Memory and its Learning Implications

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Memory and its Learning Implications"

Transcription

1 Memory and its Learning Implications Asociación Educar Presented by: Catalina Norato Tutor: Denise Toiw Country: Bogotá, Colombia Living things exist in a world where conditions, behaviors, relations and many more actions have to be learned in order to survive. If we come back to the prehistoric years, we could understand how primitive species defended their territory, food and closest members as a natural and instinctive behavior. These survival actions were at some point, genetically transferred to the next generations, but they were also learned by imitation. All that knowledge has been stored in the human and animal s mind and has been modified along the years. Memory is one of the best tools we have to learn something new. However, it has been quite complex to understand how it works, where in the brain it is located and how we can take advantage of it in different situations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the functioning of the memory in our brain and how this affects living things behaviors and learning process. Different studies will be described in order to support the previous statement. First of all, it is necessary to give a good definition of what memory is. It is defined as a group of neurons that get together in order to form a hebbian engrams. According to the type of information we learn, a certain neurons join. That is why, we have thousands of hebbian engrams, each one storing a specific knowledge. Types of Memory Considering the fact that the input information we get comes from different sources, it also enters to our brain in a different way and therefore, it is stored differently. Therefore, it is relevant to study how memory is classified and how sensory inputs are analyzed in our whole body. Image 1.0 shows the different types of memories and gives a short description of each one of them.

2 Image 1.0 MEMORY Long-term Memory Short term- Memory Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) WHAT-information Facts and information acquired through learning. We can declare or state what we know to others. HOW - Skill Perceptions or motor procedures. It is shown to others by performance. Semantic Episodic Abilities Riding a bike. Generalized: Knowing something without remembering when or where it was learned. Autobiographical (Emotions: We remember an event in a particular time and place. These actions need motor coordination. Conditioning Salivating when you see a chocolate cake. Relating a stimulus with a specific reaction Priming Exposure to a stimulus facilitates subsequent responses to the same or similar stimulus NLP exercises Associating the yellow color with a banana

3 MEMORY Short term- Memory Working Memory Visual This memory gets the information from images. Iconic Sensitive (Perception) It helps us perform actions and do mental operations. It also helps us to create consciousness. Echoic Additive The person received sensory information and he retains it to understand what someone else says. General Information Input Model The incoming information that we get from the environment enters to our body through different senses (vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch). Once it is inside, the brain encodes it; this means that more or less neural engrams are formed. At the same time, these neural engrams define if the new knowledge will stay in the short-term memory or in the long-term memory. In image it is shown how after the information is encoded, goes to the short-term storage. If it is relevant to us, our brain will consolidate and pass it to the long-term memory; but if it is not we will get rid of it. On the other hand, the information that gets to pass to the long-term memory, stays temporarily in the working memory as well as some of the inputs that are not thrown away from the short-term memory. The information that gets to this point is used by people in their daily life. Finally, the retrieval process happens when we actually perform any action and we get to use the information stored in our brains. Image 1.1

4 Memory Disorders First of all, it is important to understand the difference between anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia is defined as an inability to form new memories following brain damage. Retrograde amnesia occurs when patients lose the ability to retrieve memories of events prior to brain damage. One of the most studied patients in history was H.M. who lose his memory after a surgery. Patient H.M H.M. suffered from epilepsy and when he was 20 years old, he had a surgery in which doctors took out part of his hippocampus. It is important to remember that the hippocampus helps people create memories and retain them. This patient lesion didn t allow H.M. to form new memories (anterograde memory). However, this implicit/working memory was not altered. Image 1.2 (a) shows how H.M. was able to trace a star by looking at its reflection in the mirror. In part B we can see how H.M. s performance improved when he repeater the action over and over again (priming). However, he didn t remember he had done it. Image 1.2 Super Memories Image 1.3 Jill Price wrote a book called The Woman who can t forget. She can remember what happened in every day of the year. Alexander Luria (in the picture), wrote the book The mind of a Mnemodist: A little book about a vast memory. In this book he described the story of Solomon Sheresshevskii who also had a perfect

5 memory. In the other hand, George Finn has an IQ lower than a 100 but he has an excellent mental calendar. He can also remember the day he met a person, what he was wearing and how the weather was like. He can also recognize people because of their odor. Kim Peek learned all the zip codes of the United States and he could tell a complete book after reading it. Brad Williams suffered from the syndrome hyperthymesia and he can remember every day of his life. Finally, Rick Baron had a perfect autobiographical memory, he could say the exact day of someone s death. Memory and Neurology Talking about the long term memory, the hippocampus (image 1.4) allows to encode and to recover memories. At the same time it also has neural connections with the cerebral cortex (one of the areas where long-term memory is stored). Each pattern of neurons form a memory in our brain (image 1.5). Image 1.4 Image 1.5 Image 1.6 In a research done in order to analyze the semantic and episodic memory, a group of people was asked to listen to personal stories (episodic memory). In image 1.6 (a) My Story, it is shown how this type of story activated the right temporal lobe and the frontal cortex (association cortex). While

