Isotope Safety Data Sheets

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1 Isotope Safety Data Sheets This protocol provides Isotope Safety Data Sheets for some of the commonly used isotopes at WHOI and for some iodine radioisotopes. In addition, general radiation safety requirements that apply to all work with radioactive materials are listed below. The following isotopes are included: H-3, C-14, P-32, P-33, S-35, and Fe-55. Refer to the Radiation Safety Manual for additional requirements. General Radiation Safety Requirements: If there is a question regarding any aspect of the radiation safety program or radioactive material use, contact Radiation Safety Office at x2242, x3347, or x3788. Maintain your occupational exposure to radiation As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Ensure all persons handling radioactive material are trained and listed on an approved authorization. Plan experiments to minimize external exposure by reducing exposure time, using shielding and increasing your distance from the radiation source. Reduce internal and external radiation dose by monitoring the worker and the work area after each use of radioactive material and promptly cleaning up any contamination discovered. Use the smallest amount of radioisotope possible so as to minimize exposure and radioactive waste. Keep an accurate inventory of radioactive material, including records of all receipts, transfers & disposal. Perform and record regular lab surveys. Provide for safe disposal of radioactive waste by following procedures in the Radiation Safety Manual. Avoid generating mixed waste (combinations of radioactive, biological, and chemical waste). Note: Lab staff are not permitted to pour measurable quantities of radioactive material down the drain. Disposable gloves, lab coats, and safety glasses are the minimum Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) required when handling radioactive material. Remove and discard potentially contaminated PPE prior to leaving the area where radioactive material is used. Clearly demarcate radioactive material use areas with radioactive caution tape. Cover lab bench tops where radioactive material will be handled with plastic-backed absorbent paper and change this covering whenever it's contaminated. Label radioactive material containers with the radioactive symbol, isotope and activity. Place containers too small for such labels in larger labeled containers. Handle radioactive solutions in trays large enough to contain the material in the event of a spill. Never eat, drink, cook food, or apply cosmetics in radioactive material use areas. Do not pipette by mouth. Never store food and beverages in refrigerators/freezers used for storing radioisotopes or other hazardous materials. Lab hoods used for radioactive material work must be labeled (Caution Radioactive Material) and properly functioning. All volatile, gaseous, or aerosolized radioactive material must be used in a properly filtered lab hood that is labeled (Caution Airborne Radioactivity), unless otherwise specified in writing by the Radiation Safety Officer. Take special precautions when working with radioactive compounds that are volatile. These precautions may include filtered exhaust hoods contact the Radiation Safety Office for assistance. Use sealed containers and appropriate secondary containment to carry radioactive material between rooms. Notify Radiation Safety Office before taking any radioactive material off site.

2 Hydrogen 3 [Tritium] Isotope Safety Data Sheet Max.: 18.6 kev; Average: 5.7 kev Half-Life [T ½ ] : Physical T ½ : 12.3 years * Large liquid intake (3-4 liters/day) reduces effective T ½ by a factor of 2+; 3 H is easily flushed from the body 9650 Ci/g [357 TBq/g] max. Beta Range: Air: 6 mm [0.6 cm; 0.25 inches] Water: mm [ cm; 3/10,000 inches] Solids/Tissue: Insignificant [No 3 H betas pass through the dead layer of skin] Body water or tissue ingestion, inhalation, puncture, wound, skin contamination absorption External Exposure - None from weak 3 H beta Internal Exposure & Contamination - Primary concern None required - not an external radiation hazard No external radiation monitoring is necessary. The need for internal radiation monitoring will be determined by the RSO, as per Radiation Safety Manual Liquid Scintillation Counting is the only readily available method for detecting H-3. NOTE: PORTABLE SURVEY METERS WILL NOT DETECT LABORATORY QUANTITIES OF 3 H Avoid skin contamination (absorption), ingestion, inhalation, & injection [all routes of intake] The inability of direct-reading instruments to detect tritium and the slight permeability of most material to [tritiated] water & hydrogen [tritium] facilitates undetected spread of contamination. Use extreme care in handling and storage [e.g. sealed double containment] to avoid contamination, especially with high specific activity compounds.

3 Carbon 14 Isotope Safety Data Sheet Max.: 156 kev; Average: 49 kev Half-Life [T ½ ] : Physical T ½ : 5730 years 4.46 Ci/g [0.165 TBq/g] max. Beta Range: Air: 24 cm [10 inches] Water/Tissue: 0.28 mm [0.012 inches] [~1% of 14 C betas transmitted through dead skin layer, i.e cm depth] Plastic: 0.25 mm [0.010 inches] Fat tissue [most labeled compounds]; bone [some labeled carbonates] External Exposure None from low energy, C-14 beta emissions Internal Exposure & Contamination Primary concern None required mci quantities not an external radiation hazard No external radiation monitoring is necessary. The need for internal radiation monitoring will be determined by the RSO, as per Radiation Safety Manual. Portable Survey Meters: Geiger-Mueller Beta Scintillator Open window gas proportional Wipe Test: Liquid Scintillation Counting is the best readily available method for counting 14 C wipe tests Many 14 C compounds readily penetrate gloves and skin; handle such compounds remotely and wear double gloves, changing the outer pair as necessary to prevent skin contamination.

