SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE HYPOR LIBRA

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1 SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE HYPOR LIBRA version 2.0 IMPERIAL 1

2 1 introduction Sows are the economic engine of swine production and define the prolificacy and maximum productivity of the entire system. While they are a small portion of the whole herd they consume approximately 20% of the feed farrow to finish. Genetic selection has continued to improve the reproductive output of sows and use of genomics will only increase the pace of change. The sow and gilt feeding program presented in this manual outlines nutrient specifications for gestation and lactation diets. Wherever possible we have used the most recent scientific and technical information available in the development of these nutrient specifications. Current research suggests that phase feeding in gestation has merit, however, in most swine production facilities these concepts are difficult to apply and therefore are not included in this edition. Due to the regional differences in ingredient availability we have provided both a lower and higher energy dietary specifications. Gregory Simpson Swine Nutritionist / Product Manager Hypor - Americas E: T: Feeding Concepts In gestation we are feeding the sow to ensure the following: the production of adequate number of piglets of acceptable body weight; properly developed mammary gland for the optimal production of milk and colostrum; target body weight, body condition are achieved by farrowing without compromising subsequent performance. In lactation we are feeding to support increased milk production associated with larger litter sizes. Ideally, we want to treat each sow as an individual but in practise that can be difficult. We also want to minimize the amount of body weight lost to prevent rebreeding issues. 2 hypor SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE - hypor libra

3 3 Management and Feeding Goals The information in Table 1 outlines the feeding strategy and diet to be fed to a properly conditioned sow or gilt at varying stages during gestation and lactation. Due to the regional differences in ingredient availability we have provided both a lower and higher energy dietary specifications for both gestation and lactation diets. The amount of feed presented in Table 1 is based on these specifications, which can be found in Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7. Table 1: Sow and Gilt Feeding Guidelines Stage of Production High Energy Feed Amount, lb Low Energy Feed Amount, lb Diet Pre-breeding Gilt Full Feed Full Feed Gestation Breeding: Day -5 to 0 (Flushing) Gilt Lactation Sow Lactation Gestation: Day 1 to 28 (Feed to Condition) Gilt a Gestation Sow a Gestation Gestation: Day 29 to 84 Gilt Gestation Sow Gestation Gestation: Day 85 to 113 (Bump-up) Gilt Gestation Sow Gestation Pre-Farrow (2-4 days) Lactation Lactation: Day 0 to Lactation Lactation: Day 2 to 10 Increase 1.10 to 3.31 lb/day Lactation Lactation: Day 10 to weaning Full Feed Lactation a Assumes proper condition upon arrival. Within gestation, there are three separate physiological phases or stages: Stage one consists of the first four weeks post-breeding. Embryos attach to the uterus at 12 to 14 days post fertilization and during this time embryo mortality can reach up to 50 percent. Progesterone secretion in early pregnancy supports embryo survival by preparing the uterus for implantation. It also influences the secretion of proteins that enhance embryo survival. High levels of feeding have been associated with reduced plasma progesterone levels because of increased metabolic clearance. The second stage of gestation occurs from day 29 to day 85. During this period, there is an opportunity to reach target sow/gilt body condition (Table 2). It is preferable to have the gilts and sows enter the gestation barn in proper condition. Care must be taken to ensure that some degree of feed restriction occurs in gestation, since high gestation feed intakes have been shown to reduce subsequent lactation feed intakes. For gilts, maximal mammary development occurs between days 70 to 105. Excess energy intake has been shown to be detrimental to mammary development. 3

4 Table 2: Guidelines For Adjusting Sow Body Condition Body Condition Score at Mating Item Unit Back fat measurement in < >0.83 Body weight loss lb > Increase/decrease in feed amount lb +20% +10% 0% -10% -20% The third stage of gestation takes place during the final two weeks prior to farrowing. During this time, there is rapid fetal growth so increasing feed intake will help support higher birth weights and will prevent sows from losing weight and possibly from becoming catabolic. During this period we recommend higher gilt feed intake not only to boost birth weight, but to aid in their development, increase their intake capacity during lactation and to support large litters. Lactation is especially demanding and feed intake is critical to support the growth and development of the litter. Prior to farrowing (2 to 4 days) we recommend that sows and gilts are switched to lactation feed and the feed allowance reduced by 1.10 to 3.31 lb. The day after farrowing, the feed allowance should be a minimum of 3.97 lb but may be as high as 6.61 or 8.82 lb. The amount of feed offered should increase rapidly over the next few days by a minimum of 1.10 lb per day but maybe as high as 2.20 to 3.31 lb. Being too restrictive (to avoid udder congestion, hypogalactia, scouring, etc.) reduces total lactation feed intake and is simply weaning weight potential that will never be realised. Ideally feed in lactation should be split equally over 3 or 4 feedings or provided ad libitum. We do recommend higher lactation feed intake in gilts as they are continuing to grow and gain muscle mass, while supporting a large litter. An alternative strategy is to use a gilt lactation diet with a higher digestible lysine level, however, that is generally not feasible unless the farm is starting up or has parity segregation. Specifications for a gilt lactation diet are included in Tables 6 and 7. 4 hypor SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE - hypor libra