6 people from the other group was asked to listen to stories of other people (semantic condition). In image 1.6 (b) Your Story, it is shown how the stories just activated the temporal lobe. Image 1.7 Molecules Researchers Todd Sacktor and Yadin Dudai (2011), investigated a molecule that can maintenance the long-term memory. They conditioned rats to associate a taste with a sick feeling. The rats encoded the memory in their brains. In order to change the rat s memories, the researchers trained the rats to associate certain foods with bellyaches, they they injected a nonillness-inducing virus called PKMzeta (Image 1.7, in red). The increase of this enzyme in the rats, enhanced their ability to remember, and in the contrary, the mutant form would block the memory. Image 1.7 Talking about the short-term memory, lesions in the prefrontal cortex (image 1.7) alter how the working memory works. Piaget described that little children don t have the working memory very well developed, so if an adult hides them an object and the child sees where he put it, but a few seconds later the child looks in a different direction, he would forget where the object is. That is the reason why little children show less prefrontal cortex activation. Regarding structural changes, there isn t any change when we store new information in the short-term memory but there are important ones in the long-term memory. As we can see in image 1.8, when new memories are stored for a long period of time, the neurons produce new receptors and new dendrites. In the other hand, the short-term memory just involves neurotransmitters but not a structural change in the neuron. Image 1.8

7 Conditioning Image 1.9 One of the most important researchers about memory and conditioning is Ivan Pavlov (see image 1.9). In his conditioning reflex research, he attached tubes to dog s saliva glands to see the amount of saliva that was produced. First he made a bell sound with no response then, he showed the same bell and food, obtaining saliva (conditioning). Finally, when the dog heard the bell, it would immediately produce saliva. Conditioning it s a type of memory that the more it is repeated, the stronger the neural connections get and the more we get used to the response. Long-term Potentiation (LTP): Long-term potentiation occurs when connections between two neurons become stronger. Certain neurotransmitters are released from one neuron to the other and this determines how strong the connections can be. Therefore, this can be one way of learning, the stronger the connections, the longer the knowledge will be stored. Image 1.10 shows how in an initial state the dendrites are releasing certain amount of neurotransmitters and due to repeated stimulation for a certain period of time, there is more release of neurotransmitters which causes the Hebbian engram to be stronger. Image 1.10

8 Cortical Areas and Memory The occipital lobe is in charge of visual processing. People remember things and events because they stored an image in their brain about the specific situation. When we think about what we learned, we can see the image in our head and our visual cortex activates (visual memory). Talking about the parietal lobe, its main functions are somatosensory perception and attention. Somatosensory perception has to do with our five senses. The parietal lobe receives the inputs from the senses and some of this inputs become knowledge for us. The temporal lobe areas more involved in memory are adjacent to the hippocampus and they are called medial temporal cortex. These areas are in charge of encoding new information but not in storing it. Damage to the medial temporal lobe causes amnesia. The frontal lobes cover functions such as initiating memory (starting the conscious process of remembering). They also are in charge of source monitoring, that is determining from which source a certain input/memory comes. Source monitoring means being able to distinguish if a memory is a personally experienced event or something someone told us. It also includes the difference between fact and imagination. Conclusion In summary, we can say that memory plays such a big role in our daily lives. Everything that happens to us is stored in our brain, either for a short period of time or for a long one. Even though, this paper just shows a brief overview of the topic, we are able to understand how different the information that we get is and how it is analyzed and encoded. We are also conscious of how environmental, sensitive and many more factors determines if the new input will be used just for a moment or not. In the other hand, the new findings tell us that there is a prominent future to learn more about the memory and how some of its deficits could be managed by means of new drugs or molecules. In the same way, research can reveal new ways of learning and of making the new knowledge stronger which at the same time may cause a big change in the methodology that teachers use in class and how they approach their students and present the information.

