium-238

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Physics Level 3

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Physics Level 3 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Physics Level 3 This exemplar supports assessment against: 91525 Demonstrate understanding of Modern Physics An annotated exemplar is an extract of student evidence,

More information

not to be republished NCERT NUCLEI Chapter Thirteen MCQ I

not to be republished NCERT NUCLEI Chapter Thirteen MCQ I Chapter Thirteen NUCLEI MCQ I 131 Suppose we consider a large number of containers each containing initially 10000 atoms of a radioactive material with a half life of 1 year After 1 year, (a) all the containers

More information

22.1 Nuclear Reactions

22.1 Nuclear Reactions In the Middle Ages, individuals called alchemists spent a lot of time trying to make gold. Often, they fooled people into believing that they had made gold. Although alchemists never succeeded in making

More information

1. A release of energy is a sign that. 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the. A. a physical change gust occurred

1. A release of energy is a sign that. 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the. A. a physical change gust occurred 1. A release of energy is a sign that A. a physical change gust occurred B. a chemical change is taking place 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the A. reactant B. product

More information

The Nucleus of the Atom

The Nucleus of the Atom The Nucleus of the Atom Chapter 12 Great Idea: Nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy Chapter Outline Empty Space, Explosive Energy The Organization of the Nucleus Radioactivity Energy

More information

Name KEY Period. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry NOTES. Key Dates

Name KEY Period. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry NOTES. Key Dates Name KEY Period CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry NOTES 52 24 Cr Mass Number Symbol Atomic Number Quiz Date Key Dates Exam Date Lab Dates Notes, Homework, Exam Reviews

More information

Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Nuclear Physics Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus

More information

Chapter NP-5. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS

Chapter NP-5. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS Chapter NP-5 Nuclear Physics Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS 2.1 ELASTIC SCATTERING 2.2 INELASTIC SCATTERING 2.3 RADIATIVE CAPTURE 2.4 PARTICLE

More information

Basic Nuclear Concepts

Basic Nuclear Concepts Section 7: In this section, we present a basic description of atomic nuclei, the stored energy contained within them, their occurrence and stability Basic Nuclear Concepts EARLY DISCOVERIES [see also Section

More information

The Atom. The atom is made of subatomic particles, the proton neutron and electron. A summary of these particles is shown below.

The Atom. The atom is made of subatomic particles, the proton neutron and electron. A summary of these particles is shown below. The Atom Homework from the book: Exercises: 1-23, 25-27, 31-36 Questions: 4-6 Problems 15 In the study guide: All the Multiple choice starting on page 101. The Atom All matter in the universe if made of

More information

FXA Candidates should be able to : UNIT G485 Module Radioactivity. A = λ N. N = N 0 e -λt

FXA Candidates should be able to : UNIT G485 Module Radioactivity. A = λ N. N = N 0 e -λt 1 Candidates should be able to : RADIOACTIVITY Describe the spontaneous and random nature of radioactive decay of unstable nuclei. This is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus spontaneously

More information

Keep in mind that less stable means more radioactive and more stable means less radioactive.

Keep in mind that less stable means more radioactive and more stable means less radioactive. Nuclear Stability What is the nuclear stability? Nuclear stability means that nucleus is stable meaning that it does not spontaneously emit any kind of radioactivity (radiation). On the other hand, if

More information

Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus

Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity Nuclear structure, nuclear size The strong nuclear force, nuclear stability, binding energy Radioactive decay, activity The neutrino Radioactive age measurement

More information

More general mathematical solution: T half T half. = 0.25 This is the fraction left after 25 years.

More general mathematical solution: T half T half. = 0.25 This is the fraction left after 25 years. Physics 07 Problem 2. O. A. Pringle Tritium has a half-life of 2.5 y against beta decay. What fraction of a sample will remain undecayed after 25 y? Simple solution: time (y) # of half-lives fraction left

More information

location in the atom relative mass relative charge

location in the atom relative mass relative charge WAHS Chemistry Unit 4: Atomic Structure 1 Unit Assignment #1 Complete the Important Chemistry Scientists assignment that will be assigned. Be sure to know all of the scientists and their important contribution

More information

RADIOACTIVE DECAY. In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay.

