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1 Learning defined Chapter 6 Learning and Behavior Analysis Chapter 6 Preview The Study of Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences Biology and Learning Cognitive Influences on Learning Recapping Main Points What is Learning? Process based on experience that results in relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral patterns 1

2 B.F. Skinner John Watson Sensitization Habituation Learning performance distinction Change in Behavior or Behavior Potential Difference between what has been learned and what is expressed in overt behavior Habituation and Sensitization Decrease in behavioral response when stimulus repeatedly presented Increase in behavioral response when stimulus repeatedly presented Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis Father of American behaviorism Operant conditioning model 2

3 Behavior Analysis Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis Focus on discovery of environmental determinants of behavior and learning Classical Conditioning Ivan P. Pavlov Classical Conditioning Basic form of learning in which one stimulus predicts occurrence of another Nobel Peace prize recipient for research in medical physiology Behavior elicited by stimulus that acquired its power through association with biologically significant stimulus Classical Conditioning Study of Reflexes Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Any stimulus that naturally elicits behavior Unconditioned Response (UCR) Behavior elicited by UCS 3

4 Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) Behavior elicited to CS Neutral stimulus that is able to elicit behavior only after association with UCS Pavlov Original Procedure Basic Features of Classical Conditioning 4

5 Processes of Conditioning Acquisition Process by which CR is first elicited Timing is critical Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery in Classical Conditioning CS-UCS Temporal Arrangement in Classical Conditioning Four variations Delay conditioning Trace conditioning Simultaneous conditioning Backward conditioning 5

6 Processes of Conditioning Sudden Extinction Weakening of CR as result of absence of CS and UCS Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of CR after rest period without further exposure to UCS Variations of the CS-UCS Temporal Arrangement Processes of Conditioning Automatic Learning to Stimulus Generalization extension of conditioned responding to Stimuli Discrimination respond differently to stimuli that similar stimuli differ from CS 6

7 Stimulus Generalization Gradients Focus on Acquisition Robert Rescorla Neutral stimulus will become effective CS only if it is informative and reliably predicts UCS Applications of Classical Conditioning Emotions and preferences Learning to be a drug addict 7

8 Applications of Classical Conditioning Shepard Siegel Setting in which drug use occurs acts as conditioned stimulus Biological Constraints Trait-aversion learning Inborn bias Inborn Bias 8

9 Operant Conditioning Law of Effect Power of stimulus to evoke response is strengthened when response is followed by reward It is weakened when it is not followed by reward Psychology in Your Life How does classical conditioning affect cancer treatment? What did you learn from the example in your text? Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning Learning in which probability of response is changed by change in its consequences 9

10 Operant Chamber Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Contingency Consistent relationship between response and changes in environment that it produces Reinforcement Contingencies Reinforcer Reinforcement Any stimulus that when made contingent on behavior increases probability of that behavior over time Delivery of reinforcer following response 10

11 Reinforcement Contingencies Punisher Punishment Any stimulus that when made contingent on behavior decreases probability of that behavior over time Delivery of punisher following response Critical Thinking in Your Life When do time outs change children s behavior? Why must parents understand what their children find rewarding before they implement a time out? How might parents detect when their children are accepting time out to escape aversive tasks? Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Behavior is followed by delivery of appetitive stimulus Increases probability of that behavior Negative reinforcement Behavior is followed by removal of aversive stimulus Increases probability of that behavior 11

12 Positive and Negative Punishment Positive punishment Behavior is followed by delivery of aversive stimulus Decreases probability of that behavior Negative punishment Behavior is followed by removal of aversive stimulus Decreases probability of that behavior Reinforcement Contingencies Discriminative stimuli Stimuli that act as predictors of reinforcement or punishment Reinforcement Contingencies Using Reinforcement Contingencies How can you define the behavior that you would like to reinforce or eliminate? Have you unknowingly been reinforcing some behaviors? How can you define the contexts in which a behavior is appropriate or inappropriate? 12

13 Properties of Reinforcers Conditioned Reinforcers Probable activities as positive reinforcers Primary reinforcers Premack principle Token economies Schedules of Reinforcement Responses acquired under intermittent reinforcement are more difficult to extinguish than those acquired with continuous reinforcement Partial Reinforcement Effect Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule Variable-ratio (VR) schedule Fixed-interval (FI) schedule Variable-interval (VI) schedule 13

14 Shaping by Successive Approximations Reinforcement Schedules Shaping Reinforcing responses that successively approximate desired response Biological and Learning 14

15 Animal Cognition Cognitive Influences on Learning Cognitive maps Conceptual behavior Use of Cognitive Maps in Maze Learning Observational Learning 15

16 BoBo Doll Study Bandura s Research Imitation Modeling Recapping Chapter 6 Main Points The Study of Learning What Is Learning? Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Pavlov s Observation Processes of Conditioning Acquisition Application Recapping Chapter 6 Main Points Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences Law of Effect Experimental Analysis Reinforcement Contingencies Properties of Reinforcers Schedules of Reinforcement Shaping 16

17 Recapping Chapter 6 Main Points Biology and Learning Instinctual Drift Taste Aversion Cognitive Influences on Learning Animal Cognition Observational Learning 17

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