9 References Alonso, S. (2010). Memoria y Aprendizaje. Aprendizaje, Memoria, Plasticidad Nerviosa XI, clase 1,2, 3,4 segundo año. Asociación Educar. Neurosicoeducación Online Brain and Memory. Taken from: Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., Jessell, T., (2000). Principles of Neural Science. Long-Term Potentiation. Taken from: Pavlov s Classic Conditioning. Taken from: Welsh, J., (2011), A New Molecule for Memory: It Can Enhance or Erase. Taken from:

This Lecture: Psychology of Memory and Brain Areas Involved. 3) Brain Areas Involved in Implicit Memory: Classical Conditioning

This Lecture: Psychology of Memory and Brain Areas Involved. 3) Brain Areas Involved in Implicit Memory: Classical Conditioning Lecture 18 (Nov 24 th ): LEARNING & MEMORY #1 Lecture Outline This Lecture: Psychology of Memory and Brain Areas Involved Next lecture: Neural Mechanisms for Memory 1) Psychology of Memory: Short Term

More information

Intellectual functions of the brain: Learning, Memory and higher order functions

Intellectual functions of the brain: Learning, Memory and higher order functions Intellectual functions of the brain: Learning, Memory and higher order functions Sinan Canan,PhD sinancanan@gmail.com www.sinancanan.net Learning&Memory Learning: Neural mechanisms that modifes behavior

More information

LEARNING AND MEMORY. Chapter 11

LEARNING AND MEMORY. Chapter 11 LEARNING AND MEMORY Chapter 11 Learning and Memory Learning How experience changes the brain Memory How changes are stored and subsequently reactivated Memories are stored in specific structures, not diffusely

More information

LEARNING AND MEMORY. Chapter 11

LEARNING AND MEMORY. Chapter 11 LEARNING AND MEMORY Chapter 11 Learning and Memory Learning and Memory You cannot have learning without memory, vice versa Learning Studies Studied with classical or operant conditioning, rats in lab Memory

More information

Memory: The Long and Short of It

Memory: The Long and Short of It Memory: The Long and Short of It Memory s Beginnings Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Encoding Converting information into a form that can be entered into memory Storage Retaining information over varying

More information

Early Proposal. The Biopsychology of Memory. Early Research (1920) Neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield. Early Research 4/29/2013

Early Proposal. The Biopsychology of Memory. Early Research (1920) Neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield. Early Research 4/29/2013 Early Proposal The Biopsychology of Memory Module 13.1 Different methodologies have been used to try to figure out what regions of the brain are involved in memory functions. Pavlov learning (such as classical

More information

Memory Disorders. - examples: mirror drawing, playing piano, riding a bicycle.

Memory Disorders. - examples: mirror drawing, playing piano, riding a bicycle. I. Types of memory: A. Declarative memory: Memory Disorders 1. Episodic: memory for time and places. 2. Semantic: memory for facts and knowledge (language, numbers, etc). B. Procedural memory: - examples:

More information

Biology of Learning and Memory

Biology of Learning and Memory Biology of Learning and Memory What is your self? Your memory of your past experiences, friends and relatives, goals. Memory is critical for our sense of who we are. What is memory? How do we learn? Learning

More information

Brain Structures That are Involved with Memory

Brain Structures That are Involved with Memory Early Theories of Brain Structures That are Involved with Psychology 372 Sensation Sensory Attention Rehearsal STM Storage Retrieval Physiological Psychology Steven E. Meier, Ph.D. Listen to the audio

More information

I. Introduction: What Is Memory? Memory refers to the mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time. Memory involves three

I. Introduction: What Is Memory? Memory refers to the mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time. Memory involves three I. Introduction: What Is Memory? Memory refers to the mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time. Memory involves three fundamental processes: 1. Encoding is the process of

More information

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today?

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Human Neuroanatomy Grades 9-12 Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe the basic parts and

More information

Pamela L. Washbourne, MS, CCC-SLP Program Director, Neurologic Rehabilitation Institut

Pamela L. Washbourne, MS, CCC-SLP Program Director, Neurologic Rehabilitation Institut Pamela L. Washbourne, MS, CCC-SLP Program Director, Neurologic Rehabilitation Institut To begin Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is becoming a common occurrence, with nearly 400,000 new injuries per year.