RADIOACTIVE DECAY. In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay. ctivity BP RDIOCTIVE DECY Section 8: RDIOCTIVE DECY In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay. Radioactive Decay Naturally occurring

More information

fission and fusion: a Physics kit

fission and fusion: a Physics kit half-life Number of particles left The half-life of an element tells us how long it will take for half of the nuclei in a sample of an unstable element to decay. So, after one half-life, only half of the

More information

Answer Key, Problem Set 10

Answer Key, Problem Set 10 Chemistry 22 Mines, Spring 206 Answer Key, Problem Set 0. NT. Write an equation describing the radioactive decay of each of the following nuclides. (The particle produced is shown in parentheses, except

More information

(Section 20.8). 9. Give examples of some uses of radioisotopes (Section 20.9).

(Section 20.8). 9. Give examples of some uses of radioisotopes (Section 20.9). CHEM 102 Instructional Objectives Prof. Upali Siriwardane, Chemistry Program, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 CHAPTER 20 Chapter 20. Nuclear Chemistry 20.1 The Nature of Radioactivity 20.2

More information

Natural Radioactivity

Natural Radioactivity Natural Radioactivity True or false The food we eat is a natural source of radiation. True or false Radiation dose can be measured in rem, gray or rad. True or false Older homes are more susceptible to

More information

Unit 2 The Atom. Notes. 3. Describe Democritus thoughts about gold. 400 B.C. - Democritus thought matter could not be divided indefinitely.

Unit 2 The Atom. Notes. 3. Describe Democritus thoughts about gold. 400 B.C. - Democritus thought matter could not be divided indefinitely. Unit 2 The Atom Name: Key Block DEMOCRITUS 1. Was Democritus a scientist? NO Notes 2. In what time of history did he live? 400 BC 3. Describe Democritus thoughts about gold. 400 B.C. - Democritus thought

More information

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays. Radioactivity. Remember the Periodic Table? Emission of high energy photons and particles

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays. Radioactivity. Remember the Periodic Table? Emission of high energy photons and particles Radioactivity Emission of high energy photons and particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays Elements heavier than lead (Z=82), are radioactive Radioactive materials emit: alpha particles (helium nucleus) beta

More information

SECTION A. Define the activity of a radioactive sample. ...

SECTION A. Define the activity of a radioactive sample. ... 3 N00/430/H(2) SECTION A Candidates must answer all questions in the spaces provided. A1. Radioactive decay measurement A medical physicist wishes to investigate the decay of a radioactive isotope and

More information

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons.

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons. Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.

More information

Inside the Atom. Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person?

Inside the Atom. Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person? chapter 14 3 Inside the Atom section 2 The Nucleus Before You Read Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person? What You ll Learn what radioactive

More information

NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION

NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-101/1-3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a process in which an atom splits and releases energy, fission products, and neutrons. The neutrons released

More information

Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics

Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics You've got a lot of choices. If getting out of bed in the morning is a chore and you're not smiling on a regular basis, try another choice. Steven D.

More information

Structure and Properties of Atoms

Structure and Properties of Atoms PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,

More information

Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table

Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table I. Introduction to atoms A. Development of atomic models 1. Atom, smallest particle of an element 2. Parts of atom a. Electrons, negatively charged b. Protons,

More information

24. The Nucleus atomic number nucleons mass number Protons and Neutrons isotopes

24. The Nucleus atomic number nucleons mass number Protons and Neutrons isotopes 4. The Nucleus The last several chapters have shown that an understanding of the behavior of atomic electrons can lead to an understanding of the regularities associated with chemical reactions as well

More information

Atomic Concepts Review

Atomic Concepts Review 1. Which phrase describes an atom? A) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged protons B) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged electrons C) a positively charged

More information