From Pedagogy to Strategies: Transformations needed throughout the Education Systems

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1 From Pedagogy to Strategies: Transformations needed throughout the Education Systems, Helsinki on the 7th of October

2 A. Policies and comprehensive? transformations FINLAND AND COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATIONAL REFORMS HISTORY OF GLOBAL EDUCATION - Declaration of Human Rights 1948, and the PROCESS since - The European Convention on Human Rights Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1974

3 A. Policies and comprehensive Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy 1995 Our Creative Diversity 1995, global ethics United Nations Millennium Declaration 2000 and Education for All Process Maastricht Global education Declaration 2002 Global Education in Finland: Peer Review 2004

4 B. Policies and latest Global education developments GLOBAL EDUCATION 2010 STRATEGY: Comprehensive approach, life-long and life-wide processes trying to respond new challenges: globalization, EU, sustainable development; value basis?, two trends ACTIONS: 1. Include the GE perspective in education, research, cultural and sport policy lines as well as social policy lines

5 B. Policies and latest GE developments Strengthen the practical implementation of GE in early childhood education, schools, vocational institutions and teacher education Support research and higher education related to GE Increase support to civic organisations and other civil society actors in their capacity as providers of GE

6 B. Policies and latest GE developments Enhance partnership between the public administration, businesses, the media, civic organizations and other civil society actors Increase funding and other resources needed for the development, promotion and diffusion of GE Monitor systematically and evaluate analytically the effectiveness of GE in Finland by creating procedures for quality and impact evaluation of the results.

7 B. Policies and latest GE developments Education for Global responsibility project (Obs. the term!) National evaluation of the impact of Global education 2010 strategy, 2011 Follow-up report on Finland by GENE network, 2011 International evaluations Many policy papers and strategies are under preparation (Human rights, peace, sustainable development )

8 C. Some results from the national evaluation Data: 1. Policy papers, strategies, plans, project documents, reviews, evaluations, GE material, 2. questionnaire (41 institutions, 3. interviews (71 experts from 25 organizations) Global education strategy considered important yet relatively unknown HOW DO YOU IMPLEMENT THINGS IN A DECENTRALIZED SOCIETY? The holistic approach considered essential (coherence) yet demanding

9 C. Some results from the national evaluation Ambiguity in main concepts and their relations e. g. global education, intercultural education, education for sustainable development, internationalization (competition or cooperation?), inclusive education Inclusion of GE varies when comparing policy papers (policy coherence?) GE is part of the policy lines in many ministries under different terms, little dialogue

10 C. Some results from the national evaluation Not enough co-ordination, policy guidance, systematic follow-up and evaluation about GE Curricula and teacher education are central (also teaching material) for GE, the role and significance of GE varies in institutions In-service teacher education not comprehensive; also principals, educational leaders and civil servants need training, obs. municipality level

11 C. Some results from the national evaluation There is a lot of unused potential in civic organizations, youth organizations and adult education Many NGOs and civic organizations have done valuable work to implement the strategy Media and vocational sector need more attention, municipalities! Research scattered, no national graduate school in GE

12 C. Some results from the national evaluation Some increase in funding, but difficult to evaluate SOME RECOMMENDATIONS for policy coherence, co-ordination and guidance and the means and responsibilities for it, for concept clarification, teacher education and curricula, NGO co-operation, research and higher education, youth organizations, mobility programmes, evaluation and funding

13 C. Some results from the national evaluation How to integrate separate strategies to all activities? What are the conditions for successful implementation? Political will and coherence Co-ordination and follow-up of processes Efficient and systematic education of key actors (teachers, curricula, civil servants..) Always revisiting the main questions: What is good future for all?...

14 D. EDUCATION AND TEACHERS PROFESSION Metaphors of education

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21 The special nature of education What is education and its relation to such concepts as learning and teaching? Has our view of education changed or has the world around changed or both? Have the changes been the ones we want to see happen? Desirabe for whom? Education is a value-laden activity; the purpose, aims and contents matter and we have to make decisions about them; more complicated in pluralistic societies

22 Special nature of education Connected to culture and knowledge, worldviews Various forms of knowledge are essential, but also such aspects as empathy, scope of caring, emotions and actions Pedagogical paradoxes: both socialization and transformation (critical thinking), through new ideas and perspectives beyond previous limitations and everything that is desired is not desirable

23 Special nature of education Many tasks: qualifications, socialization, becoming a full humane being The partner is often a child Many stakeholders involved Results visible after a long time Values and direction are important, compas Touching the future future citizens, global citizens, development of single individuals but also societies and humankind

