Cyberbullying. Jamilia Blake, Ph.D., LSSP. Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University

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1 Cyberbullying Jamilia Blake, Ph.D., LSSP Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University

2 Objectives Upon the completion of this presentation, the learner will be able to: Identify the definition and prevalence of cyberbullying Understand how to identify cyberbullying Recognizing the types and negative outcomes for cyberbullying involvement Become familiar with controversies of intervention and current intervention strategies Identify what school staff, parents, and students can do to prevent or reduce cyberbullying

3 Internet Communication used by Teens (Werner, Bumpus, and Rock, 2010) Social Networks Texting Chat Rooms IM/Chat Rooms

4 How Much Technology Children Use 2010 (Lenhart, A., et al.) 75% of year olds own a cell phone 88% of youth that use cell phones are text messengers 54% of teens text daily 2010 (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts) : Media usage is up for 8 18 year olds by 2.25 hours in the past 5 yrs.

5 Text Messaging Frequency (54%) is higher than other forms of technological ways to interact:

6 What is Cyberbullying An individual or group repeatedly using electronic forms of communication to send or post information about a person or group that a reasonable person would consider (Snakenborg, VanAcker, and Gable, 2011) cruel, vulgar, threatening, embarrassing, harassing, frightening, or harmful

7 Cyberbullying can also be identified as: Internet Harassment Internet Aggression Digital Abuse

8 Cyberbullying cont. Often occurs outside of school Preferred by older youth because it is: Anonymous Invisible Invisible Faceless

9 Flaming Harassment Denigration Cyberstalking Masquerading Trickery Exclusion Types of Cyberbullying Sending angry, rude, or inappropriate messages privately or to an online group Constantly sending offensive messages Sending or posting false information about someone Makes threats of harm Pretending to be someone else when sending inappropriate messages Using tricks to send embarrassing information Actions that will intentionally exclude a person (blocking them)

10 Prevalence Rates vary by study and those that participate: Marsh et al., % of students age 15 reported being textbullied and 7% reported text bullying others Macgill, 2007 More than 90% of youth ages are internet users

11 Raskauskas (2010) Prevalence cont. 43% of students (11 18) experienced one incident of text bullying 23% reported repeated text bullying Werner, Bumpus, and Rock (2010) Of 6 8 th graders surveyed on cyberbullying: 18% perpetrators 17% victims 9.5% both

12 Where does Cyberbullying Fit? Verbal Physical Bullying Relational Cyber

13 High Occurrences of Bullying According to the 2010 Indicators of Crime and Safety Report In 2007, 25% percent of public schools reported that bullying happened on a weekly or daily basis 32% of 12 to 18 year olds reported being bullied Of these children 79% reported that their bullying experiences occurred at school

14 2010 Indicators of Crime and Safety Report (Robers, Zhang, & Truman, 2010)

15 Effects of Victims of Cyberbullying Psychologically Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and powerlessness (Raskauskas and Stoltz,2007) Emotionally distressed (Ybarra and Mitchell 2004) Anxious Low self esteem Depression (Raskauskas 2010)

16 Social Effects of Cyberbullying Victims become more suspicious and untrusting of others Raskauskas 2010 Can also promote aggressive retaliation towards perpetrators Smith & Williams 2004

17 Types of Cyberbullies: What Research Says Those involved in cyberbullying can be characterized as those involved in offline bullying (Limber, 2002): Bullies Bully victims Victims

18 Bullies Bully in order to feel powerful and have control Enjoy hurting others Need to dominate others When confronted by adults, state that the victim provoked them Usually are aggressive and break rules in many contexts (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Limber, 2002)

19 Bully Victims Students that are bullies because of prior victimization Usually have poor academic achievement and behavioral problems (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Li, 2006)

20 Victims Passive Socially isolated Physically weaker than bully Unpopular (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008)

21 Sub types of Cyberbullies Vengeful Angel Identify themselves as protecting themselves or others from perpetrators online Fighting bullying with more bullying From stopcyberbullying.org

22 Sub types of Cyberbullies Mean Girls Bored and looking for some fun and entertainment Usually bullying other girls Make plans as a group to bully others From stopcyberbullying.org

23 Sub types of Cyberbullies Inadvertent Cyberbully Don t believe that they are cyber bullies at all Role play to pretend to be tough Usually are responding without thinking to provocative messages received From stopcyberbullying.org

24 Sub types of Cyberbullies Power Hungry Want control over others and an audience Use knowledge of technology to bully others and then brag about it to others Usually are victims of offline bullying Sometimes also called the Revenge of the Nerds From stopcyberbullying.org

25 Which comes first... Bully or Cyberbully? Werner, Bumpus, and Rock, 2010 Found that teens that are already relationally aggressive offline were about 10 times more likely to be cyberbullies Many times cyberbullies have similar family, social, and behavioral characteristics of those that aggress in the school contexts Therefore aggressive youth may use internet as additional outlet

