Intro to the Beef Industry. Industry History and Background Economic Factors U.S. Imports and Exports Beef Price Cycles Beef Production in the U.S.

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1 Industry History

2 Intro to the Beef Industry Industry History and Background Economic Factors U.S. Imports and Exports Beef Price Cycles Beef Production in the U.S.

3 Industry History and Background 1400s 1500s 1600s 1700s 1800s Late 1800s Cattle reach Texas, California from Mexico Cattle industry emerging in Florida Cattle reach New England/ New York from England, Northern Europe Cattle business thriving; focused west Family owned/managed Produce 4-5 yr. old grass-fed steers; shipped by live train

4 19 th Century Chicago/Kansas City epicenter for sorting, distributing cattle via rail Packers/processors also at rail centers Refrigerated rail cars invented by G.F. Swift Larger packers operated regional shipping/distribution New York, Boston, Philadelphia

5 20 th Century Federal Meat Grading System, 1920s Federal Interstate Highway System, 1950s No longer dependent on railways From Carcass to Primal Cuts Boxed beef Led to vacuum packaging Led to block-ready, boneless, case-ready beef

6 Early 20 th Century Economic recession Beef demand falls Cattle numbers drop to historic levels Cattle and beef prices reach record high levels

7 Late 20 th Century From producer-driven to consumer-driven Beef demand in rapid decline War on Fat, 1990 Taste Fat vs. Waste Fat Revived interest in quality which helped rebuild demand

8 Variables Impacting Beef s Profitability +750,000 U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Average herd size million cattle (2012) Beef production 43.4 billion lbs. Gross income of cattle $52 billion total inventory value $110 billion $74 billion Total consumer expenditures

9 Economic Factors Affecting Supply and Demand Top exporters of beef Top U.S. export market Top US beef supplier

10 Imports The U.S. has 8% of the world s cattle and produces 21% of the world s beef The U.S. remains the largest importer of beef globally, buying 2.3 billion pounds in 2010 valued at $2.83 billion 80% of the beef imported into the U.S. comes from Canada, Australia and New Zealand; mainly lean grinding beef for fast food hamburgers

11 Exports The U.S. was the #3 exporter of beef in 2010, behind Brazil (#1) and Australia (#2) 2010 exports were 2.3 billion pounds valued at $3.53 billion The U.S. currently exports 10-11% of production Top export markets include: Mexico, South Korea, Japan and Canada (~70% of total beef exports) The U.S. exported beef to 146 countries in 2010

12 Typically peaks in spring and fall when middle meat demand is strongest and cattle supplies are lowest

13 Bulk of cows used for lean trimmings are marketed in the fall, resulting in lower prices Tighter supply + grilling demand support prices in spring/summer

14 Best prices during colder winter months (cooking methods) Increase in price due to new steak cuts (Flat Iron, Petite Tender, etc.)

15 Holiday celebrations and summer grilling increase demand and price

16 Higher prices in spring result of limited supply, especially for Choice

17 Similar to Chucks; peak during colder months Prices decline in summer due to increased supply + decreased demand

18 U.S. Beef Production Family owned/operated industry 80% in same family for 25+ years 10% in same family for 100+ years Cattle raised in all 50 states Various cattle breed types and crossbred cattle Adapt to various conditions

19 U.S. BEEF PRODUCTION At the Ranch Seedstock Producer, grassland based Purebred segment Genetic base for breeding stock Cow/Calf Producer, grassland based Combine genetic lines to best meet market demand (crossbreeding) Sells to stocker or feedlots Stocker Specialized segment Use grasslands as natural resource Sells to feedlots for grain-based finishing Feedlot Use higher energy diets to achieve rapid gains to create the world's highest-quality beef products

20 U.S. BEEF PRODUCTION From Packer to Market to Table Packers Harvest finished cattle Fabricate carcasses into subprimal cuts Sort and box beef Market to purveyors, processors Purveyors/ Processors Fabricate boxes of subprimal cuts Sell to foodservice operators, retailers Foodservice Operators/Retailers Present product to consumer

21 LABELING CLAIMS Branded Beef Products May be marked by product specifications or production standards May include such factors as: Specific breed influence Quality standards based on USDA grading Specific product characteristics

22 LABELING CLAIMS Natural Beef Not more than minimally processed Label must explain natural i.e., no added colorings or artificial ingredients

23 LABELING CLAIMS Certified Organic Cattle MUST: Be raised separately Have access to pasture, though many are feedlot finished Be fed 100% organically grown feed (grains and forage) Be treated when sick Cattle MAY: When treated with antibiotics, must be removed from program Be provided certain vitamin and mineral supplements Cattle MAY NOT: Be given antibiotics or enhancers for any reason (or must be removed from program)

24 LABELING CLAIMS Certified Organic Prohibited: Synthetic pesticides on pastures Sewage sludge for fertilization of feedstuffs Irradiation on beef products Producers must be certified through USDA s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

25 LABELING CLAIMS Grass-Finished Beef Feeding regimen for livestock raised on Grass, green or range pasture, forage Shall be 80% or more of the primary energy source throughout animal s life

26 Summary Single most sustainable, renewable form of agriculture that produces an amazingly nutrient-dense source of protein American beef industry dates back to 1500s Railroads, federal highways revolutionized industry Federal regulation began in 1920s Focus moved from producers to consumers in late 20 th century Tough to manage supply and demand for beef Industry is major contributor to U.S. economy U.S. a top importer and exporter of beef Beef cuts experience seasonal shifts in price/demand Specialty beef requires special labeling

27 Beef Industry History: QUIZ 1. The American beef industry raises cattle in how many states? A. 37 B. 3 C. All 50 D. 15

28 Beef Industry History: QUIZ 2. What percentage of the American beef industry s farms and ranches have been family-owned and/or operated for at least 25 years? A. 90% B. 10% C.80% D.None 3. True or false: U.S. feedlots use higher-energy diets to achieve the rapid gains that create the world s highestquality beef products.

29 Beef Industry History: QUIZ 4. Who fabricates carcasses into subprimal cuts? A. Stocker B. Seedstock producer C.Packer D.Purveyor/processor 5. True or false: Natural beef can be processed to a considerable extent.

30 Beef Industry History: QUIZ 6. Which is not true of certified-organic beef? A. Cattle may be given vitamin or mineral supplements B. Cattle may receive antibiotics to treat illness C.Cattle may be feedlot-finished D.Cattle must be fed 100% organically grown feed

31 Beef Industry History: QUIZ 7. For beef to be labeled grass-finished, at least what percentage of the cattle s primary lifetime energy source must be grass, green or range pasture or forage? A. 100% B. 50% C.60% D.80%

32 Beef Industry History: QUIZ KEY 1. C. All 50 (See slide 18) 2. A. 90% (See slide 18) 3. True (See slide 19) 4. C. Packer (See slide 20) 5. False (See slide 22) 6. B. Cattle may receive antibiotics to treat illness (See slide 23) 7. D. 80% (See slide 25)

33 Resources FactsAboutBeef.com Beef industry statistics Beef Industry Social Responsibility Report px About Beef Production Choices of Beef fact sheet sofbeef_final_web.pdf

34 Resources USDA Agricultural Marketing Service Standardization and Technology Division Meat Certification Services tificationservices USDA Claims Guidance USDA Labeling Procedures

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