24 Teaching profession or task Conceptualizations of metaphors teaching as an art, as a combination of skills, a model (of what), moral profession., critical practitioner, transformative intellectual, researcher Difference between craft and profession: Craft: focus on skills, teacher realizes aims of administration and politicians, technical orientation Profession: autonomy, academic education, altruism as a part of professional ethics, tactfulness, wise judgement

25 Teaching profession or task Teacher as a researcher Inquiring orientation focusing both on one s own work and on guiding children s work Knowledge based on research results/ tacit knowledge Using research based methods in developing one s work (action research) Teachers tasks and scope of work Teachers competences depend on the views of the profession What is a good teacher and education like in the present context and for a better future for all? Teacher opens perspectives, provides tools for understanding the world, introduces old and new ideas, provides spaces for dialogue and intercultural learning, dares to say that there are things which are unethical.

26 Values and ethical principles of education and profession Core of professional ethics Continuous development of professional skills

27 E. Change in the whole educational and institution culture Life-long education from early childhood to adulthood Life-wide education: formal, non-formal and informal School is a microcosm of society, teacher building bridges Long-term learning environment, enormous potential Formal basic education reaches everyone Pedagogical freedom

28 E. Change in the whole culture Coherence and continuity logical Such aspects as: - Competences of the staff - Values, norms, aims - Curricula (various levels) - Contents and methods - Material - Evaluation - Other activities and structures - Support, co-operation, dialogue

29 F. Curriculum and transformation Diverse meanings of a curriculum Philosophical and theoretical starting points crucial, and values Pedagogical worldview Analysis of the present and the future (expected and desirable) At the present realization of GE fragmented and varied, not firm status Cross-curricular, in various subjects Many separate demands for teachers?

30 F. Curriculum and transformation James Banks, Milton Bennett: 1. Assimilative, monocultural approach 2. Theme weeks, some contents from other cultures 3. New subjects or cross curricular themes 3. Transformative holistic approach - Many perspectives, my perspective one possibility, culture is a foundation and prison, historical and structural aspects

31 F. Curriculum and transformation - Dialogue, listening and learning, arts - Reflection and action - Ethical sensitivity, compas Bennett: The difference between ethnocentric and ethnorelative paradigms is decisive Discussion about tolerance and ethical courage essential for young people who are confused Old curriculum paradigms

32 F. Curriculum and transformation Teacher (educator) education curricula important Question of competences and citizenship - Multilevelled citizenship (based on identity or rights and duties) - Wider worldview, wider scope of caring, - Effects of diversity, mobility and international connections - Ecological, economical, social, cultural, technological and ethical sustainability

33 F. Transformations and ethics OUR CREATIVE DIVERSITY 1995: Global ethics is both an ideal and a necessity in interdependent, multicultural world where people live on tha same globe Emerging global civic culture: demand for human worth and consciousness of a shared ecosystem What is global ethics based on and how is it agreed on?

34 F. Transformations and ethics Motivation and willingness to co-operate Treating others as subjects and goals Commitment to equity (within generations and between generations) Commitment to dialogue and mutual learning (de- and re-learning) Commitment to peace and conflict prevention Commitment to seek sustainable development

35 G. FINAL CONCLUSIONS Learning from the past, responding to new challenges and keeping the vision about the desirable future clear Constructing meaningful, ethical, sustainable future for all in the global world International co-operation Combining global and local Political will, policy coherence and coordination

36 G. Final conclusions Efficient policy implementation and followup Clarity about values and aims Role and nature of curricula crucial (on various levels) Teacher (educator) education Systematic in-service education of key actors Education of young people should get special attention

37 G. Final conclusions New pedagogy - Various perspectives, dialogue, ethical sensitivity - Human relations, models - Holistic EDUCATION Big transformations are possible and they are made by people

38 Literature: Banks, James An introduction to multicultural education. Allyn & Bacon: Boston. Bennett, Milton Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In Paige, R. (Ed.) Educating for intercultural experience. Intercultural Press: Yarmouth. Biesta, Gert Good education in the age of measurement: On the need to reconnect with the question of purpose in education. Educational assessment, Evaluation and Accountability 21(1), Hansen, David1995. The Call to Teach. Teachers College Press: New York. Kansainvälisyyskasvatus 2010 ohjelman arviointi. Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön työryhmämuistioita ja selvityksiä 2011:13. Lindqvist, Martti Ammattina ihminen. Hoidon etiikasta ja arvoista. Otava: Helsinki. Noddings, Nel The Challenge to Care in Schools. An Alternative Approach to Education. Advances in Contemporary Educational Thought, Volume 8. Teachers College Press: New York. Van Manen, Max The Tact of Teaching. The Meaning of Pedagogical Thoughtfulness. The Althouse Press: Ontario.

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