1 Classical Conditioning
2 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
3 Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response The stimulus predicts another stimulus that already produces that response Form of learning by association
4 Stimulus-Response Stimulus - anything in the environment that one can respond to Response any behavior or action
5 Stimulus-Response Relationship
6 Stimulus-Response Relationship
7 Components of Classical Conditioning
8 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Stimulus that triggers a response reflexively and automatically
9 Unconditioned Response (UCR) Automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus The relationship between the UCS and UCR must be reflexive and not learned
10 Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Previously neutral stimulus that, through learning, gains the power to cause a response The CS must be a neutral stimulus before conditioning occurs.
11 Conditioned Response Response to the conditioned stimulus Usually the same behavior as the UCR
12 Classical Conditioning Processes: Acquisition
13 Acquisition Process of developing a learned response The subject learns a new response (CR) to a previously neutral stimulus (CS)
14 Extinction Diminishing of a learned response In classical conditioning, the continual presentation of the CS without the UCS
15 Spontaneous Recovery The return of an extinguished classically conditioned response after a rest period
16 Ivan Pavlov s Discovery
17 Ivan Pavlov ( ) Learning theorist famous for discovery of classical conditioning
18 Pavlov s Method of Collecting Saliva
19 Pavlov s Research Apparatus
20 Pavlov s Experiment
21 Pavlov s Experiment
22 Pavlov s Experiment
23 Generalization and Discrimination
24 Generalization Producing the same response to two similar stimuli The more similar the substitute stimulus is to the original used in conditioning, the stronger the generalized response
25 Discrimination Producing different responses to two stimuli The subject learns that one stimuli predicts the UCS and the other does not.
26 John Watson and the Classical Conditioning of Emotions
27 Behaviorism View that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes Founded by John Watson
28 Little Albert 11-month-old infant Watson and Rosalie Rayner, conditioned Albert to be frightened of white rats Led to questions about experimental ethics
29 Little Albert Before Conditioning
30 Little Albert During Conditioning
31 Little Albert After Conditioning
32 Little Albert - Generalization
33 Cognition and Biological Predispositions
34 Cognition Mental processes What effect does cognition have on learning?
35 Taste Aversion Subjects become classically conditioned to avoid specific tastes, because the tastes are associated with nausea. John Garcia (1917- )
36 Operant Conditioning
37 What is Operant Conditioning?
38 Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior The frequency will increase if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject. The frequency will decrease if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.
39 Operant Conditioning
40 Operant Conditioning
41 Operant Conditioning
42 Operant Conditioning
43 The Law of Effect
44 Edward Thorndike ( ) Author of the law of effect, the principle that forms the basis of operant conditioning Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors with unfavorable consequences will occur less frequently. Created puzzle boxes for research on cats
45 Thorndike s Puzzle Box
46 B.F. Skinner ( ) Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning and devised ways to apply them in the real world Designed the Skinner Box, or operant chamber
47 Skinner Box
48 Reinforcement/Punishment Reinforcement - Any consequence that increases the future likelihood of a behavior Punishment - Any consequence that decreases the future likelihood of a behavior The subject determines if a consequence is reinforcing or punishing
50 Positive Reinforcement In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or state The subject receives something they want Will strengthen the behavior
51 Positive Reinforcement
52 Negative Reinforcement In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state Something the subject doesn t like is removed Will strengthen the behavior
53 Negative Reinforcement
54 Positive/Negative Reinforcement
55 Reinforcement: Immediate Versus Delayed Reinforcement
56 Immediate/Delayed Reinforcement Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed reinforcement Ability to delay gratification predicts higher achievement
57 Reinforcement: Primary Versus Secondary Reinforcement
58 Primary Reinforcement Something that is naturally reinforcing Examples: food, warmth, water, etc. The item is reinforcing in and of itself
60 Secondary Reinforcement Something that you have learned to value Money is a good example
62 Punishment: The Process of Punishment
63 Types of Punishment An undesirable event following a behavior A desirable state or event ends following a behavior
65 Punishment: Problems With Punishment
66 Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisher Can lead to fear, anxiety, and lower selfesteem Children who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.
67 Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors. Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behavior Most still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment
68 Reinforcement Procedures: Shaping
69 Shaping Reinforcement of behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired one The operant technique used to establish a new behavior
70 Reinforcement Procedures: Discrimination and Extinction
71 Discrimination Ability to distinguish between two similar signals or stimuli Learning to respond to one stimuli but not to a similar stimuli
72 Extinction In operant conditioning, the loss of a behavior when consequence follows it. The subject no longer responds since the reinforcement or punishment has stopped.
73 Schedules of Reinforcement
74 Continuous reinforcement In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response Most useful way to establish a behavior The behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.
75 Partial Reinforcement In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses Includes the following types: Fixed-interval and variable interval Fixed-ratio and variable-ratio
76 Fixed-Interval Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time i.e. weekly quiz in a class
77 Variable-Interval Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time i.e. pop quiz in a class
78 Fixed-Ratio Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses The faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive.
79 Variable-Ratio Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses This schedule is very resistant to extinction. Sometimes called the gambler s schedule ; similar to a slot machine
80 New Understandings of Operant Conditioning: The Role of Cognition
81 Latent Learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it Tolman and Honzik s study on maze learning
82 Cognitive Map A mental representation of a place Experiments showed rats could learn a maze without any reinforcements
83 Overjustification Effect Effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do The reward may lessen and replace the person s original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated
84 New Understandings of Operant Conditioning: The Role of Biology
85 Biological Predisposition Research suggests some species are biologically predisposed to learn specific behaviors
86 Observational Learning
87 Albert Bandura and Observational Learning
88 Observational Learning Learning by observing others
89 Model Person observed in observational learning
90 Modeling Process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
91 Albert Bandura (1925- ) American psychologist who has done major studies in observational learning Studies the consequences a model has on subjects Bobo Doll experiments
92 Bobo Doll Experiments Children watched an adult model show aggressive behavior toward a bobo doll Three experimental conditions: The model was praised. The model was punished. The model received no consequences for the aggressive behavior.
93 Bobo Doll Experiments
94 Vicarious Learning Learning by seeing the consequences of another person s behavior
95 Modeling Requirements Bandura suggests four requirements for effective modeling to occur: Attention Retention Ability to reproduce the behavior Motivation
96 Observational Learning in Everyday Life
97 Antisocial/Prosocial Behavior Antisocial behavior - negative, destructive unhelpful behavior Prosocial behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior Both types of behavior can be modeled effectively.
98 Observational Learning of Violence From the Media
99 APA Commission on Violence and Youth Higher levels of violence on TV are associated with increased acceptance of aggressive attitudes and behavior Children s exposure to TV violence has harmful, lifelong consequences
100 APA Commission on Violence and Youth Portrayals of women as victims and minorities as aggressive lead more violence Viewing TV programming and commercials affects our concept of reality.
101 The End