Influence of Regenerative Feed Water Heaters on the Operational Costs of Steam Power Plants and HP Plants

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1 Int. J. of Thermodynamcs ISSN Vol. 8 (No. 3), pp , September 2005 Influence of Regeneratve Feed Water Heaters on the Operatonal Costs of Steam Power Plants and HP Plants Jan Szargut Insttute of Thermal Technology Slesan Unversty of Technology Konarsego 22, Glwce, Poland E-mal: Abstract The nfluence of partcular regeneratve feed-water heaters on the operatonal costs of a steam power plant and HP plant has been determned by ans of the ncrental energy effcency expressng the rato of the ncrease of ectrcty producton to the ncrease of the consumpton of chemcal energy of fu, assumng a constant flow rate of steam at the outlet of the turbne (power plant) or a gven producton rate of useful heat (HP plant). Exemplary calculatons are ncluded. Keywords: Feed water heaters, operatonal cost 1. Introducton Regeneratve preheatng of feed water n steam power plants and HP plants by ans of the steam taen between the stages of the turbne s a specal case of the cogeneraton of heat and chancal wor, because the heat s dvered by a steam flux, whch has prevously perford so amount of wor (Drbal et al., 1995). The dvered heat remans, however, nsde the system. The attaned postve effects may be evaluated by ans of the nvestgaton of the nfluence of heat regeneraton on the producton of ectrcty and consumpton of fu. The nfluence of partcular bleeds may be separaty determned by ans of an ncrental effcency expressng the rato of the ncrease of the useful effect to the consumpton ncrease of the chemcal energy of fu, assumng a constant value of so parater P charactersng the process (Szargut, 1999). It s convenent to analyse n the consdered case the ncrental effcency of the ectrcty producton: E E η = (1) ch P= const The effect of the analyss depends on the secton of the constant parater P. In (Szargut, 2004) t has been assud a constant flux of fresh steam. Such an assumpton s not convenent when analysng the HP plant, because n that case the heat demand s gven. Therefore, n the case of the HP plants, t has been assud that the parater P expresses the gven heat demand. Smlarly, n the case of power plants, a constant value of the steam flux flowng out from the turbne to the condenser has been assud. The cted assumptons lead to a surprsngly smple soluton. Dfferent assumptons of the parater P lead to dfferent results n the analyss of operatonal costs. However, t should be stressed that ths analyss represents only the frst step n the economc analyss of the consdered technology. In the second step the analyss of the nfluence of regeneratve heatng of feed water on the nvestnt expendtures would be necessary. The components of the second step would also depend on the secton of the parater P. The sum of both ntoned effects should not depend on the secton of that parater. However, the analyss of the nfluence of the consdered technology on the nvestnt costs of a power or HP plant would be very dffcult, f altogether possble. The analyss of the operatonal costs gves so prmnary nformaton about the economc effects of the regeneratve heatng of water. The ntoned causes ndcate that the accepted assumptons should ensure a possbly smple form of the soluton. 2. Incrental Effcency n a Condensaton Power Plant The assumpton of a constant steam flux flowng to the condenser results n the followng addtonal producton of ectrcty after swtchng on an th bleed: Int. J. of Thermodynamcs, Vol. 8 (No. 3) 137

2 E& = η G& ( + + ) u (2) where η s the ectro-chancal effcency of the turboset, G & the steam flux taen from the th bleed,,, are the specfc enthalpes of the fresh steam and steam before and after the secondary superheater, and u s the specfc enthalpy of steam n the th bleed. Fgure1. Sche of steam power plant. The heat demand nsde the boler ncreases after swtchng on the regeneratve bleed. That ncrease equals the ncrease of the nternal power of the turbne f the condensate of the bleed steam does not flow to the man condenser. That concluson results from the energy balance of a system whose boundary runs along the external surfaces of the heated ents of the boler and encloses the nternal part of the turbne (except the places of chancal frcton), the man condenser and the regeneratve heaters. When the condensate of so bleed steam flows to the man condenser, the heat rejected n the man condenser ncreases and the sa ncrease of heat demand appears n the boler (Fgure 1). The ncrease of the demand for chemcal energy n the boler caused by swtchng on the regeneratve bleed may be expressed n ths case as follows: E & ch = G& ηe u + (3) o where η E s the energy effcency of the boler and,o are the specfc enthalpy of the condensate of the bleed steam flowng from the th heater to the man condenser and of the man condensate flowng out from the condenser. When the bleed steam s extracted before the secondary superheater, or that superheater does not appear n the consdered plant, t should be nserted n equatons (2) and (3) 2 = 3. The followng formula expressng the ncrental energy effcency of the addtonal producton of ectrcty after swtchng on an th regeneratve bleed results from equatons (2) and (3): ηeη η = (4) o The nurator of equaton (4) should be taen nto account only f the condensate of the bleed steam does not flow to the man condenser. 3. Economy of the Operatonal Costs The yearly economy of the operatonal costs due to the regeneratve preheatng of feed water comprses the nco K from the sale of addtonal amount of ectrcty and the expendture K F for the addtonal consumpton of fu: 2 3 Φ = K (5) K F Assumng a constant load of the power plant, the followng formula for the yearly nco from the addtonal sale of ectrcty due to the operaton of th heater may be appled: K = τ n E& u (6) 138 Int. J. of Thermodynamcs, Vol. 8 (No. 3)

