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1 Chemistry 1C-Dr. Larson Chapter 21 Review Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) By what process does thorium-230 decay to radium-226? A) alpha emission B) beta emission C) electron capture D) gamma emission E) positron emission 2) This reaction is an example of. 210 Po 206 Pb A) gamma emission B) electron capture C) positron emission D) beta emission E) alpha decay 3) This reaction is an example of Ca K + A) beta decay B) positron decay C) gamma emission D) electron capture E) alpha decay 4) Radium undergoes alpha decay. The product of this reaction also undergoes alpha decay. What is the product of this second decay reaction? A) Hg B) Po C) U D) Th E) Rn 5) 41Ca decays by electron capture. The product of this reaction undergoes alpha decay. What is the product of this second decay reaction? A) Sc B) Ar C) Cl D) Ca E) Ti 6) What is the mass number of a neutron? A) 2 B) 4 C) 1 D) 0 E) 3 1

2 7) Nuclei above the belt of stability can lower their neutron-to-proton ratio by A) electron capture. B) positron emission. C) gamma emission. D) beta emission. E) Any of the above processes will lower the neutron-to-proton ratio. 8) What is the largest number of protons that can exist in a nucleus and still be stable? A) 92 B) 50 C) 84 D) 83 E) 206 9) Bombardment of uranium-235 with a neutron generates tellurium-135, 3 neutrons, and. A) zirconium-99. B) krypton-101. C) strontium-99. D) zirconium-98. E) krypton ) The reaction shown below is responsible for creating 14 C in the atmosphere. What is the bombarding particle? 14 7 N C H A) electron B) neutron C) positron D) alpha particle E) proton 11) What order process is radioactive decay? A) zeroth B) first C) second D) third E) fourth 12) 131I has a half-life of 8.04 days. Assuming you start with a 1.53 mg sample of 131I, how many mg will remain after 13.0 days? A) B) C) D) E) ) The mass of a proton is amu and that of a neutron is amu. What is the mass defect (in amu) of a 60 Co nucleus? (The mass of a cobalt-60 nucleus is amu.).? 27 A) B) C) D) E)

3 14) What happens to the mass number and the atomic number of an element when it undergoes beta decay? A) The mass number does not change and the atomic number increases by 1. B) The mass number increases by 2 and the atomic number increases by 1. C) The mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. D) Neither the mass number nor the atomic number change. E) The mass number does not change and the atomic number decreases by 2. 15) Which one of the following is a correct representation of a beta particle? A) 1 0 β B) 0-1 e C) 2 4 β D) 0 1 e E) 4 2 e 16) Of the following processes, which one changes the atomic number? A) alpha emission B) electron capture C) positron emission D) beta emission E) All of these processes change the atomic numbers. 17) Which type of radioactive decay results in no change in mass number and atomic number for the starting nucleus? A) alpha B) positron emission C) beta D) gamma E) electron capture 18) Alpha decay produces a new nucleus whose than those respectively of the original nucleus. A) atomic number is 2 less and mass number is 4 less B) atomic number is 2 less and mass number is 2 less C) atomic number is 2 more and mass number is 4 more D) atomic number is 1 less and mass number is 2 less E) atomic number is 2 more and mass number is 2 less 19) What is the missing product from this reaction? P S + A) 4 2 He B) 0 0 γ C) 0 1 e D) 0-1 e E) 0 1 p 20) What is the atomic number of a neutron? A) 3 B) 0 C) 4 D) 1 E) 2 3

4 21) What happens to the mass number and the atomic number of an element when it emits gamma radiation? A) The mass number decreases by four and the atomic number decreases by two. B) The mass number remains unchanged while the atomic number increases by one. C) The mass number and atomic numbers remain unchanged. D) The mass number remains unchanged while the atomic number decreases by one. E) The mass number increases by four and the atomic number increases by two. 22) At approximately what number of protons, or neutrons, does the 1:1 ratio of protons to neutrons start to produce unstable nuclei? A) 10 B) 50 C) 80 D) 30 E) 20 23) Which one of the following can be done to shorten the half-life of the radioactive decay of uranium-238? A) oxidize it to the +2 oxidation state B) heat it C) convert it to UF6 D) freeze it E) none of the above 24) The beta decay of cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years. How many years must pass to reduce a 25 mg sample of cesium 137 to 8.7 mg? A) 3.2 B) 50 C) 46 D) 32 E) 52 25) The carbon-14 dating method can be used to determine the age of a A) papyrus scroll. B) clay pot. C) rock. D) stone axe head. E) flint arrowhead. 26) The basis for the carbon-14 dating method is that A) the amount of carbon-14 in all objects is the same. B) carbon-14 is very unstable and is readily lost from the atmosphere. C) living tissue will not absorb carbon-14 but will absorb carbon-12. D) the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 in the atmosphere is a constant. E) All of the above are correct. 4