More information

Learning Styles and Memory

Learning Styles and Memory Learning Styles and Memory Sandra E. Davis Auburn University Abstract The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between learning styles and memory. Two learning styles were addressed in

More information

Distinguishing LTM and STM

Distinguishing LTM and STM Long-Term Memory: Structure Dr. Claudia J. Stanny Director Center for University Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Associate Professor School of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences EXP 4507 Spring 2012

More information

Chapter 7: Memory. Memory

Chapter 7: Memory. Memory Chapter 7: Memory Case Study: H.M. and His Missing Memories Section 1: Memory Classifications and Processes Section 2: Three Stages of Memory Section 3: Forgetting and Memory Improvement Experiment: Applying

More information

Craig E. Geis, M.B.A., Management; M.S. Psychology 1831 Quail Court Saint Helena, CA Phone:

Craig E. Geis, M.B.A., Management; M.S. Psychology 1831 Quail Court Saint Helena, CA Phone: The Physiology of Memory Craig E. Geis, M.B.A., Management; M.S. Psychology 1831 Quail Court Saint Helena, CA 94574 Phone: 707-968-5109 craiggeis@cti-home.com Physiology of Memory Neurons are the basic

More information

It s All in the Brain!

It s All in the Brain! It s All in the Brain! Presented by: Mari Hubig, M.Ed. 0-3 Outreach Coordinator Educational Resource Center on Deafness What is the Brain? The brain is a muscle In order to grow and flourish, the brain

More information

Brain and Memory. By: Pamela L. Washbourne

Brain and Memory. By: Pamela L. Washbourne Brain and Memory By: Pamela L. Washbourne Neurocognitive Networks Recent advances in basic and cognitive neurosciences now allow a more detailed analysis of networks Memory and Learning can be dissociated

More information

STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorists to explain human behavior.

STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorists to explain human behavior. PS1050i NAU Introduction to Psychology Student Study Guide Chapter 7 & 10 Week Seven Page 1 CHAPTER SEVEN: Learning and Conditioning STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify the two types of conditioning

More information

Sec 1: Taking in and Storing Information

Sec 1: Taking in and Storing Information Chapter 10 Memory and Thought Sec 1: Taking in and Storing Information Memory input, storage, and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced 1. Encoding transforming of information so the nervous

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning Module 9 Classical Conditioning THREE KINDS OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced

More information

Long-term Memory vs. Short-term Memory

Long-term Memory vs. Short-term Memory Long-term Memory vs. Short-term Memory Chapter 6 Learning Objective Topics Divisions of LTM Are LTM and STM two separate processes? How do we get information from STM into LTM? l Modal Model l Levels of

More information

Episodic and Semantic Memory

Episodic and Semantic Memory Episodic and Semantic Memory Division of LTM LTM distinctions What are the major LTM distinctions? STM vs. LTM Explicit vs. Implicit Declarative vs. non-declarative Conscious vs not conscious Episodic

More information

9. Which is not part of the three-stage model of memory? a. Sensory memory b. Parallel memory c. Short-term memory d.

9. Which is not part of the three-stage model of memory? a. Sensory memory b. Parallel memory c. Short-term memory d. Memory 1. According to the traditional three-stage memory mode, the order in which information is stored in memory is a. short-term memory, long-term memory, sensory memory. b. sensory memory, short-term

More information

The Brain: Structure. Brain Structure. Brain Divisions 1/2/11

The Brain: Structure. Brain Structure. Brain Divisions 1/2/11 The Brain: Structure Brain structure evolved over millions of years Divided into sections Each section built upon the others Brain Structure Brain Divisions Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain 1 Hindbrain Components

More information

Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience Exploring Brain/Behavior relations Neuroscience Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience Computational Sciences / Artificial intelligence Franz Joseph Gall & J. C. Spurzheim localization

More information

Three Day Agenda. Day 1: Brain Basics Day 2: Prediction Day 3: Postponement & Preparation

Three Day Agenda. Day 1: Brain Basics Day 2: Prediction Day 3: Postponement & Preparation Three Day Agenda Day 1: Brain Basics Day 2: Prediction Day 3: Postponement & Preparation I. Types of memory A. Declarative B. Nondeclarative Class Agenda II. Postponement A. Exercise B. Socially active

More information

Introduction. Resources. Suggested answers. Science explanations

Introduction. Resources. Suggested answers. Science explanations Teacher Notes Introduction This activity gives students practice in recognising that different parts of the brain have different functions. They are given a set of short case studies of people with brain

More information

Chapter 7: Long-term memory systems

Chapter 7: Long-term memory systems Chapter 7: Long-term memory systems We have an amazing variety of information stored away in long-term memory. For example, long-term memory can contain details of our last summer holiday, the fact that

More information

MEMORY MODULE A Training Module for Parents and Educators of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury.