3 where τ n s the annual utlsaton t of the consdered load and the specfc sale prce of the ectrcty. The yearly ncrease of the expendture for fu may be calculated by ans of the ncrental energy effcency: K F K F = (7) η where F s the specfc cost of the chemcal energy of fu. 4. Example 1 TABLE I contans the exemplary asurent results of a condensaton power plant wth a nomnal power of 360 MW (Rusnows et al., 2000). The followng data have been used n exemplary calculatons: energy effcency of the boler η E = 0.935, ectrochancal effcency of the turboset η = 0.97, specfc enthalpy of the fresh steam 1 = 3389 J/g, of the steam before the reheater 2 = 3017 J/g, after the reheater 3 = 3544 J/g, specfc enthalpy of the condensate flowng out from the frst (wth the lowest pressure) water heater 1 = J/g, enthalpy of the man condensate flowng out from the condenser = J/g. o The consdered plant has three water heaters n the low-pressure part, one between the low pressure and mddle pressure part, a degasfer operatng smultaneously as a mxng heater, one heater n the mddle-pressure part, one between the mddle-pressure and the hghpressure part and one n the hgh-pressure part. The bleed steam condensate from the frst heater flows to the man condenser, from heater 3 to heater 2, and from that heater to the man condensate ppne by ans of an auxlary pump. The bleed steam condensate from the heater 4 s dvered by ans of another pump to the man condensate ppne. The condensate of the bleed steam from the heaters 6 and 7 flows to the degasfer. The bleed 7 s located before the reheater. Only n that case t should be nserted n equaton (2), (3), (4): 2 = 3. In TABLE II the values of the yearly economy of the operatonal cost are cted, separaty for partcular heaters. The sale prce of ectrcty = 30 zl/gj and the purchase prce of the chemcal energy of coal F = 7 zl/gj has been assud (1 zl= 0.25 US$). The yearly utlsaton t of the nomnal power s = 7200 h/year. τ n 5. Effects Attaned n a HP Plant When analysng the HP plant, the condensaton stream and the bac-pressure stream should be consdered separaty. The condensaton stream should be treated smlarly as n the condensaton power plant. When consderng the bac pressure stream, a gven demand for useful heat should be assud. Therefore, the swtchng on of the regeneratve bleed causes only an ncrease n the nternal power of the turbne and the sa ncrease n the heat dvered to the worng flud n the boler. The ncrental energy effcency of the producton of ectrcty agan equals the product of the energy effcency of the boler and the ectro-chancal effcency of the turboset. When, however, the condensate of the bleed steam flows to the heat exchanger heatng the networ water, the flow rate n the fnal part of the turbne changes, and the ectrcty producton n that part becos smaller. A comparson of two energy balances of the boler (before and after swtchng the regeneratve heater, Fgure 2) results n the followng formula expressng the ncrease of the heat demand n the boler: ( G& g + G& )( 1 6 ) G& g ( 1 3 Q& = ) (8) From the condton of a constant heat producton t results: g ( 2 3 ) = G& g ( 2 3 ) + G& ( 5 3 G& ) (9) The energy balance of the regeneratve heater has a form: ( G g + G& )( 6 3 ) = G& ( 4 5 & ) (10) Equatons (9) and (10) enable us to mnate the quanttes G & g and G & g from equaton (8) after what t result 2 5 Q& = G& ( 1 3) ( 4 5 ) (11) 2 3 The fnal result expresses the addtonal producton of ectrcty: 6. Example 2 E & = η Q& (12) Accordng to the asurents and calculaton results cted n Rusnows et al. (2000), t has been assud 1 = = = = = J/g, G & = 16 t/h. From equaton (11) t results Q & = MW and E & = MW. The values of the economc ndces have been assud accordng to the secton Example 1. The yearly operaton t wth the assud load τ n = 2000 h/year (an value of so nterval of the duraton curve of load). From equatons (5) and (7) K = mln zl/year, K F = mln Int. J. of Thermodynamcs, Vol. 8 (No. 3) 139

