This is followed by two pages of discussion of the art form with downloadable activities spanning in level from beginners to advanced students:

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1 ANIMATION.... Animation is the process where artificial movement is created by photographing a series of pictures, objects or computer images one by one. When played back, small changes in position between the many pictures create an illusion of movement. The RollerMache website has a complete introduction to animation in the form of a short and engaging animation. This is followed by two pages of discussion of the art form with downloadable activities spanning in level from beginners to advanced students: Make a Flip Book Stretch and Squeeze Morph Walkcycle The principles of animation were developed by the Disney animators in the early years of film to give their animators instructions on how to make characters and objects look alive, rather than just moving around like robots. The PDF notes linked above will have already explained Exaggeration, Squash and Stretch and Anticipation. Here are explanations of some more of the principles: Staging There is a limited amount of time to tell a story in a film so every thing you see in a film is there for a reason. Every action of a character, each event and camera angle should communicate the attitude and feeling of a scene, or should relate to the over all story. This is true of all media content, not just animation. Follow Through and Overlapping Action Nothing stops all at once. If, for example, you wave a piece of paper in your hand and then stop, it takes a few moments for the paper to settle. This is the principle of follow through and overlapping action. Follow through happens when a character is jumping around or running and then they suddenly stop and parts of them keep moving such as arms, long hair, clothing, floppy ears or a long tail. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while their clothes or hair continues forward. The character is going in a new direction, to be followed, a number of frames later, by their clothes in the new direction.

2 Slow-out and Slow-in Mostly things don t stop and start suddenly; they speed up and slow down. In animation this is called slow-in and slow-out and it means that you need to have more frames at the beginning and the end of a movement to slow in and out. Arcs Most things move smoothly rather than jerkily. For this reason its best to think of movement in terms of arcs, like a pendulum swinging. All arm movement, head turns and even eye movements are executed on an arc. Secondary Action Secondary action is action that compliments the main action. For example, if someone is on a rollercoaster, a secondary action might be their face being pushed back by the wind, or if someone is walking angrily, their hands might be in clenched fists. Timing Timing is extremely important in communicating mood and feeling. Timing in the action of a character can show mood, emotion, and reaction to other characters and situations. Appeal A live performer has charisma. An animated character has appeal. All characters need appeal whether they are heroic, villainous, comic or attractive. Appeal includes an easy to read design, clear drawing and personality development that will capture and involve the audience s interest. As in all forms of story telling, the character has to appeal to the mind as well as to the eye. Class Activities: 1. Watch Animator Jon Itzen make a walk cycle for Yam Roll: 2. Download and undertake the tasks in the RollerMache animations chapter. 3. Invite the class to form small groups and make their own short animations focusing on a character and one or two of the animation principles. 4. Encourage students to share feedback with each other on what looks good and what works in their animations. Remember and remind that most youth are experts on this as they watch more animations than any other age group.

3 CAPTURING... Capturing or shooting is the technical recording of frames for an animation. When filming live action this is called recording and is also called shooing. Capturing an animation is done one frame at a time. Most films run at 24 frames a second. This means that for every second of a movie that you watch you are actually seeing 24 individual pictures. When you play them at this speed, they don t appear like individual pictures but appear to come to life. This way of tricking the human eye is called Persistence of Vision. Because capturing 24 frames per second takes ages, we recommend that you shoot your animation at between 12 and 20 frames per second. 16 frames per second is a good frame rate to begin with. Unless your school already has an animation capturing program, RollerMache suggests that you download the Anasazi Stop Motion Animator. This is free to use, but will only work on a PC computer. There are Mac Stop motion animators but most of them are commercial products that you will need to pay for however you may be able to find and use one for a free trial period. For instructions on how to use a stop motion program as well as how to set up your camera, scene, lighting and capturing computer, just download the Make Your Own Stop Motion animation PDF here: You can also see how professional animator Darcy Prendergast goes about capturing animation for his films:

