9th Grade. 9th -12th Grade History - Social Science. 9th -12th Grade Sciences

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1 9th Grade 9th -12th Grade History - Social Science Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students compare and contrast the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned. 2. Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View 1. Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations. 2. Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations. Historical Interpretation 1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments. 2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect. 3. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values. 4. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions. 5. Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues. (Recommended Exhibits: Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth, Kumeyaay: Native Californians, Ancient Egypt, Footsteps Through Time) 9th -12th Grade Sciences Biology/Life Sciences Genetics 2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. a. Students know meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type. b. Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis. c. Students know how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete. d. Students know new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization). e. Students know why approximately half of an individual s DNA sequence comes from each parent. f. Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual s sex. g. Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents. 4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. a. Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using trnas to translate genetic information in mrna. b. Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.

2 c. Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein. d. Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves. e. Students know proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids. f. * Students know why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and chemical properties. 5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. a. Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein. b. Students know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mrna. c. Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products. d. * Students know how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonu-cleases, gel electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to construct recombinant DNA molecules. e. * Students know how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products. Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. a. Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the geno-type of an organism. b. Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool. c. Students know new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool. d. Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions. e. * Students know the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in a population and why these conditions are not likely to appear in nature. f. * Students know how to solve the Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict the frequency of genotypes in a population, given the frequency of phenotypes. 8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. a. Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms. b. Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment. c. Students know the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population. d. Students know reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation. e. Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction. f. * Students know how to use comparative embryology, DNA or protein sequence comparisons, and other independent sources of data to create a branching diagram (cladogram) that shows probable evolutionary relationships. g. * Students know how several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another. (Recommended Exhibits: Footsteps Through Time)

3 9 th -12 th Grade Sciences Investigation and Experimentation 1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will: a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. b. Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error. c. Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or uncontrolled conditions. d. Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence. f. Distinguish between hypothesis and theory as scientific terms. g. Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality. h. Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps. i. Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem). j. Recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests. k. Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence. l. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science. n. Know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e.g., the Piltdown Man fossil or unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes wrong (e.g., the Ptolemaic model of the movement of the Sun, Moon, and planets). (Recommended Exhibits: Footsteps Through Time) 9 th -12 th Grade Visual and Performing Arts (proficient) 1.0 ARTISTIC PERCEPTION Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations. Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary 1.1 Identify and use the principles of design to discuss, analyze, and write about visual aspects in the environment and in works of art, including their own. 1.2 Describe the principles of design as used in works of art, focusing on dominance and subordination. Impact of Media Choice 1.5 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work. 3.0 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists. Role and Development of the Visual Arts 3.1 Identify similarities and differences in the purposes of art created in selected cultures. 3.2 Identify and describe the role and influence of new technologies on contemporary works of art.

4 Diversity of the Visual Arts 3.3 Identify and describe trends in the visual arts and discuss how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence are reflected in selected works of art. 3.4 Discuss the purposes of art in selected contemporary cultures. 4.0 AESTHETIC VALUING Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities. Derive Meaning 4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art. 4.2 Compare the ways in which the meaning of a specific work of art has been affected over time because of changes in interpretation and context. Make Informed Judgments 4.3 Formulate and support a position regarding the aesthetic value of a specific work of art and change or defend that position after considering the views of others. 4.4 Articulate the process and rationale for refining and reworking one of their own works of art. 4.5 Employ the conventions of art criticism in writing and speaking about works of art. 5.0 CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts. Connections and Applications 5.1 Design an advertising campaign for a theatre or dance production held at a school, creating images that represent characters and major events in the production. 5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history. (Recommended Exhibits: Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth, Kumeyaay: Native Californians, Ancient Egypt) 9 th -12 th Grade Visual and Performing Arts (advanced) 1.0 ARTISTIC PERCEPTION Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations. Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary 1.1 Analyze and discuss complex ideas, such as distortion, color theory, arbitrary color, scale, expressive content, and real versus virtual in works of art. 1.2 Discuss a series of their original works of art, using the appropriate vocabulary of art. 1.3 Analyze their works of art as to personal direction and style.

5 3.0 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists. Diversity of the Visual Arts 3.3 Investigate and discuss universal concepts expressed in works of art from diverse cultures. 3.4 Research the methods art historians use to determine the time, place, context, value, and culture that produced a given work of art. 4.0 AESTHETIC VALUING Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities. Derive Meaning 4.1 Describe the relationship involving the art maker (artist), the making (process), the artwork (product), and the viewer. 4.2 Identify the intentions of artists creating contemporary works of art and explore the implications of those intentions. 4.3 Analyze and articulate how society influences the interpretation and message of a work of art. Make Informed Judgments 4.4 Apply various art-related theoretical perspectives to their own works of art and the work of others in classroom critiques. 4.5 Construct a rationale for the validity of a specific work of art artwork that falls outside their own conceptions of art. 4.6 Develop written criteria for the selection of a body of work from their portfolios that represents significant achievements. 5.0 CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts. Connections and Applications 5.1 Speculate on how advances in technology might change the definition and function of the visual arts. Visual Literacy 5.2 Compare and contrast works of art, probing beyond the obvious and identifying psychological content found in the symbols and images. (Recommended Exhibits: Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth, Kumeyaay: Native Californians, Ancient Egypt)

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