AN OVERVIEW OF PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO GARMENTS. Prof. R. B. CHAVAN Former Professor, I I T Delhi, Consultant,

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1 AN OVERVIEW OF PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO GARMENTS Prof. R. B. CHAVAN Former Professor, I I T Delhi, Consultant, Mahatma Gandhi Inst. of Rural Ind. Wardha

2 CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE FIBRES Natural Synthetic Regenerated Vegetable Animal Polyester Cotton Silk Nylon Jute Wool Acrylic Viscose Rayon

3 Natural fibres Cellulosic fibres 1. Seed hairs: Cotton, Kapok 2. Bast fibres: Flax, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Sunn, Kenaf 3. Leaf fibres: Abaca, Pineapple, Sisal (Agave), Palm 4. Fruit: Coir Mineral: Asbestos

4 Animal hair fibres Wool (Sheep) Natural Protein fibres Speciality hair fibres: Alpaca, Camel, Cashmere, Mohair (Angora Goat), Fur fibres: Mink, Muskrat, Rabbit Animal Secretion Silk fibre: Mulberry, Tussar, Moga, Erie Spider silk

5 Rayon Cuprammonium Regenerated natural fibres Viscose: Regular, high tenacity, high wet modulus, hollow fibres, polynosic, lyocell Acetate: Secondary acetate, Tri acetate Regenerated Protein: Casein, Zein, Peanut, Soyabean Miscellaneous: alginate

6 Condensation polymers Polyamide Nylon 6, 66, 11 Synthetic fibres Aramide : Quiana, Kevlar, Nomex Polyester Aromatic: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Aliphatic Poly lactic acid (PLA) Addition polymers Acrylic, modacrylic Olehene fibres: Polyethylene, polypropelene Saran Vinal Vinyon

7 STEPS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO GARMENT MAJOR STEPS Fibre Yarn Fabric Garment or other ready made forms.

8 TYPES OF YARN 1. STAPLE YARN 2. FILAMENT YARN STAPLE YARN COTTON WOOL JUTE ACRYLIC CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO YARN FILAMENT YARN SILK SYNTHETIC DIRECT YARN PRODUCTION FROM RAW MATERIALS

9 CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO STAPLE YARN EXAMPLE COTTON PRE-SPINNING PROCESSES SPINNING PROCESS PRE-SPINNING PROCESSES GINNING BALE FORMATION TRANSPORTATION TO TEXTILE MILLS OPENING LAP MAKING CARDING SLIVER MAKING ROVING MAKING PRINCIPLE STRETCHING OF FIBRES ARRANGING THE FIBRES PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER

10 PR-SPINNING MACHINES GINNING BALE MAKING OPENER LAP MAKING CARDING DRAWING FRAME SPEED FRAME SPINNING MACHINES SMALL SCALE SPINNING CHARKHA LARGE SCALE SPINNING RING SPINNING MACHINE

11 WEAVING CONVERSION OF YARN TO FABRIC INTERLACEMENT OF YARN IN SPECIFIC WAY IN TWO DIRECTION (WIDTH WISE AND LENGTHWISE) LENGTH DIRECTION WARP WIDTH DIRECTION WEFT

12 WEAVING MACHINES LOOMS MANUALLY OPERATED LOOMS ELECTRICALY OPERATED LOOMS MANUAL LOOMS KNOWN AS HANDLOOMS FRAME LOOM PIT LOOM SEMI-AUTOMATIC LOOMS ELECTRICALLY OPERATED LOOMS KNOWN AS POWER LOOMS DIFFERENT TYPES LIKE SIMPLE POWERLOOM AIR JET LOOM RAPIER LOOM WATER JET LOOM

13 LOOMS FOR PRODUCING DESIGNED FABRIC DOBBY LOOM JACQUARD LOOM AVAILABLE BOTH IN MANUAL AND ELECTRICAL CATEGORY

14 KNITTING INTERLACEMENT OF SINGLE YARN WARP DIRECTION: WARP KNITTING WEFT DIRECTION: WEFT KNITTING MACHINES WARP KNITTING MACHINES WEFT KNITTING MACHINES

15 CHEMICAL PROCESSING VALUE ADDITION THROUGH PREPARATORY PROCESSES DYEING PRINTING FINISHING

16 PREPARATORY PROCESSES CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN YARN FORM FABRIC FORM DESIZING SCOURING BLEACHING MERCERIZATION Purpose To remove Natural and added impurities To improve the appearance of fabric To impart certain desirable properties To make it suitable for subsequent processes like dyeing, printing finishing