26

27 Recent Changes to Texas Law Texas Bullying Prevention Act (2011) House Bill No 1942 Definition of bullying includes: Written Expression Oral Expression Expression through Electronic Means That are considered to have the effect of: physically harming, damaging a student s property, placing a student in reasonable harm to the student s person or of damage to the student property; or Is sufficiently severe, persistent, or pervasive enough the action or threat creates an intimidating, threatening, or abusive educational environment for students

28 Additional Texas Laws (2011) SB 407 Texas School Safety Center to must programs that address sexting, and better responses to incidents of bullying and cyberbullying SB 471 and HB 1942 Beginning in School districts must respond to bullying and harassment by: Parent Notification School Intervention Programs Counseling bullies and victims Protecting those Please do who not distribute report publish bullying

29 Additional Texas Laws (2011) HB 1386 Requires the development of intervention and prevention programs to train school staff to recognize potential suicide victims and to include those students targeted by bullies.

30 School Administrators can discipline cyberbullies Even when the cyberbullying occurs off campus, If the conduct creates a hostile and disruptive learning environment Technology used is school owned Threatens other civil rights Schools have a right to intervene. but make sure it is legally defensible (Hinduja & Patchin, 2011)

31 Interventions In the school setting: difficulty determining who is doing the bullying Texts and s sent in a matter of seconds There has been advocacy for: Laws and rules to regulate media Curricular programs for students on cyberbullying Technological approaches to prevent cyberbullying

32 Educating School Students Use caution when giving addresses to others NEVER give passwords out to anyone Online conversations spread quickly and is never private Attorneygeneral.gov, 2006

33 Cyberbullying may be covered under violations of civil legislation: Invasion of privacy exposing private information about an individual under offensive conditions Defamation exposing a false statement about a person that negatively effects the reputation Intentionally causing emotional stress behavior that causes significant distress in another Anti Defamation League (2009)

34 Educating Staff and Students Use video clips and public service announcements to promote conversation about cyberbullying Examples: National Crime Prevention Council s In the Kitchen with Megan Concerned Children s Advertisers Words Hurt Using free online curriculum CyberSmart s Cyberbullying Lessons and Activities Diamanduros & Downs, 2011

35 Educate Students Conflict Resolution Problem Solving Developing Positive Peer Relationships

36 Curriculum Interventions isafe Internet Safety Program (i SAFE Inc., 1998) Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum (Kowalski & Agatston, 2008) Sticks and Stones: Cyberbullying (Chase Wilson, 2009) Lets Fight It Together: What We All Can Do to Prevent Cyberbullying (Childnet International, 2007)

37 Interventions Cont. Anti Defamation League has created workshops for parents and school staff Trickery, Trolling, and Threats: Understanding and Addressing Cyberbullying Youth and Cyberbullying: What Families Don t Know Will Hurt Them They also have online lesson plans for primary and secondary school students Use peer models to facilitate prevention efforts

38 What Students Can Do Stop leave the site where online bullying is occurring Block s, texts, instant messages from perpetrator Save All data, do not retaliate Tell An adult If using a major social networking site, report abuse Ironically many students don t report for fear of retaliation from perpetrator or limitations set by parents

39 Educate Parents Use Parent Meetings, Family Night out Activities to teach parents to: Check major search engines (Google, Yahoo) to see if personal information is on the internet Request that inappropriate information about child be taken off of site (violates Children s Online Privacy Protection Act) Educate their child on appropriate use of technology and what to do if they have been victimized Develop a Family Online Agreement

40 Additional Resources Cyberbullying Lesson Plans Tips for Teens Tips for Families Internet /Cell Phone/Online Safety Plan Cyberbully Student Survey Glossary of Cyberbullying Terms From

41 Additional Resources Texas School Safety Center Steps to Respect Bully Busters (Newman, Horne, & Bartolomucci, 2000) RCCP (Resolving Conflict Creatively Program) PATHS (Providing Alternative THinking Strategies) Bully Proofing Your School (Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager, & Short Camilli, 2004) No Bullying Program (Bitney & Title, 2001)

42 Additional Tips Change screen names Identify the sender: sometimes right clicking over the address provides information about the sender Contact the Service Provider Intervene quickly as adults Every 7 minutes a child is being bullied berbullying_tips.pdf

43 Identify the warning signs Victim Abrupt stop of computer usage Anxious about going to school/outside Withdrawn Bully Quickly exits computer when someone walks by Laughs excessively while on computer Depressed or angry after computer use Has multiple accounts Avoids talking about what is being done on computer

44 Thank you for your time. For additional information or questions. Contact : Jamilia J Blake, Ph.D., LSSP Department of Educational Psychology Texas A&M University pralab.tamu.edu

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