4 zl/year. The yearly economy of the operatonal costs K op = mln zl/year. There appears an essental dfference between the thods of soluton of the problem n the case of a condensaton power plant and a steam HP plant. The condensaton power plant can operate at a stablzed load and then the calculaton s not dffcult. In a HP plant the load depends on the demand for useful heat. Therefore, not only does the flow rate of the outlet steam change, but also the flow rate of the bleed steam extracted to feed the pea water heater. The changes of the flow rate of steam cause a change of the pressure dstrbuton n the steam bleeds. The regeneratve bleeds are not regulated, and therefore, the flow rate of the regeneratve steam s determned by the condtons of heat transfer n the regeneratve heaters, manly by the steam temperature (dependng on pressure). The calculaton thod of the changes of pressure n the turbne bleeds has been presented n (Szargut,1999). It requres an aboraton of a mathematcal mod, tang nto account the duraton curve of heat demand. TABLE I. PARAMETERS OF THE BLADE STREAMS AND INCREMENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE ADDITIONAL PRODUCTION OF THE ELECTRICITY IN THE STEAM POWER PLANT. Heater number Pressure n the bleed, MPa Stream of the bleed steam, t/h Specfc enthalpy of steam, J/g Incrental energy effcency of the addtonal producton of ectrcty TABLE II. DECREASE OF THE OPERATIONAL COSTS OF THE TURBOSET DUE TO THE REGENERATIVE PREHEATING OF THE FEED WATER. Heater number Addtonal producton of ectrcty, PJ/year Addtonal consumpton of chemcal energy, PJ/year Addtonal nco from the ectrcty sale, mln zl/year Addtonal cost of fu, mln zl/year Economy of operatonal costs, mln zl/year Fgure 2. Sches of a steam HP plant. 7. Conclusons The nfluence of the regeneratve feed water heaters on the operatonal costs of a steam power plant or an HP plant can be determned by ans 140 Int. J. of Thermodynamcs, Vol. 8 (No. 3) of the ncrental energy effcency, wthout analysng the effcency of the total system. The presented thod proves a very hgh energy effcency of the regeneratve preheatng of the feed water. The effects are proportonal to the

5 amount of addtonally produced ectrcty. It can be ncreased by reducng the rreversblty of the feed water heaters (ncreasng ther amount and heat transfer area). The presented thod can be appled n condensaton steam power plants and also steam HP plants. In the second case, the use of the duraton curve of heat demand s necessary, along wth ts partton nto t ntervals and analysng the changes of pressure of the bleed steam due to the change of heat demand. The analyss of the nfluence of feed water heaters on nvestnt expendtures of the plant, would be more dffcult. When analysng the power plant the accepted assumpton of the parater P permts acceptance of a constant nvestnt cost of the condenser and water coolng system. The ncrease of the steam boler capacty and the change of ts operatng condtons should be taen nto account. The ntroducton of every regeneratve feedwater heater requres an ncrease of the combuston ar heater by ans of gaseous combuston products, whch ncreases the combuston temperature and the ntensty of NOx formaton. Hence, the ans for the reducton of ths formaton should be enhanced. The heght of the turbne blades n the turbne stages precedng the consdered water heater should be taen nto account. Ths effect mproves the nternal effcency of the turbne, because the ratve nterstage gap losses beco smaller. Addtonally the nvestnt costs of the water heaters and steam ppnes should be consdered. References Drbal L., Westra K. and Boston P., 1995, Power Plant Engneerng, Sprnger. Rusnows H., Szega M., Trojnar W., 2000, Control System of a Power Plant Turboset wth Applcaton of a Mathematcal Justfcaton, n the Power Plant Opole. Devopng of Algorthms and Codes (n Polsh). Report of nvestgatons. Instytut Techn Ceplnej Poltechn Sl,asej,Glwce Szargut J., 1999, Applcaton of Steam from Regeneratve Bleeds for the Producton of Networ Heat n Large Steam Power Plants. Archwum Energety, XXVIII, No. 1-2, pp Szargut J., 2004, Economc Effect of the Regeneratve Heatng of Feed Water n a Steam Power Plant (n Polsh). Energetya, No. 5, pp Nonclature E amount of energy, J G amount of the worng flud, g specfc enthalpy, J/g K cost of energy, zl specfc cost of energy, zl/g Q amount of heat, J ncrease G & flow rate of bleed steam effcency η effcency η ncrental energy effcency yearly utlzaton of the nomnal power τ n Subscrpts ch E F u O chemcal rated to energy rated to ectrcty fu order number of the bleed rated to boler or condensate ectro-chancal rated to bleed steam man condensate flow Int. J. of Thermodynamcs, Vol. 8 (No. 3) 141

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