MEMORY MODULE A Training Module for Parents and Educators of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury. MEMORY MODULE A Training Module for Parents and Educators of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury. Funded by an IDEA Discretionary Grant #2007-9911-22 Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (http://www.dpi.wi.gov)

More information

MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE (THE LIMBIC SYSTEM)

MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE (THE LIMBIC SYSTEM) MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE (THE LIMBIC SYSTEM) On the medial surface of the temporal lobe are three structures critical for normal human functioning. From rostral to caudal, they are the olfactory cortex, the

More information

Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory SMITMC05_0131825089.QXD 3/29/06 12:49 AM Page 192 CHAPTER 5 Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory 1. The Nature of Long-Term Memory 1.1. The Forms of Long-Term Memory 1.2. The Power of Memory: The

More information

Introduction to Psychology Memory Quiz

Introduction to Psychology Memory Quiz 1 ) Psychologists have found that memory is WORST for A) information which we focused our attention on. B) information in which we are interested. C) emotionally arousing information. D) information that

More information

Memory booklet. RDaSH. Occupational therapy. Doncaster Community Integrated Services

Memory booklet. RDaSH. Occupational therapy. Doncaster Community Integrated Services Memory booklet Occupational therapy RDaSH Doncaster Community Integrated Services Contents Introduction 3 What is memory? 3 The memory process 4 Different types of memory 4 Everyday difficulties 5 Memory

More information

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below:

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below: The nervous system consists of three parts: the Brain, the Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Brain is the command center, the Central Nervous System is the brain and the spinal

More information

Chapter 6. Memory Outline

Chapter 6. Memory Outline Chapter 6 Memory Outline I. Memory As Information Processing A. Memory is a set of systems involved in the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of information. B. Using one s memory involves three interrelated

More information

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions

More information

Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, 2010

Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, 2010 Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, 2010 *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which

More information

Vision: Receptors. Modes of Perception. Vision: Summary 9/28/2012. How do we perceive our environment? Sensation and Perception Terminology

Vision: Receptors. Modes of Perception. Vision: Summary 9/28/2012. How do we perceive our environment? Sensation and Perception Terminology How do we perceive our environment? Complex stimuli are broken into individual features, relayed to the CNS, then reassembled as our perception Sensation and Perception Terminology Stimulus: physical agent

More information

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department B6 Brain & Mind B6 Key Questions How do animals respond to changes in their environment? How is information passed through the nervous system? What can we learn through conditioning? How do humans develop

More information

Homework #1: Multiple choice:

Homework #1: Multiple choice: Homework #1: Multiple choice: 1. Which of the following statements about the expression of genes in the nervous system is true? a. Every gene in the human genome is expressed in the CNS. b. There are tens

More information

The Everyday Science of Your Brain

The Everyday Science of Your Brain 1 6-8 Lesson Plan The Everyday Science of Your Brain Lesson Overview: In this lesson, students will learn which parts of their brain help them learn and remember. They will learn the science behind short-

More information

HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM Class X Episode 5 A. P State HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM The human nervous system can be divided into three parts or systems. They are: 1) The Central Nervous System or C N S 2) The Peripheral nervous System

More information

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Course Outline Lecture 1: Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain

More information

Long-term Memory: Explicit & Implicit memory

Long-term Memory: Explicit & Implicit memory Long-term Memory: Explicit & Implicit memory Read these non-famous names l Valerie Marsh l Sebastian Weisdorf l Linda Whalen l Adrian Marr l Lucca Richards l Daniel Tucker l Harold Evans l Kylie Shea l

More information

Storing the information into Long Term Memory and Its impacts on Learning Mathematics. Abstract

Storing the information into Long Term Memory and Its impacts on Learning Mathematics. Abstract Oleh :Fitriati Dosen Pendidikan Matematika STKIP Bina Bangsa Getsempena E-Mail : fitri_kindy@yahoo.com Storing the information into Long Term Memory and Its impacts on Learning Mathematics Abstract Memory

More information

Written Assignment 2. Chapters Covering Learning and Memory. Corresponds with Exam 2

Written Assignment 2. Chapters Covering Learning and Memory. Corresponds with Exam 2 Written Assignment 2 Chapters Covering Learning and Memory Corresponds with Exam 2 In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSYC 2301 Introduction to Psychology Houston Community College Professor:

More information

Core Concept: Neurons are connected to form pathways that result in reflex responses, conscious sensation, voluntary movement, and memory.

Core Concept: Neurons are connected to form pathways that result in reflex responses, conscious sensation, voluntary movement, and memory. Hand on a Hot Stove Core Concept: Neurons are connected to form pathways that result in reflex responses, conscious sensation, voluntary movement, and memory. Class time required: Approximately 2 forty

More information

Exercise. Rule #1 Exercise boosts brain power.