5 4 Dietary Energy Energy levels are expressed as Net Energy (NE) in this guide. The Metabolisable Energy (ME) system is adequate for describing available energy for simple diets, however, with increasing use of higher fibre ingredients NE is a more accurate method of measuring available energy. This guide specifies energy as NRC NE, however, values for both NE and ME are provided. Nutritionists can adapt the specified lysine:ne relationships to their own system. Adjustments in NE for hot environmental temperature or for fat added diets will require adjusting lysine levels to keep lysine:ne constant. 5 Ideal Amino Acid Pattern For optimum performance, all amino acids must meet or exceed the requirement. The NRC (2012) has defined the ideal balance of amino acids for each stage of production. NRC (2012) served as the basis for these recommendations; however, modifications have been made to the ratios based on internal research and external validations in commercial environments around the world. Ratios are normally expressed in relation to lysine as in most cases it is likely to be the first limiting amino acid. Since ingredients differ in their digestibility, standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid values are preferred when formulating diets that are more complex than corn-soybean meal diets. This guide specifies the SID lysine requirement. 6 Energy Evaluation Systems Different energy evaluation systems are used in other areas of the world. In this publication we use NRC NE as a base. The following conversions in Table 3 are given as general guidelines. Differences in digestibility and ingredient composition of diets will impact energy content. Table 3: Energy Conversion Factors Mcal = Kcal / 1000 Kcal = Mcal x 1000 MJ = Mcal x Mcal = MJ / DE = ME / 0.96 ME = DE x 0.96 NE = ME x 0.74 ME = NE / 0.74 FU = 12.6 MJ ME = 3200 Kcal ME FU = 9.3 MJ NE = 2200 Kcal NE EW = NE/2100 NE = EW x

6 7 Gestation Recommendations The dietary specifications for gestation are presented in Tables 4 and 5. Table 4 outlines the nutrient recommendations for low energy diets and Table 5 outlines the nutrient recommendations for high energy diets. Figures 1 and 2 outline feed curves based on the energy intake recommended by stage or phase of gestation. Table 4: Hypor Nutrient Recommendations for Gestation (Low Energy Diets) Nutrient Unit a Gilt Sow NRC ME kcal/lb MJ/lb NRC NE kcal/lb MJ/lb EW EW/lb Energy Intake (NRC NE) Unit Kcal/d MJ/d Kcal/d MJ/d Day Day Day Nutrient Unit Min Max Min Max Crude Protein % Crude Fat % Crude Fibre % Starch + Sugar % SID Lysine % SID Methionine ratio SID Methionine + Cysteine ratio SID Threonine ratio SID Tryptophan ratio SID Isoleucine ratio SID Valine ratio Min Max Min Max Calcium % Available Phosphorus b % Digestible Phosphorus b % Sodium % a Amounts are expressed as the concentration per pound of complete diet. Values must be adapted to local legislation. b Available phosphorus (total phosphorus inositol phosphorus) values are based on diets formulated without phytase. Digestible phosphorus is defined as (phosphorus intake fecal phosphorus) /phosphorus intake. Care must be taken when using phytase in reproductive animal diets, especially when diets are heat treated. 6 hypor SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE - hypor libra

7 Figure 1: Gestation Feed Intake Curve Low Energy Diets Feed (lb) 7,5 7,0 6,5 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3, Gilt Sow Days 7

8 Table 5: Hypor Nutrient Recommendations for Gestation (High Energy Diets) Nutrient Unit a Gilt Sow NRC ME kcal/lb MJ/lb NRC NE kcal/lb MJ/lb EW EW/lb Energy Intake (NRC NE) Unit Kcal/d MJ/d Kcal/d MJ/d Day Day Day Nutrient Unit Min Max Min Max Crude Protein % Crude Fat % Crude Fibre % Starch + Sugar % SID Lysine % SID Methionine ratio SID Methionine + Cysteine ratio SID Threonine ratio SID Tryptophan ratio SID Isoleucine ratio SID Valine ratio Min Max Min Max Calcium % Available Phosphorus b % Digestible Phosphorus b % Sodium % a Amounts are expressed as the concentration per pound of complete diet. Values must be adapted to local legislation. b Available phosphorus (total phosphorus inositol phosphorus) values are based on diets formulated without phytase. Digestible phosphorus is defined as (phosphorus intake fecal phosphorus) /phosphorus intake. Care must be taken when using phytase in reproductive animal diets, especially when diets are heat treated. 8 hypor SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE - hypor libra