5 27) The half-life of a radionuclide A) gets shorter with passing time. B) gets longer with increased temperature. C) is constant. D) gets shorter with increased temperature. E) gets longer with passing time. Consider the following data for a particular radionuclide: Time (min) Nt (g) ) What is the rate constant (in min-1) for the decay of this radionuclide? A) B) C) D) E) ) What is the half-life (in min) of this radionuclide? A) B) 30.9 C) D) E) ) Cesium-137 undergoes beta decay and has a half-life of 30 years. How many beta particles are emitted by a 14.0-g sample of cesium-137 in three minutes? A) B) C) D) E) ) Which one of the following is true? A) Some spontaneous nuclear reactions are exothermic. B) All spontaneous nuclear reactions are endothermic. C) All spontaneous nuclear reactions are exothermic. D) There is no relationship between exothermicity and spontaneity in nuclear reactions. E) Some spontaneous nuclear reactions are endothermic. 32) When two atoms of 2H are fused to form one atom of 4He, the total energy evolved is J. What is the total change in mass (in kg) for this reaction? (C = m/s) A) B) C) D) E)

6 33) The mass of a proton is amu and that of a neutron is amu. What is the binding energy (in J) of a 60 Co nucleus? (The mass of a cobalt-60 nucleus is amu.) 27 A) B) C) D) E) ) The mass of a proton is amu and that of a neutron is amu. What is the binding energy per nucleon (in J) of a 60 Co nucleus? (The mass of a cobalt-60 nucleus is amu.) 27 A) B) C) D) E) ) What type of reaction is known as a thermonuclear reaction? A) transmutation B) neutron emission C) fission D) fusion E) beta emission 36) The main scientific difficulty in achieving a controlled fusion process is the A) enormous repulsion between nuclei being fused. B) very large number of gamma rays emitted. C) very large number of x-rays emitted. D) very large number of positrons emitted. E) enormous repulsion between the electrons of atoms being fused. 37) Which one of the following forms of radiation can penetrate the deepest into body tissue? A) gamma B) proton C) beta D) positron E) alpha 38) Strontium-90 is a byproduct in nuclear reactors fueled by the radioisotope uranium-235. The half-life of strontium-90 is 28.8 yr. What percentage of a strontium-90 sample remains after 75.0 yr? A) 38.4 B) 2.60 C) 16.5 D) 7.40 E)

7 39) A rock contains mg of lead-206 for each milligram of uranium-238. The half-life of for the decay of uranium-238 to lead-206 is yr. The rock was formed yr ago. A) B) C) D) E) SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 40) What happens in the nucleus of an atom that undergoes positron emission? 41) High speed electrons emitted by an unstable nucleus are. 42) The only element with no neutrons is. 43) Stable nuclei with low atomic numbers, up to 20, have a neutron to proton ratio of approximately. 44) What is the source of the tremendous energies produced by nuclear reactions? 45) The amount of fissionable material necessary to maintain a chain reactions is called the. 46) What was the purpose of the Manhattan project? TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false. 47) Gamma radiation only changes the atomic number but not the mass number of a nucleus. 48) The neutron/proton ratio of stable nuclei increases with increasing atomic number. 49) The energy produced by the sun is the result of nuclear fusion. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 50) Electrons do not exist in the nucleus, yet beta emission is ejection of electrons from the nucleus. How does this happen? 51) When an isotope undergoes electron capture, what happens to the captured electron? 7

8 Answer Key Testname: CHAPTER 21 QUIZ 1) A 2) E 3) B 4) B 5) C 6) C 7) D Page Ref: Sec ) D Page Ref: Sec ) D Page Ref: Sec ) B Page Ref: Sec ) B 12) D 13) E 14) A 15) B 16) E 17) D 18) A 19) D 20) B 21) C 22) E Page Ref: Sec ) E 8

9 Answer Key Testname: CHAPTER 21 QUIZ 24) C 25) A 26) D 27) C 28) C 29) B 30) C 31) C 32) C 33) B 34) E 35) D Page Ref: Sec ) A Page Ref: Sec ) A Page Ref: Sec ) C 39) C 40) A proton is converted to a neutron and a positron. 41) beta particles Page Ref: Sec ) hydrogen; H Page Ref: Sec ) 1 Page Ref: Sec ) conversion of matter to energy, mass loss 45) critical mass Page Ref: Sec ) to build a bomb based on nuclear fission Page Ref: Sec

10 Answer Key Testname: CHAPTER 21 QUIZ 47) FALSE Page Ref: Sec ) TRUE Page Ref: Sec ) TRUE Page Ref: Sec ) A neutron breaks apart to produce a proton and an electron in the nucleus. The proton remains in the nucleus and the electron is ejected. 51) It combines with a proton in the nucleus to form a neutron. 10

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