Classical Conditioning

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1 Classical Conditioning

2 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience

3 Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response The stimulus predicts another stimulus that already produces that response Form of learning by association

4 Stimulus-Response Stimulus - anything in the environment that one can respond to Response any behavior or action

5 Stimulus-Response Relationship

6 Stimulus-Response Relationship

7 Components of Classical Conditioning

8 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Stimulus that triggers a response reflexively and automatically

9 Unconditioned Response (UCR) Automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus The relationship between the UCS and UCR must be reflexive and not learned

10 Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Previously neutral stimulus that, through learning, gains the power to cause a response The CS must be a neutral stimulus before conditioning occurs.

11 Conditioned Response Response to the conditioned stimulus Usually the same behavior as the UCR

12 Classical Conditioning Processes: Acquisition

13 Acquisition Process of developing a learned response The subject learns a new response (CR) to a previously neutral stimulus (CS)

14 Extinction Diminishing of a learned response In classical conditioning, the continual presentation of the CS without the UCS

15 Spontaneous Recovery The return of an extinguished classically conditioned response after a rest period

16 Ivan Pavlov s Discovery

17 Ivan Pavlov ( ) Learning theorist famous for discovery of classical conditioning

18 Pavlov s Method of Collecting Saliva

19 Pavlov s Research Apparatus

20 Pavlov s Experiment

21 Pavlov s Experiment

22 Pavlov s Experiment

23 Generalization and Discrimination

24 Generalization Producing the same response to two similar stimuli The more similar the substitute stimulus is to the original used in conditioning, the stronger the generalized response

25 Discrimination Producing different responses to two stimuli The subject learns that one stimuli predicts the UCS and the other does not.

26 John Watson and the Classical Conditioning of Emotions

27 Behaviorism View that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes Founded by John Watson

28 Little Albert 11-month-old infant Watson and Rosalie Rayner, conditioned Albert to be frightened of white rats Led to questions about experimental ethics

29 Little Albert Before Conditioning

30 Little Albert During Conditioning

31 Little Albert After Conditioning

32 Little Albert - Generalization

33 Cognition and Biological Predispositions

34 Cognition Mental processes What effect does cognition have on learning?

35 Taste Aversion Subjects become classically conditioned to avoid specific tastes, because the tastes are associated with nausea. John Garcia (1917- )

36 Operant Conditioning

37 What is Operant Conditioning?

38 Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior The frequency will increase if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject. The frequency will decrease if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.

39 Operant Conditioning

40 Operant Conditioning

41 Operant Conditioning

42 Operant Conditioning

43 The Law of Effect

44 Edward Thorndike ( ) Author of the law of effect, the principle that forms the basis of operant conditioning Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors with unfavorable consequences will occur less frequently. Created puzzle boxes for research on cats

45 Thorndike s Puzzle Box

46 B.F. Skinner ( ) Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning and devised ways to apply them in the real world Designed the Skinner Box, or operant chamber

47 Skinner Box

48 Reinforcement/Punishment Reinforcement - Any consequence that increases the future likelihood of a behavior Punishment - Any consequence that decreases the future likelihood of a behavior The subject determines if a consequence is reinforcing or punishing

49 Reinforcement

50 Positive Reinforcement In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or state The subject receives something they want Will strengthen the behavior

51 Positive Reinforcement

52 Negative Reinforcement In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state Something the subject doesn t like is removed Will strengthen the behavior

53 Negative Reinforcement

54 Positive/Negative Reinforcement

55 Reinforcement: Immediate Versus Delayed Reinforcement

56 Immediate/Delayed Reinforcement Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed reinforcement Ability to delay gratification predicts higher achievement

57 Reinforcement: Primary Versus Secondary Reinforcement

58 Primary Reinforcement Something that is naturally reinforcing Examples: food, warmth, water, etc. The item is reinforcing in and of itself

59

60 Secondary Reinforcement Something that you have learned to value Money is a good example

61

62 Punishment: The Process of Punishment

63 Types of Punishment An undesirable event following a behavior A desirable state or event ends following a behavior

64

65 Punishment: Problems With Punishment

66 Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisher Can lead to fear, anxiety, and lower selfesteem Children who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.

67 Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors. Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behavior Most still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment

68 Reinforcement Procedures: Shaping

69 Shaping Reinforcement of behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired one The operant technique used to establish a new behavior

70 Reinforcement Procedures: Discrimination and Extinction

71 Discrimination Ability to distinguish between two similar signals or stimuli Learning to respond to one stimuli but not to a similar stimuli

72 Extinction In operant conditioning, the loss of a behavior when consequence follows it. The subject no longer responds since the reinforcement or punishment has stopped.

73 Schedules of Reinforcement

74 Continuous reinforcement In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response Most useful way to establish a behavior The behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.

75 Partial Reinforcement In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses Includes the following types: Fixed-interval and variable interval Fixed-ratio and variable-ratio

76 Fixed-Interval Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time i.e. weekly quiz in a class

77 Variable-Interval Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time i.e. pop quiz in a class

78 Fixed-Ratio Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses The faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive.

79 Variable-Ratio Schedule In operant conditioning, a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses This schedule is very resistant to extinction. Sometimes called the gambler s schedule ; similar to a slot machine

80 New Understandings of Operant Conditioning: The Role of Cognition

81 Latent Learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it Tolman and Honzik s study on maze learning

82 Cognitive Map A mental representation of a place Experiments showed rats could learn a maze without any reinforcements

83 Overjustification Effect Effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do The reward may lessen and replace the person s original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated

84 New Understandings of Operant Conditioning: The Role of Biology

85 Biological Predisposition Research suggests some species are biologically predisposed to learn specific behaviors

86 Observational Learning

87 Albert Bandura and Observational Learning

88 Observational Learning Learning by observing others

89 Model Person observed in observational learning

90 Modeling Process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

91 Albert Bandura (1925- ) American psychologist who has done major studies in observational learning Studies the consequences a model has on subjects Bobo Doll experiments

92 Bobo Doll Experiments Children watched an adult model show aggressive behavior toward a bobo doll Three experimental conditions: The model was praised. The model was punished. The model received no consequences for the aggressive behavior.

93 Bobo Doll Experiments

94 Vicarious Learning Learning by seeing the consequences of another person s behavior

95 Modeling Requirements Bandura suggests four requirements for effective modeling to occur: Attention Retention Ability to reproduce the behavior Motivation

96 Observational Learning in Everyday Life

97 Antisocial/Prosocial Behavior Antisocial behavior - negative, destructive unhelpful behavior Prosocial behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior Both types of behavior can be modeled effectively.

98 Observational Learning of Violence From the Media

99 APA Commission on Violence and Youth Higher levels of violence on TV are associated with increased acceptance of aggressive attitudes and behavior Children s exposure to TV violence has harmful, lifelong consequences

100 APA Commission on Violence and Youth Portrayals of women as victims and minorities as aggressive lead more violence Viewing TV programming and commercials affects our concept of reality.

101 The End

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