4 EDITING... Editing involves selecting, ordering and joining all of the many different camera takes from the production process into the final film. The editing process is begun by connecting two or more shots together to form a sequence, and then the sequences are connected together to form scenes, and finally the scenes are ordered and joined to create an entire movie. But there are many important decisions and changes that can be made during the editing process and the relationship between each shot can change the whole mood and story of a film. Editing is sometimes called the invisible art, because the best editing allows the audience to become so engaged in a film that he or she is not even aware of the work of the editor. But the editor has a great deal of control and responsibility over what the viewer is thinking as they watch the film. For example, the speed and tempo of editing can create action and tension where there is none in the footage. Alternately, cutting back between two unrelated images can create a connection and relationship between them in the mind of the viewer. For example, an edit from a clip of a man smiling to a clip of a puppy tells us that the man is looking at the puppy and that he thinks it is cute. This also tells us that this person is kind and friendly. If you take that same piece of footage of the man and replace the image of the puppy with one of a gun, suddenly the same man with the same smile appears crazy or violent. The order, timing and relationship between the images you edit can tell the viewer a great deal without using any dialogue whatsoever. Class Activities: 1. Consider the power of editing to recreate stories by simply re-ordering pieces of film. What does this mean about the TV shows that we watch that are labelled as news, documentary or reality? 2. Using pictures from magazines, comic strips from news paper and images from other sources, try creating comic strips or storyboards that tell new stories using recycled images. 3. Visit the Zimmer Twins: Use the create movie tool to make your own short film. This tool is similar to an editing interface and gives you an understanding of how an editing tool works and it provide you with clips to re-order. 4. Try importing your own segments of animation into an editing program. Most computers have editing software that comes free with them such as imovie or Windows Movie Maker. You can also download these programs for free. Jashaka editing software can be used for open source platforms. There are also other professional programs such as Final Cut Pro and Avid. Now edit your own film together. Be prepared to experiment, to make mistakes and to improve quickly.

5 SOUND... Audio for films can be broken neatly into three different types: Dialogue, Music and Sound. Often the difference between them is blurred, but basically: Music is added in the post-production phase (like a soundtrack) Dialogue is anything that is spoken by the performers Sound is anything recorded during production (such as traffic noise, birds) or added afterwards (noises and effects, footsteps). Because on-set microphones often pick up unwanted sounds like aeroplanes and traffic in professional films these sounds are almost always recreated and added during the editing stage. Making up sounds of things that would seem to be recorded on-set but are not is called Foley Artistry. A Foley Artist is an expert at making sounds for films, such as footsteps and punching noises. Music is very powerful as it is able to evoke a wide range of emotions without a viewer even being aware of it. So music is an excellent tool for giving a film texture and mood. Usually once filming has begun, a composer is shown a rough cut of the film or a part of the film and the director discusses with them the sort of music that they will require. A reverse of this process is the music video where a musician or music producer will play some music to a filmmaker and then discuss with them what they would like the video to look like. Films and television series sometimes have different themes for important characters, or concepts in the film. These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent. Music and Sound can also be separated into two different kinds: diegetic and non-diegetic. Diegetic simply means In the film s world, so diegetic sound means any sound or noise that a character in the film could hear (dialogue, bird noises, footsteps). Non-diegetic sound is any sound added by a filmmaker that a character would not be able to hear. This is usually music, but it can also be a narrator.

6 Class Activities: 1. Watch the videos from RollerMache that show different sound types. Foley sound on Jane and the Dragon: Sound effects on Erky Perky Soundtrack on Dust Echoes: Dialogue voiceover on 6teen: 2. Using a microphone with an Ipod or mobile phone, try recording sound in difficult situations including open spaces, halls, bathrooms, and noisy locations. Listen back to them, try and spot the differences in sound when you change locations. 3. To practice sound editing and recording follow this link to the RollerCoaster How to make a podcast article. In it you will learn different ways to edit sound. Alternately try editing your sound for your film using garage band or Audacity. These programs are pretty easy to use especially now that you have tried editing. 4. Find copyright free sound and music that you can use. This might be in a local library on a sound effects CD, or even online by searching keywords like: free sound, copyright free, audio effects, royalty free, film music, etc, in various combinations.

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