Exercise. Rule #1 Exercise boosts brain power. Exercise Rule #1 Exercise boosts brain power. Our brains were built for walking 12 miles a day! To improve your thinking skills, move. Exercise gets blood to your brain, bringing it glucose for energy

More information

CEN Outreach Lesson Plan Updated March Neuroanatomy. Grades 6-12

CEN Outreach Lesson Plan Updated March Neuroanatomy. Grades 6-12 Neuroanatomy Grades 6-12 Driving Question: In what ways do parts of the brain and body work together in order to maintain homeostasis? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe how neurons differ from

More information

Homework Help Stroke

Homework Help Stroke The Brain & Strokes Your brain is the most complex organ in your body. It is the command centre for everything you do, think, sense and say! It has over 100 billion special nerve cells called neurons.

More information

Learning with Your Brain. Teaching With the Brain in Mind

Learning with Your Brain. Teaching With the Brain in Mind Learning with Your Brain Should what (and how) we teach be associated with what we know about the brain and the nervous system? Jonathan Karp, Ph.D. Dept of Biology 5/20/2004 Teaching With the Brain in

More information

MEMORY TEST. Princeton Review. Kaplan

MEMORY TEST. Princeton Review. Kaplan MEMORY TEST Princeton Review 1. The main difference between auditory and visual sensory memory is that (A) Visual memory dominates auditory memory (B) Visual sensory memory lasts for a shorter period of

More information

The Parietal Lobes. Functions of the Parietal Lobes

The Parietal Lobes. Functions of the Parietal Lobes The Parietal Lobes Functions of the Parietal Lobes The Parietal Lobes develop at about the age of 5 years. They function to give the individual perspective and to help them understand space, touch, and

More information

Function (& other notes)

Function (& other notes) LAB 8. ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN BRAIN In this exercise you each will map the human brain both anatomy and function so that you can develop a more accurate picture of what s going on in your head :-) EXTERNAL

More information

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 6- The First Two Years: Cognitive Development PowerPoint Slides developed by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech

More information

Part 1: Don t get testy!

Part 1: Don t get testy! Number of Students Part 1: Don t get testy! Introduction: Ms. Smith, the high school English Language Arts teacher, made a graph of the exam scores from a recent test she gave her 27 students as she always

More information

Neuroimaging Studies of Memory John Jonides Tor D. Wager David T. Badre. University of Michigan

Neuroimaging Studies of Memory John Jonides Tor D. Wager David T. Badre. University of Michigan Neuroimaging Studies of Memory John Jonides Tor D. Wager David T. Badre University of Michigan Address correspondence to: Dr. John Jonides Department of Psychology University of Michigan 525 E. University

More information

62 Learning and Memory

62 Learning and Memory Back 62 Learning and Memory Eric R. Kandel Irving Kupfermann Susan Iversen BEHAVIOR IS THE RESULT OF the interaction between genes and the environment. In earlier chapters we saw how genes influence behavior.

More information

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d.

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d. Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer: A difficulty: 1 factual

More information

Memories Outside of Awareness: Conditioning, Skill Learning & Priming. July 8, 2015 Karen LaRocque

Memories Outside of Awareness: Conditioning, Skill Learning & Priming. July 8, 2015 Karen LaRocque Memories Outside of Awareness: Conditioning, Skill Learning & Priming July 8, 2015 Karen LaRocque Announcements Midterm is Wednesday, July 22nd in class Additional conditioning materials are posted on

More information

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Permanent Experience Practice Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Father= Village Priest Father-in-law=

More information

Electrical Signals of Memory and of the Awareness of Remembering Ken A. Paller

Electrical Signals of Memory and of the Awareness of Remembering Ken A. Paller CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Electrical Signals of Memory and of the Awareness of Remembering Ken A. Paller Northwestern University ABSTRACT Learning factual information and accurately remembering

More information

Lecture One: Brain Basics

Lecture One: Brain Basics Lecture One: Brain Basics Brain Fractured Femur Bone Spinal Cord 1 How does pain get from here to here 2 How does the brain work? Every cell in your body is wired to send a signal to your brain The brain

More information

SMART Program. Discussion Paper 3 Exploring the impact of abuse related trauma on memory functioning of children

SMART Program. Discussion Paper 3 Exploring the impact of abuse related trauma on memory functioning of children SMART Program Discussion Paper 3 Exploring the impact of abuse related trauma on memory functioning of children Introduction The purpose of this discussion paper is to explore the specific impact of trauma

More information

Memory CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER OUTLINE

Memory CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 6 Memory CHAPTER OUTLINE Memory retains the things that organisms learn. Like perception, memory is selective some things are retained; others are not. I. THE NATURE OF MEMORY How does information