17 DYEING TO IMPART COLOUR UNIFORMLY ALONG THE LENGTH AND WIDTH OF FABRIC UNIFORMLY ON THE BACK AND FACE OF FABRIC DYEING CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN FIBRE FORM YARN FORM FABIC FORM

18 MACHINES USED FOR DYEING FIBRE DYEING MACHINES YARN DYEING MACHINES HANK DYEING MACHINES CHEESE DYEING MACHINES CONE DYEING MACHINES FABRIC DYEING JIGGER DYEING MACHINES PADDING MANGLE WINCH DYEING MACHINE JET DYEING MACHINES

19 PRINTING DYEING IN THE LOCALIZED FORM APPLICATION OF COLOUR IN THE FORM OF DESIGN ONE OR MORE THAN ONE COLOUR CAN BE APPLIED IN THE DESIGN KNOWN AS SINGLE COLOUR DESIGN MULTI COLOUR DESIGN

20 DIFFERNCE BETWEEN DYEING AND PRINTING DYEING UNIFORM COLOURATION ALONG LENGTH AND WIDTH OF FABRIC USUALLY SINGLE COLOUR IS POSSIBLE. NO DIFFERENCE IN COLOUR BETWEEN FRONT AND BACK SIDE OF FABRIC AQUEOUS DYEING MEDIUM OF LOW VISCOSITY DYEING IN BATCHWISE, CONTINUOUS OR SEMI- CONTINUOUS METHOD. FABRIC DYEING IN OPEN WIDTH OR ROPE FORM. DYEING IN FIBRE, YARN, FABRIC, GARMENT FORM

21 LOCALLIZED DYEING PRINTING COLOUR IS APPLIED LOCALLY IN THE FORM OF DESIGN/PATTERN LOW VISCOSITY MEDIUM WOULD SPREAD THE COLOUR BY CAPILLARY ACTION, DOES NOT MAINTAIN THE SHARPNESS OF THE DESIGN. AQUEOUS MEDIUM OF HIGH VISCOSITY, PREVENT THE COLOUR SPREADING. FABRIC PRINTING IN OPEN WIDTH FORM ONLY FABRIC PRINTING IS MOST COMMON COMPARED TO YARN AND GARMENT PRINTING, EXCEPTION T-SHIRT PRINTING

22 PRINTING STUDY STYLES OF PRINTING DIRECT STYLE PRINTING OF SINGLE OR MULTICOLOURS ON WHITE OR PALE SHADE DYED FABRIC RESIST STYLE PREVENTION OF COLOUR FIXATION AT THE PRINTED PORTION WHITE RESIST: WHITE PRINT AGAINST COLOURED BACKGROUND COLOUR RESIST: COLOUR PRINT AGAINST COLOURE BACKGROUND DISCHARGE STYLE DESTRUCTION OF COLOUR AT THE PRINTED PORTION WHITE DISCHARGE COLOUR DISCHARGE

23 METHODS OF PRINTING BLOCK PRINTING STENCIL PRINTING ROLLER PRINTING SCREEN PRINTING MANUAL SCREEN PRINTING AUTOMATIC FLAT BED SCREEN PRINTING ROTORY SCREEN PRINTING TRANSFER PRINTING XEROX PRINTING INKJET/DIGITAL PRINTING PRINT LIKE EFFECT TIE-DYE AND BATIK

24 FINISHING TREATMENT CARRIED OUT MAINLY IN THE FABRIC FORM CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN THE GARMENT FORM ALSO PURPOSE TO IMPROVE THE APPEARANCE OF FABRIC FEEL OF FABRIC IMPART CERTAIN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES TO FABRIC LIKE WATER REPELLENT PROPERTY FOR RAIN COATS WRINKLE FREE PROPERTY TO SHIRTING AND TRAUSER FABRIC FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTY TO CURTAINS

25 TYPES OF FINISHING AGENTS 1. WATER REPELLENT FINISH 2. FLAME REATARDANT FINISH 3. WRINKLE FREE FINISHES 4. ANTISTATIC FINISH 5. SOIL REPRELLENT FINISH 6. ANTI-BACTERIAL FINSIH

26 OTHER METHODS FOR PRINT LIKE EFFECTS WEAVING USING COLOURED YARN KNITTING USING COLOURED YARN APPLIQUE OR PATCH WORK EMBROIDERY

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