9 Figure 2: Gestation Feed Intake Curve High Energy Diets Feed (lb) 7,5 7,0 6,5 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3, Gilt Sow Days 8 Lactation Recommendations The dietary specifications for lactation are presented in Tables 6 and 7. Table 6 outlines the nutrient recommendations for low energy diets and Table 7 outlines the nutrient recommendations for high energy diets. Figure 3 outlines feed curves for sows and gilts and provide a range of acceptable intakes as a guideline. In extremely hot or humid environments sow intakes will be lower than expected and diet density will have to be adjusted accordingly. Figure 3: Lactation Intake Curve Feed (lb) Gilt Sows Max Min Days 9

10 Table 6: Hypor Nutrient Recommendations for Lactation (Low Energy Diets) Nutrient Unit a Gilt Sow NRC ME kcal/lb MJ/lb NRC NE kcal/lb MJ/lb EW EW/lb Unit a Min Max Min Max Crude Protein % Crude Fat % Crude Fibre % Starch + Sugar % SID Lysine % SID Methionine ratio SID Methionine + Cysteine ratio SID Threonine ratio SID Tryptophan ratio SID Isoleucine ratio SID Valine ratio Min Max Min Max Calcium % Available Phosphorus b % Digestible Phosphorus b % Sodium % a Amounts are expressed as the concentration per pound of complete diet. Values must be adapted to local legislation. b Available phosphorus (total phosphorus inositol phosphorus) values are based on diets formulated without phytase. Digestible phosphorus is defined as (phosphorus intake fecal phosphorus) /phosphorus intake. Care must be taken when using phytase in reproductive animal diets, especially when diets are heat treated. 10 hypor SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE - hypor libra

11 Table 7: Hypor Nutrient Recommendations for Lactation (High Energy Diets) Nutrient Unit a Gilt Sow NRC ME kcal/lb MJ/lb NRC NE kcal/lb MJ/lb EW EW/lb Unit a Min Max Min Max Crude Protein % Crude Fat % Crude Fibre % Starch + Sugar % SID Lysine % SID Methionine ratio SID Methionine + Cysteine ratio SID Threonine ratio SID Tryptophan ratio SID Isoleucine ratio SID Valine ratio Min Max Min Max Calcium % Available Phosphorus b % Digestible Phosphorus b % Sodium % a Amounts are expressed as the concentration per pound of complete diet. Values must be adapted to local legislation. b Available phosphorus (total phosphorus inositol phosphorus) values are based on diets formulated without phytase. Digestible phosphorus is defined as (phosphorus intake fecal phosphorus) /phosphorus intake. Care must be taken when using phytase in reproductive animal diets, especially when diets are heat treated. 11

12 9 Vitamin and Trace Mineral Addition Rates Recommendations were established based on comparisons with NRC (2012) and consultation with various Universities and major nutrition providers. Values shown in Table 8 assume addition of the micronutrient and give no credit to ingredients. Table 8: Hypor Sow Vitamin and Mineral Recommendations a,b Nutrient Unit Gestation Lactation Vitamin A IU/lb Vitamin D IU/lb Vitamin E c IU/lb Vitamin K mg/lb Choline mg/lb Niacin mg/lb Riboflavin (B2) mg/lb d-pantothenate mg/lb Vitamin B12 mcg/lb Folic Acid mcg/lb d-biotin mcg/lb Thiamine (B1) mg/lb Pyridoxine (B6) mg/lb Zinc mg/lb Iron mg/lb Manganese mg/lb Magnesium g/lb Copper mg/lb 7 7 Iodine mg/lb Selenium mg/lb a b c Use of sow VTM is recommended for gilt rearing diets from a minimum of 145 lb of body weight. Recommended values must be adapted to local legislation. Pelleting and/or expanding decreases vitamin stability by 10 12% and 15-20% respectively. Consult your vitamin manufacturer to verify the extent of damage so additional fortification can be made as required. Add 2.7 IU of Vitamin E/lb of complete diet for each 1% fat above 3% total dietary fat. Disclaimer This brochure has been prepared by Hypor B.V. to inform the reader of its activities in the widest sense and is by no means intended to be complete, not even on the aspects mentioned herein, and there are no implied or explicit guarantees given by Hypor B.V. and its shareholders as to the accuracy and completeness of the provided information in this brochure.

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