More information

Dementia Awareness Introduction Dementia Awareness 1

Dementia Awareness Introduction Dementia Awareness 1 Introduction Dementia Awareness 1 These learning resources and assessment questions have been approved and endorsed by NCFE. Disclaimer: All references to individuals, groups and companies contained within

More information

Bedside cognitive examination beyond the MMSE. Dr Richard Perry Dept of Neurosciences Imperial College

Bedside cognitive examination beyond the MMSE. Dr Richard Perry Dept of Neurosciences Imperial College Bedside cognitive examination beyond the MMSE Dr Richard Perry Dept of Neurosciences Imperial College Overview Initial observations Cognitive rating scales Assessing cognitive domains Memory Language Visuospatial

More information

Memory. Paradox of Memory 1/8/2012. The retention of information over time

Memory. Paradox of Memory 1/8/2012. The retention of information over time Chapter Seven Memory Memory The retention of information over time Our memories are surprisingly good in some situations, and surprisingly bad in others The paradox of memory Paradox of Memory The same

More information

Memory. Robert L. Randall, PhD

Memory. Robert L. Randall, PhD Memory Robert L. Randall, PhD 1 Long-Term Memory 2 Long-term Memory Long-term Memory LTM refers to storage of info over extended period of time. Technically, info stored longer than approximate 20 S considered

More information

Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology. Elaine M. Hull, PhD, Florida State University

Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology. Elaine M. Hull, PhD, Florida State University Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology Elaine M. Hull, PhD, Florida State University What is the soul? I grew up in a very conservative Christian family and believed in the soul, which would outlive our

More information

Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology. Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior)

Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology. Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior) Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior) Pavlov & Watson s Classical (Reflexive) Conditioning Definition:

More information

31.1 The Neuron. BUILD Vocabulary. Lesson Objectives

31.1 The Neuron. BUILD Vocabulary. Lesson Objectives Name Class Date 31.1 The Neuron Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the nervous system. Describe the function of neurons. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted. BUILD Vocabulary A. The chart

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Part 1: What are the parts of a nerve cell? 1. Read the information in the Biology Brief: Neurons. As you read, circle the names of the structures (parts) of the neuron. 2. Obtain

More information

The Effects of Stress on Short-Term and Long- Term Memory

The Effects of Stress on Short-Term and Long- Term Memory University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects University of Tennessee Honors Program 12-2010 The Effects of Stress on

More information

Adolescents, brain development and alcohol. Paul Dillon Drug and Alcohol Research and Training Australia

Adolescents, brain development and alcohol. Paul Dillon Drug and Alcohol Research and Training Australia Adolescents, brain development and alcohol Paul Dillon Drug and Alcohol Research and Training Australia The brain We are learning more about the brain all the time weighs 1300-1400 grams approximately

More information

Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths

Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths Research Journal of Educational Sciences ISSN 2321-0508 Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths Abstract

More information

MEMORY AND COGNITION

MEMORY AND COGNITION 947 Memory and Cognition MEMORY AND COGNITION Your knowledge in this Neuroscience course should be closely related to the Neurological Exam. In the Mini Mental part this exam you will ask the patient if

More information

Epilepsy and Neuropsychology Dr. Sare Akdag, RPsych

Epilepsy and Neuropsychology Dr. Sare Akdag, RPsych Epilepsy and Neuropsychology Dr. Sare Akdag, RPsych Most people living with epilepsy do not experience serious problems with their thinking. However, there are aspects of thinking that can be affected

More information

Cognitive Neuroscience Sensation and Perception

Cognitive Neuroscience Sensation and Perception Cognitive Neuroscience Sensation and Perception A guiding principle for understanding sensation and perception: the connectional hierarchy in neocortex provides a structural basis for the hierarchical

More information

LESSON 4: BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

LESSON 4: BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LESSON 4: BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION THE TRIUNE BRAIN Neo? axon brain stem cerebral hemispheres cortex dendrite limbic system neural plasticity neurons neurotransmitter sensory flooding sensory gating

More information

Psychology Unit 5 Test

Psychology Unit 5 Test Psychology Unit 5 Test 1 Choose the best answer. (2 pts each). Psychology Unit 5 Test 1. Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System NAME PERIOD MY TEST DATE: STUDY GUIDE UNIT 9 The Human Body NERVOUS SYSTEM TEST FORMAT: 10 Fill-Ins (using word bank) 20 Multiple choice DIAGRAMS: Neuron Brain DIAGRAMS + OPEN RESPONSE: Label the diagram

More information

Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far John T. Bruer. Key Concept: the Human Brain and Learning

Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far John T. Bruer. Key Concept: the Human Brain and Learning Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far John T. Bruer Key Concept: the Human Brain and Learning John T. Bruer Scholar in cognitivist approaches to human learning and instruction. His argument refers

More information

2 Neurons. 4 The Brain: Cortex

2 Neurons. 4 The Brain: Cortex 1 Neuroscience 2 Neurons output integration axon cell body, membrane potential Frontal planning control auditory episodes soma motor Temporal Parietal action language objects space vision Occipital inputs

More information

K N O W Y O U R. Brain B rbasics

K N O W Y O U R. Brain B rbasics K N O W Y O U R B R A I N Brain B rbasics a i n B a s i c s Introduction The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This threepound organ is the seat of intelligence, interpreter of the senses,

More information

Autism and the Brain

Autism and the Brain Autism and the Brain Jill Bailer and Barbara Behnke Jane Long Middle School, Houston, Texas, and Winamac High School, Winamac, Indiana In collaboration with Julia Whitney 1 and Celene Mulholland 2 1 Battelle

More information

Stages of Memory stages of memory Perception Perception Sensory Memory Sensory memory

Stages of Memory stages of memory Perception Perception Sensory Memory Sensory memory Stages of Memory The following text borrows extensively from Wikipedia, which offers a helpful synopsis of stages of memory. Perception Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization,

More information

The Brain of a Normal Human

The Brain of a Normal Human The Brain of a Normal Human Your Brain Evolved Over Time Human Brain Logic and reasoning Mammalian Brain More complex feelings and reactions Lizard Brain Basic functions The Brain Stem or Hindbrain (The

More information

Neuropharmacology and Addiction-Related Behavior Page 1 of 8

Neuropharmacology and Addiction-Related Behavior Page 1 of 8 Tribal Law and Policy Institute: 5th Annual Tribal Healing to Wellness Court Enhancement Training Neuropharmacology of Addiction Kim McGinnis, PhD Chief Judge, Pueblo of Pojoaque Tribal Court I. Background

More information

Creating and Extinguishing a Classically Conditioned Reflex

Creating and Extinguishing a Classically Conditioned Reflex Laboratory 1 Creating and Extinguishing a Classically Conditioned Reflex Background Information In this experiment, you will be investigating classical conditioning. Remember that classical conditioning

More information

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS.

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. 6.1. CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS Neurons are interconnected with one another to form circuits, much as electronic components are wired together to form a functional

More information

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ROBERT J. STERNBERG Yale University HARCOURT BRACE COLLEGE PUBLISHERS Fort Worth Philadelphia San Diego New York Orlando Austin San Antonio Toronto Montreal London Sydney Tokyo Contents

More information

Disorders that affect Memory. Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Disorders that affect Memory. Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Disorders that affect Memory Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine REVIEW ( ) What can cause Memory Loss? Any disorder or damage which affects areas of the

More information

The Addicted Brain. And what you can do

The Addicted Brain. And what you can do The Addicted Brain And what you can do How does addiction happen? Addiction can happen as soon as someone uses a substance The brain releases a neurotransmitter called Dopamine into the system that makes

More information

DISORDERS OF BRAIN FUNCTION CHAPTER 52

DISORDERS OF BRAIN FUNCTION CHAPTER 52 DISORDERS OF BRAIN FUNCTION CHAPTER 52 SEIZURE DISORDERS SEIZURE = abnormal behavior caused by an electrical discharge from neurons in the cerebral cortex. SEIZURE = a discrete clinical event w/ associated

More information

Memory Rehabilitation in Early Dementia. Diana Golvers Clinical Psychologist Central Dementia Service

Memory Rehabilitation in Early Dementia. Diana Golvers Clinical Psychologist Central Dementia Service Memory Rehabilitation in Early Dementia Diana Golvers Clinical Psychologist Central Dementia Service Loss of Memory in AD Memory impairment earliest manifestation of AD and other dementias Major impact

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

Nervous System Grades 3-5 BACKGROUND

Nervous System Grades 3-5 BACKGROUND Nervous System Grades 3-5 BACKGROUND The nervous system is the highway along which your brain sends and receives information about what is happening in the body and around it. This highway is made up of

More information

Traumatic Brain Injury and Incarceration. Objectives. Traumatic Brain Injury. Which came first, the injury or the behavior?

Traumatic Brain Injury and Incarceration. Objectives. Traumatic Brain Injury. Which came first, the injury or the behavior? Traumatic Brain Injury and Incarceration Which came first, the injury or the behavior? Barbara Burchell Curtis RN, MSN Objectives Upon completion of discussion, participants should be able to Describe

More information