4 Phosphorous 32 Isotope Safety Data Sheet Maximum: 1,710 kev; Average: 695 kev Half-Life [T ½ ] : Physical T ½ : days 286,500 Ci/g [10,600 TBq/g] max. Beta Range: Air: 610 cm [240 inches; 20 feet] Water/Tissue: 0.76 cm [0.33 inches] Plastic: 0.61 mm [3/8 inches] Bone [soluble 32 P]; Lung [Inhalation]; GI Tract [Ingestion - insoluble compounds] External Exposure [unshielded dose rate at 1 mci 32 P vial mouth: approx. 26 rems/hr], Internal Exposure & Contamination Shield 32 P with 3/8 inch Plexiglas or equivalent low-atomic number material and monitor for Bremsstrahlung. Additional shielding may be needed. The accessible dose rate should be background or ALARA, but must be < 1 mrem/hr. Always wear personal radiation dosimeters [body & ring] whenever handling 32 P. The need for internal radiation monitoring will be determined by the RSO, as per Radiation Safety Manual. Portable Survey Meters: Geiger-Mueller Beta Scintillator Wipe Test: Liquid Scintillation Counting is an acceptable method for counting 32 P wipe tests Store 32 P (including waste) behind Plexiglas shielding [3/8 inch thick]; survey (with GM meter) to check adequacy of shielding (accessible dose rate < 2 mrems/hr; should be background); apply lead [Pb] shielding outside Plexiglas if needed Use 3/8 inch Plexiglas shielding to minimize exposure while handling 32 P Use tools [e.g. Beta Blocks] to handle 32 P sources and contaminated objects; avoid direct hand contact Always have a portable survey meter present and turned on when handling 32 P In general, 32 P should not be an airborne contaminant hazard unless aerosolized or made volatile.

5 Phosphorous 33 Isotope Safety Data Sheet Maximum: kev; Average: 76.4 kev Half-Life [T ½ ] : Physical T ½ : 25.3 days 156,000 Ci/g [5,780 TBq/g] max. Beta Range: Air: 50 cm [~ 20 inches] Water/Tissue: 0.06 cm [0.024 inches] Plastic: 0.05 cm [0.02 inches] Bone [soluble 33 P]; Lung [Inhalation]; GI Tract [Ingestion insoluble compounds] External Exposure - mci quantities not considered an external hazard Internal Exposure & Contamination Primary concern None required - mci quantities not an external radiation hazard Personnel dosimeters are needed when working with 33 P (maximum beta energy is >200 kev). The need for internal radiation monitoring will be determined by the RSO, as per Radiation Safety Manual. Portable Survey Meters: Geiger-Mueller Beta Scintillator Wipe Test: Liquid Scintillation Counting works well for counting 33 P wipe tests In general, 33 P should not be an airborne contaminant hazard unless aerosolized or made volatile.

6 Sulfur 35 Isotope Safety Data Sheet Maximum: kev; Average: 48.8 kev Half-Life [T ½ ] : Physical T ½ : days 42,707 Ci/g [1,580 TBq/g] max. Beta Range: Air: 26 cm [10.2 inches] Water/Tissue: 0.32 mm [0.015 inches] Plastic: 0.25 mm [0.010 inches] Testis External Exposure - None from weak 35 S beta Internal Exposure & Contamination Primary concern None required - mci quantities not an external radiation hazard No external dosimetry is needed. The need for internal radiation monitoring will be determined by the RSO, as per Radiation Safety Manual. Portable Survey Meters: Geiger-Mueller Beta Scintillator Wipe Test: Liquid Scintillation Counting is the best readily available method for counting 35 S wipe tests

7 Iron 55 Isotope Safety Data Sheet Gammas/X-rays: 6 kev (~25% abundance); 7 kev (~3%); Auger electrons: 5.2 kev [average] Half-Life [T ½ ] : Physical T ½ : 2.70 years Biological T ½ : 11.9 years Effective T ½ : 2.2 years 2.40E3 Ci/g [89.1 TBq/g] max. Intake Routes: Spleen, [blood] Ingestion, inhalation, puncture, wound, skin contamination (absorption); Internal Exposure; Contamination None required - not considered an external radiation hazard No external dosimetry is needed. The need for internal radiation monitoring will be determined by the RSO as per Radiation Safety Manual. Swipe tests should be counted with liquid scintillation counter.

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